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I. History of tbt Text i 

A. The Milan Palimpstsl . v 

B. The Vttvs Codex Camerarii . , , . , , = = . .... vii 

C. The Codex alter of Camerarius. or Codex Dteunatus .... xiv 

D. The Codex Vatic anus, numbered 3870 sis 

F. The Codex Lipsiensh xiv 

Z. The Edilio PriHctps xiv 

II. Tbe Orthography 0/ Plautus xxi 

L The Grammarians xvii 

II. Manuscripts xxii 

III. Inscriptions xxiii 

Table of Inscriptions to be referred to in the Text ■ .... xxx 

Orthography of Long Vowels xxvi 

Diphthongs . . . , , xxx 

EIS for IS in Datives and Ablatives Plural of the First ami 

Second Declensions . . xxx 

Plural Cases of the Third Declension in EIS. ES. IS .... xxx 

O for V xxxi 

O for E xxxiii 

V for E xxxiv 

V for I xxxiv 

E_£or_I xxxvi 

U xxxvi 

O . ■ ■ xxxvii 

The letter X xxxviii 

V xxxviii 

Assimil at ion . . . . ^ . . xxxix 

Doubling of Semivowels and Mutes xl 

Words ending in B xli 

Words ending in D xliii 

D Paragogicum xlv 

Final M and final S xlvi 

M. N xlvii 

Insertion of P be tween M and S or T following xlviii 

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III. The Metres, and Prosody of Plautus L 

Comic Metres . . . . . . . I_ 

The Iambic Trimeter Acatalectic , , , , , , = , , , !iv 

The Iambic Te t rameter Catalectic , . . . . . . . , . . lv • 

The Trochaic Tetrameter Catalectic . . . s . : . . s • , lyii 

Rnrrl.m Verses . . . . . ._ „ lyiii 

Crt-iic Verses , . . . , , , , , , , . , , , , , ; Lxy 

Cretics combined with Trochees . a a . . . . . . . : ; lxvii 

Hiatus . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . , , , , ■ btix 

Rule of Position . . . . . . , , , . , , . , , , ■ lxxiii 

Anomalies of the- prosody of Plautus . ■ lxxx 

SynUcsis in Plautus lxxxi 

Supposed instances of vowels remaining short before two or more 

consonants . . . . . ^ , , . , . , = . , boPtvM i 

Instances of ‘ Correption’ xcviii 

Words used by Plautus with quantity different from that observed 

by later writers cix 

Pronunciation of incto and its compounds cxv 

Text i 

Notes ot 

Excvrsus 111 

I. Adeo 177 

II. Dum 184 

ULL F.tiam , . . . . . . . . . , . . . . , . . U88 

IV. Imo t pa 

V. Modo 203 

VI. Nam, Enim, Enim vero, &c ion 

VII. Oui an 

VIII. Quin 2 14 

IX. Vt in 

X. Frugi, Nequam 22Q 

XI. Probus. Probe ano 

XII. Nimis, Nimius, Nimium, Nimio 23a 

XIII. Sodcs, Sis pi. Sultis, Amabo, Quaeso, Obsccro 146 

XIV. Terms employed with reference to Money — Talentum. Mina. 

Drachma, Obolus, Philippus s. Numus Philippeus, Numus 
s. Numus Argenti 241 

XV. Punishments inflicted upon Slaves 35 1 

XVI. Terms and Phrases denoting Roguery, Deception. &c. . . . 26.4 

XVII. Terms of Endearment and Abuse ; Imprecations ; Ejaculations 280 

Index 287 

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The materials for the present edition of the Mostcllaria 
were left incomplete and unarranged by the late Professor 
William Ramsay at the time of his death in 1865. It had 
long been his intention to prepare a complete edition of 
several of the plays of Plautus ; and the appearance of the 
work was expected with much interest by many scholars in 
this country, not only amongst those who as students in his 
class had enjoyed the privilege of listening to his scholarlike 
and animated expositions of his favourite author, but also by 
those who hoped to see preserved in an important work the 
fruits of his mature scholarship, and of that leisure which 
after a long life of devoted and unremitting toil he had at 
length been enabled to secure. But unhappily he did not 
live to complete the task; the strength which had been severely 
tested by a life of incessant work, and for twelve years over- 
strained by a constant battle with failing health, gave way at 
length almost as soon as he had resigned his office; and it 
was left to me to put together as best I could the unfinished 
work of the truest and dearest of friends, one of the most 
accomplished scholars, and certainly one of the most distin- 
guished and successful Professors, that Scotland ever produced. 

Anxious as I was to preserve the remains of his rare and 
learned scholarship, I was keenly alive to the responsibility 
which attaches to a man who undertakes to give to the world 
the work of another; and in the papers as I received them 


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there was much that was perplexing and that could only have 
been explained by the writer himself. Hardly any part of the 
work was absolutely complete ; I could not tell what portions 
had been finally revised, or at what period the different portions 
had been written; and in some particulars, trifling in them- 
selves no doubt, I found just so much inconsistency as would 
spring from a gradual ripening of opinion, and would seem 
to shew that while each portion of the subject had been 
minutely studied in itself, there was wanting that larger and 
fuller review which gathers together the various fragments of 
a subject in a single grasp, and gives them the unity of a 
whole. At the same time, the MS. contained so much that 
was valuable in itself, so much on which heavy labour had 
been bestowed, and I was so strongly encouraged to publish 
it by several of my uncle’s intimate friends, amongst whom 
I may mention, with the warmest acknowledgments for the 
assistance they have rendered me, Professor Lushington of 
this University, and Professor Lewis Campbell of the Univer- 
sity of St. Andrew, that I could have no hesitation in under- 
taking the task. And though I cannot presume that the work 
as now published is as perfect as he intended it to be, though 
it may omit much that he would have included, and include 
what he might have excluded, it contains nothing but what 
he wrote; and my work has been almost entirely limited to 
that of an editor in the strictest sense. 

I have arranged and put together the various fragments of 
the work, including everything which I thought of value, and 
omitting whatever was manifestly incomplete, or seemed to re- 
quire more revision than the mere correction of inaccuracy. In 
many cases I have found it necessary to supply the phraseology : 
in others I have had to supply the connection. Where it has 
been necessary to fill up a gap in the sense, or to indicate 
more fully the line of an argument, I have enclosed my own 
additions within brackets. And as there are some points, as 
to which, not having enough to guide me as to the author’s 

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intention, I have had to follow my own judgment, 1 will de- 
scribe more particularly the condition of some portions of the 
MS. as I found it. 

The text, fortunately, was left in a completed state. It is 
founded almost entirely, as the reader will perceive, upon the 
readings of the Vatican MSS., and especially B, with such 
assistance as can be obtained from A, whose authority is of 
course paramount in all those cases where its evidence is 

The critical apparatus has been derived partly from printed 
editions, but also in part from an original edition of the 
MSS. themselves ; and the chief value of this collation, in 
a critical point of view, will be found in the circumstance 
that in the winter of 1863-4, Mr. Ramsay spent several 
months in making a careful collation of the Vatican MSS., 
more particularly of B, having previously on his way to Rome 
examined the celebrated Milan Palimpsest. The result of 
these labours is to be found partly in the Prolegomena, partly 
in the critical notes, which embrace a considerable number of 
readings not recorded by Ritschl, and in some few instances 
correct his errors. These additions and corrections, not in- 
cluded in the copy of the text as I found it, have been incor- 
porated by myself; and in several cases, where I felt uncertain 
as to the exact meaning or reference of the MS. notes in my 
hands, I was enabled to set doubt at rest by a careful personal 
examination of the Vatican MSS. in June, 1867, when I had the 
satisfaction of testing the perfect accuracy of every statement 
made in this edition as to the readings and condition of those 

In the matter of orthography, I found myself placed in a 
considerable difficulty. It will be observed that in the Pro- 
legomena the more important points of doubt in connection 
with this subject are discussed at length, and in many cases a 
decision arrived at as to the modes of spelling particular forms 
and words, which we may, from the evidence of inscriptions, 

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believe to have been prevalent at the time when Plautus wrote, 
and which we may therefore presume to have been actually 
employed by him. From the manner in which these con- 
clusions are stated, it would seem that the author had intended 
to adopt such modes of spelling in his text, and I attempted 
accordingly to carry that idea into effect. 

But I soon found that the attempt involved inconsistencies. 
The number of cases as to which the inscriptions referred to 
can be regarded as affording any clear evidence is extremely 
small; and however strongly we may be satisfied that in such 
cases Plautus probably did make use of some particular mode 
of spelling, in the vast majority of cases we have no evidence 
from inscriptions at all, and we are obliged to fall back upon 
that afforded by the best MSS. Now, although it is doubtless 
true that in the case of Plautus the authority of MSS. is of 
less value on points of orthography than in the case of later 
writers, inasmuch as during the two succeeding centuries little 
interest was felt in orthographical and grammatical questions, 
while a respect for the antique as such was almost entirely 
wanting; still, since the evidence of inscriptions is so meagre, 
and fails to afford materials for a complete orthography, 1 have 
thought it more consistent and uniform to adopt an orthography 
based wholly upon the best MS. evidence, than one based partly 
on the inscriptions of one age and partly on the MSS. of 
another — an orthography which, as the author remarks in the 
Prolegomena, might preserve a flavour of the antique, but 
which could not be regarded as representing the practice of 
any particular author or of any particular time. And it is 
obvious that if there is no distinct object to be gained by the 
adoption of a peculiar mode of spelling, it is undesirable to 
deface a text with forms which shock the eye of all but the 
scientific scholar, and throw a needless difficulty in the way of 
the young student. 

I have refrained therefore from adopting in the text those 
modes of spelling for which we have no sufficient MS. authority, 

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but which, from the evidence of inscriptions, Mr. Ramsay held 
himself entitled to conclude were in all probability actually 
employed by Plautus himself. I have preferred to exhibit an 
orthography all but identical with that presented by the most 
distinguished of the recent critics, especially Ritschl and Fleck- 
eisen, and which, so far as the Mostellaria is concerned, is to 
be found in an excellent form in the edition of that play by Aug. 
Lorenz (1866), forming part of the Haupt and Sauppe classics. 
Almost all the peculiarities which distinguish that ortho- 
graphy have been sanctioned by Mr. Ramsay, and have been 
therefore incorporated in the text. Thus p has been uniformly 
substituted for b before t or t, as in apstinere , optincre, and the 
like ; uo ( vo ) is uniformly written for uu ( vtt ), except in the 
words tuum and suum, where, in deference to the authority of 
Ritschl, I have retained the familiar mode of spelling : 

0 is written for e in voster , vorto and its compounds ; opiumut , 
maxumus, carnufex , etc. is written for op/imut, etc.; p is in all 
cases inserted between m and either s or t following, while the 
spellings faenus , caenum , adulescem , gnatus (the noun), and others 
for which there is good MS. authority, are adopted throughout. 

But, for the reasons above stated, I have refrained from 
substituting eis for it in datives and ablatives plural of the 
first and second declensions, and from writing uniformly ts in 
all plural cases of the third, although Mr. Ramsay holds it to 
be an older form than either is or tit ; nor have I ventured to 
write quei, sei, quasei , ibei, ubei , eeivis , deico , etc., though in all 
those cases it can be shewn from inscriptions that the longer 
form was that more commonly employed in the time of Plautus. 

It will be seen from the Prolegomena that the evidence of 
inscriptions proves as certainly as that of MSS., that in many 
cases uniformity of spelling did not prevail until a com- 
paratively late period ; we see the rival forms side by side 
in the same inscriptions, and we cannot doubt that in such 
cases both forms were in use together, and that it was only 
gradually and after a long conflict that the older forms gave 

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way to the more recent. Such being the case, it is obviously 
not worth while to disfigure a text for the sake of what is 
only a greater probability on one side ; the evidence shews 
that Plautus probably wrote es in nominatives and accusatives 
plural, eh in datives and ablatives, more often than it : but it 
is still more probable that he employed both forms; and in a 
case like this, where the MSS. actually do preserve traces of 
variety, it is better to follow that variety implicitly, whenever 
we have confidence in the MS. reading, than to adopt a rigid 
uniformity which we can assert with something approaching to 
confidence was not observed by our author. I have therefore 
endeavoured in all such cases to reproduce the best MS. 
reading; the critical notes will almost always indicate the 
authority followed. 

Next, as regards that part of the Prolegomena which deals 
with the metres and prosody of Plautus. The MS. of this 
portion of the work was in much confusion, had evidently 
undergone little or no revision, and had apparently been 
written at different times. The examples had not been finally 
selected or arranged ; the connection was often imperfectly 
traced, and some lines of argument will be found to be hinted 
at rather than followed out. The greater part seems to have 
been written not very recently, and without any reference to the 
labours of those more recent German critics who have been 
waging so fierce a battle as to the true principles of Plautine 
prosody, amongst whom I may mention Fleckeisen, Corssen, 
Studemund, Spengel, Ritschl (so far as concerns his later views, 
which present some important modifications from those ex- 
pressed in his earlier writings), and in our own country 
Dr. W. Wagner, who in the Prolegomena to his valuable 
edition of the Aulularia has laid before English readers a clear 
and powerful statement of the view of Plautine prosody opposed 
to that adopted by Mr. Ramsay and by the bulk of English 
scholars. And this is the more to be regretted, as Mr. Ramsay 
had devoted much attention to the subject of Latin prosody. 

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and is well known as the author of the most complete and 
systematic Manual of Latin Prosody in the English language. 
To the latest edition of that Manual he added an acute and 
learned appendix on the so-called Saturnian verse, from which 
it will be seen in how critical and sceptical a spirit he was 
prepared to deal with the various metrical fancies of modern 
German scholars, while the critical notes of this edition will 
shew how rigorous he was in the demand for definite evidence 
before admitting an emendation of the text on the ground of 
metre only. 

In the present work, the great difficulties which beset the 
prosody of Plautus, and especially the great question whether 
the anomalies of Plautine metre are to be explained by some 
kind of contraction, or running together of syllables in quick 
pronunciation, according to the view adopted by Mr. Ramsay, 
or by supposing a wholesale violation of the ordinary laws of 
Latin prosody, as these were observed by the later poets, cannot 
be said to be either fully discussed or finally solved; yet the 
authority of a scholar who had made the subject of prosody 
his peculiar study, will have some value; the view adopted is 
stated with some important modifications, and supported by 
a large number of examples, many of them included amongst 
those which have been brought forward by Dr. Wagner and 
others in support of the rival theory, and which are here shewn 
to be capable of an easy explanation other than that advanced 
by them as part of their case. It is pointed out how few are 
the words which can with any confidence be asserted to have 
been used by Plautus with a quantity different from that ob- 
served by later writers ; and the impression is left, that a cri- 
tical examination into the objections commonly brought forward 
to the theory of contraction or ‘ correption,’ will be found to 
have but little solid foundation; that the proof on the other 
side is negative rather than positive; while in proportion as 
the difficulties attending that theory are removed, the argument 

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P R E F A C E. 


from the general analogy of the Latin language, and the lan- 
guages derived from it, will have the greater weight. 

The Notes and the Excursus speak for themselves ; the latter, 
it will be observed, as well as the Prolegomena, refer to the 
plays of Plautus generally, and have no special application to 
the Mostellaria. Whether either are as full as they were 
intended ultimately to be, I have no means of judging. 

In conclusion, I have only to say that by the__most careful 
verification of references throughout, I have 'done everything 
in my power to ensure accuracy in points of detail. The 
edition to which the references have been uniformly made to 
apply is the Vulgate, as represented in the Dclphin edition. In 
the case of the Mostellaria, the reference to the text of the 
present edition, where it differs from the Vulgate, is appended 
within brackets. 


Glatgow Colltgt, 

Die. 8, 1868. 

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At the period of the revival of letters eight only of the Comedies 
of Plautus were known to the learned, viz. the Amphitruo, Asinaria, 
Aulularia, Captivi, Casina, C is tel/aria, Curculio, and the Epidicus. 
The first announcement of the existence of a MS. containing the 
whole of the twenty which we now possess is made in a letter written 
from Rome about the beginning of 1429, by Poggio Bracciolini, at 
that time Apostolic Secretary to Pope Martin V, in which he informs 
his friend Niccolo Niccoli at Florence that Nicolas of Treves had 
discovered in Germany several classical works, and among others a 
volume containing twenty plays of Plautus, and Poggio gives the titles 
of all the new pieces. In reality the MS. was found to comprise six- 
teen only, but of these twelve were previously unknown, the Casina, 
Cis/ellaria, Curculio, and Epidicus being omitted. About the close 
of the year Nicolas arrived in Rome with his treasures, which were 
delivered to Cardinal Giordano Orsini, as we leant from another 
letter of Poggio written on December 27, 1429, and his words are 
so important that they deserve to be transcribed — 

“ Nicolaus Trevirensis hue venit afferens secum sexdecim Plauti 
comoedias in uno volumine, in quibus quatuor sunt ex iis quas 
habemus ; scilicet Amphitruo, Asinaria, Aulularia, Captivi ; duodecim 
autem ex lucre ; hae sunt : Bacchides, Mustellaria, Menaechmi, Miles 
Gloriosus, Mercator, Pseudolus, Poenulus, Persa, Rudens, Stichus, 
Trinummus, Truculentus. Has nondum aliquis transcripsit, neque 
enim earum copiam nobis facit Cardinalis : tamen adhuc nullus 
praeter me petiit. Liber est illis litteris antiquis corruptis, quales 
sunt Quintiliani, et multa in multis desum. Non faciam transcribi, 
nisi prius illas legcro, atque emendavero : nam nisi viri eruditi raanu 
scribantur, inutilis erit labor.” And again, in another letter, January 

6, 1431— 

“Nullus, mihi crede, Plautum bene transcribet, nisi is sit doctissimus : 


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est eis litteris, quibus multi libri ex antiquis, quos a mulieribus 
conscriptos arbitror, nulla verborum distinctione, ut persaepe divi- 
nandum sit." 

Difficulties and jealousies regarding the use of this MS. seem to 
have arisen between the Cardinal and Poggio, whose letters are filled 
with complaints, and we know not precisely at what period it was 
placed at his disposal. A copy, however, made by some one, was 
sent to the Duke of Milan in 1431, and the MS. itself was sent to 
Florence at the request of Lorenzo de Medici, and there a copy of 
the last twelve plays was made by Niccolo Niccoli with his own hand, 
and this very copy is known to have existed at a comparatively 
recent period in the Library of St. Mark at Florence, but it is not 
certain where it is now to be found. 

For a long period the MS. brought to Italy by Nicolas of Treves 
was the only source from which the twelve plays were derived. 
Merula, in his preface to the Editio Princeps (1472), speaks of the 
last twelve Comedies as having been discovered forty years before 
the time when he was writing, and adds that there was but one MS. 
from which, as from an archetype, all the copies in circulation had 
been derived; and again, Ugoletus, in 1515, employs the same 

It appears, from what has been said above, that the MS. of Nicolas 
of Treves was copied at least twice within two years from its arrival 
at Rome, and these copies, and probably the original MS. also, would 
be transcribed and retranscribed until the twelve new plays became 
generally known to the literary men of Italy and Germany. But we 
must not suppose that the whole or even the greater number of these 
copies corresponded with each other, and were faitliful representatives 
of the MS. from which they were derived. That original, as de- 
scribed by Poggio, is written in a character hard to be decyphered, 
the words are not properly divided, and it abounds in corruptions 
of every kind. Moreover the archaic forms, strange words, and 
colloquial phrases which abound in Plautus, even when represented 
correctly in the MS., would in many cases be unintelligible to the 
scholars of that day, and would by them be regarded as corruptions. 
Hence all who applied themselves to these pursuits would endeavour 
to reduce their author into an intelligible form by correcting as they 
went, a practice almost universal at that period, and Poggio, in one 
of the passages quoted above, speaks of this process as essential, and 
evidently intended, when he gained possession of the MS., not to 
make a faithful transcript, but to present a text elaborated by his own 

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ingenuity. This system was encouraged by those who lectured 
publicly on Plautus, and who were compelled to submit him to their 
auditors in a shape which could be understood. Hence each play 
became encumbered with a mass of conjectural emendations and 
arbitrary changes, many of them ingenious, some probably true, but 
the greater number altogether preposterous. The object in view 
was, however, accomplished, and editions of the different pieces 
were circulated, readable indeed, but in which the genuine text was, 
in innumerable passages, recklessly sacrificed. Whether this work 
was performed by many hands, as is most probable, or by one 
individual, possibly Poggio himself, as Ritschl believes, we are 
unable to determine, but the corrected pieces were certainly collected, 
arranged, and combined before the end of the fifteenth century, and 
thus arose a family of interpolated MSS., which became largely 
multiplied, of which specimens are to be found in most of the 
great libraries of Europe, and which, although differing in details, 
all bear a general and even close resemblance to each other. 

The Editio Princeps of the whole twenty plays was printed, as 
noticed above, at Venice in 1472, the editor being Georgius Merula. 
In his preface he repeatedly complains of the numerous corruptions 
which had been introduced by the perversity of ignorant or half- 
learned grammarians, and of the difficulty of procuring a faithful 
transcript of the original MS. from which the last twelve plays had 
been derived; and it would appear that in so far as the Bacchides , 
the Mostcllaria , the Menaechmi, the Miles, and the Mercator were 
concerned, he had been obliged to content himself with interpolated 
copies, and that, in consequence, these plays were exhibited under 
a worse aspect than the remainder. 

For eighty years after the appearance of the Editio Princeps, 
which was reprinted at Treviso in 1482, the text of Plautus under- 
went little or no improvement. Editions were published by Scutarius 
of Vercelli (1490), by Saracenus (Venice, 1499), by Io. Baptista 
Pius (Milan, 1500), by Ph. Beroaldus (Bologna, 1500), by Pylades 
(Brescia, 1506, reprinted at Venice, 1511), by Ugoletus (Parma, 
1510), and the two editions of Simon Charpentarius (Lyons pro- 
bably, 1513, and Paris), and many others of inferior note. Nume- 
rous changes were introduced by the whole of these, especially by 
Pylades, who may be said to have remodelled the existing text, but 
although some or all of them may have had access to a correct copy 
of D, and may have compared it with various interpolated MSS., no 
new source of information had become available during the period 

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above named; and although many of the conjectural emendations 
were in themselves ingenious and plausible, yet on the whole the text 
of Plautus was more encumbered with a load of foreign matter and 
more deformed than even in the Editio Princeps. 

But a new era dawned in 1552, when a complete edition of the 
twenty plays was published at Leipsic by Joachim Camerarius, who 
had previously published (Lips. 1545) five pieces, and subsequently 
(Lips. 1549) six more. 

Camerarius had obtained possession of two MSS. unknown to 
previous editors. 

One of these contained the whole twenty plays, and is generally 
known among critics as the Ve/us Codex Camerarii, in consequence 
of being older than any then known. 

The other is very frequently referred to as the Codex Decurtatus, 
because although it had originally contained the whole twenty, the 
first eight had been tom off and had disappeared before it came into 
the hands of Camerarius. Both of these, the first especially, proved 
of the highest value, and by their aid, combined with his own re- 
markable acuteness and good sense, Camerarius, who thoroughly 
understood his author, and was deeply imbued with his spirit and 
phraseology, was enabled to elaborate a text immeasurably superior 
to any that had been previously given to the world. He could say 
with justice when he entered upon his task — “ Si ullum cuiusquam 
opus miserabiliter depravatum et corruptum scelerate fuit, hoc pro- 
fecto fuit optimum et praestantissimum Plautinaram comoediarum. 
Correctiones autem comprobaverunt proverbium vetus et ipsae, mul- 
torum medicorum curationibus aegrotos plerumque perdi;” and again, 
“ nostra diligentia et industria etiam quadum permulta de nostro illo 
veteri libro in Plautinis comoediis restituta sibi fuerunt, tarn in verbis 
quam numeris versuum, de quorum integritate nihil etiam dubii iam 
nobis relinquitur. Ac possem annumerare non t neque <Wo>- 
raSas, sed plane xiAuiiat, si ostentare operam nostram vellemus, sed 
pauperis est numerare pecus;’’ and when it was completed he was 
able to boast without vainglory — “ vere ac simpliciter affirmare 
possum vix ullum versum, de quo non aliquid, certe paginam nullam 
esse, de qua non plurimum mendorum sublatum sit.” 

Not only did Camerarius collate these MSS. with so much care 
and accuracy that when eagerly scrutinized by subsequent scholars 
wonderfully few mistakes were detected and omissions supplied, but in 
consequence of his natural acuteness and his thorough acquaintance 
with the spirit and phraseology of Plautus, the greater number of his 

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numerous conjectural emendations carry conviction to our minds, 
and have in the great majority of cases been acquiesced in as 
certain, or at least acknowledged to be superior to those proceeding 
from any other source. Although many of the best scholars of the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries busied themselves with Plautus, 
and several examined again and again his MSS. with the most 
anxious care — among whom we may name Fabricius, Lambinus, 
Dousa, Taubmannus, Pareus, Gruterus, and Guyetus — and although 
doubtless not a few alterations and improvements were introduced 
by these eminent men, still the result of their exertions, in com- 
parison with those of Camerarius, may be regarded as insignificant, 
and the text as presented by him is essentially the same with that 
exhibited in the Vulgate or Standard Recension, which was worked 
up by Gronovius, and appears under its best form in the edition 
printed at Leyden in 1684. 

[At this point, after remarking that little was done for our author 
during the seventeenth century, the author had intended to insert a 
general criticism of the editions of Bothe, Weise, and Ritschl, and it 
is much to be regretted that this portion of his task, like so many 
others, was left uncompleted. It will be seen abundantly from the 
critical notes how often and how strongly he dissents from the arbi- 
trary changes introduced into the text by Ritschl, and especially those 
introduced for supposed metrical reasons. — Ed.] 


The most important of the existing manuscripts of Plautus 

A. The Milan Palimpsest. 

This MS. was transferred from the celebrated monastery of 
St. Columbanus at Bobbio to the Ambrosian Library about the 
beginning of the seventeenth century. An account of it was first 
published by Angelo Mai, in 1815, in his “ M. Accii Plauti frag- 
menta inedila," and it has since been carefully scrutinized by Ritschl, 
Schwartzmann, and others. The original writing was believed by 
Mai to belong to the age of the Antonines, but may with greater 
probability be ascribed to the fifth or sixth century, and it must 
be regarded as one of the oldest, if not the very oldest, specimen 
in existence of any Latin classical author. The superimposed writing 
belongs to the ninth century, and consists of a portion of the Old 

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Testament in an exceedingly coarse and ill-executed character. The 
MS. in its primitive state contained the whole twenty plays, and was 
bound up in “fasciculi” or “ quaterniones,” each fasciculus being 
composed of four sheets of parchment laid one above another and 
then doubled so as to form eight leaves of parchment (membranae) 
and sixteen pages, and these fasciculi were distinguished by numerals 
placed at the bottom, just as a printer distinguishes his sheets by 
the letters called * signatures.’ The volume, when required for a 
second writing, had been taken to pieces, the doubled parchments 
had been washed and scraped separately, and when rebound, as 
might have been expected, no attention was paid to the original 
arrangement. Hence many of the sheets which formed the fasciculi 
have altogether disappeared, some have been tom and mutilated, in 
others the original writing has been wholly or partially obliterated 
by the cleansing process, and in others the same result has been 
produced by damp and neglect Thus in a very few instances only 
is a whole page legible, more commonly a few lines or portions of 
lines, but frequently a few straggling letters only, or mere traces 
of letters. Enough however remains to enable us to introduce 
many important changes and improvements, and to prove that the 
MS., if it had been preserved entire, would have been worthy to rank 
with the Vatican Virgil and the Bembine Terence. 

But this is not the whole. Although we talk of certain portions 
of the MS. being legible, it must not be understood that what 
remains is in all cases legible by ordinary inexperienced scholars. 
Notwithstanding the ingenious chemical contrivances which have 
been applied for the purpose of reviving the faded characters, these 
arc in numerous instances so indistinct and evanescent that it is 
only by dint of the most laborious and painful efforts, efforts labo- 
rious and painful alike to the mind and to the eye, that they can be 
decyphered at all. Sometimes the MS., when held in a particular 
light, will present glimpses of marks before invisible; from these 
marks we must endeavour to restore the letters which they indicate, 
and then to combine them into syllables and words. It is manifest 
that a process of this nature will often yield different results in 
different hands. Consequently some individuals have succeeded, or 
believed that they have succeeded, in recovering much that is in- 
visible or unintelligible to others, and there is always the danger of 
an enthusiastic student being carried away by a zealous fancy, and 
then making discoveries which exist in his imagination only. 

The Mos/el/aria in the original MS. seems to have occupied those 

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fasciculi or quatemiones, described above, which were numbered 
xl, xu, xlii, xuii, and a few pages of xnv. Of xl, xli, no portion 
remains, and the Palimpsest does not become available for this play 
until we reach the second leaf of xlii (III. i. 45). Altogether eight 
leaves or sixteen pages remain of xlii, xliii (i. e. one-half of xlii 
and one-half of xliii), more or less legible, but the leaves of xliv, 
which contained the continuation of the play from V. ii. 1 1 to the end, 
are lost. The MS. was written, like all those belonging to an early 
period, in large, distinct, well-executed capitals ; the lines in the 
Iambic Senarians and Septenarians were correctly divided, but the 
Trochaic and Iambic words which make up a line are not divided, 
the letters being written continuously. When the dialogue passes 
from one character to another at the beginning of a line, there is no 
mark to indicate this, but when such a change takes place in the 
middle of a line, then a blank space, such as would be occupied by 
two letters, is left, which it was probably intended to fill up with the 
initial of the name in red ink. In like manner the scenes are divided 
from each other by a blank space sufficient to contain two lines of 
writing, and this in like manner it was intended should be filled up 
with the names of the personages who took part in the action of 
the scene in question. 

B. The Vctus Codex Camerarii* 

From the hands of Camerarius this MS. passed into the Palatine 
Library at the beginning of the seventeenth century, was conveyed to 
Rome in the year 1622, and is still preserved in the library of the 
Vatican among the Palatine MSS. and numbered 1615. 

The writing belongs to the eleventh century, and extends over 
213 sheets of vellum in moderate-sized folio. It contains the whole 
of the twenty extant plays of Plautus, together with the title of the 
Vidularia subjoined to the Truculentus, while prefixed to the Am- 
phitruo we find the Querolus. 

The work, which for the most part is coarse and irregular, appears 
to have been executed by a number of different hands, and in ink of 
different colours. Not unfrequently the scribe has been changed more 
than once in the course of a single play. This is especially conspicuous 
in the case of the Persa, where we can distinctly trace five, if not six, 
different hands, several leaves being written in ink which has faded to 

* All that is known of the previous history of B will be found in Ritschl, 
Rhein. Mus. (Welck. and Naek.) vol. iv., p. 51 1 sqq. and p. 535 sqq. 

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a very pale brown, while the ink of others is unusually black. Again, 
in the same play, portions of several pages have been left blank, and 
as these blanks do not indicate any gap in the sense, and occur be- 
fore a change in the hand, it seems reasonable to infer that different 
scribes had different portions of the play allotted to them, without 
any nice calculation as to the accurate union of the portions. 

The MS. has been ruled throughout, generally with some blunt- 
pointed instrument which marked the vellum without ruffling the 
surface. The lines however are in many cases irregular, being 
closer to each other in some parts of the same page than in others, 
while the number of lines in different pages varies much, the general 
number however contained in one page being fifty-one or fifty-two. 
In some cases, e. g. in portions of the Rudens, the pages are written 
in double columns. Irregular as is the execution of the work, the 
writing is notwithstanding legible throughout, the contractions are 
few and for the most part simple. 

As to the division of the words, the statement of Ritschl, “ Verborum 
distinctio aut nulla est aut prava,” is not borne out, at least as far as 
the Moslellaria is concerned, as in this play the words are for the 
most part correctly divided in the MS. There is no division into 
acts ; but in some plays the different scenes are distinguished, a space 
being left at the end of each in which are inserted in red ink the 
names of the persons who take part in the following scene. In like 
manner, the changes of person in the dialogue are carefully indicated 
by the insertion of the speaker’s name in red ink, either at the be- 
ginning of the line or in a space left for the purpose in the middle 
of the line as the case may be. This however does not apply to all 
the plays, in some of which gTeat irregularity prevails. In the Persa, 
for example, although spaces have been lefi marking the divisions 
of the scenes, the names of the characters have been inserted in five 
or six cases only, while, although spaces are left to indicate the 
transition from one speaker to another in the dialogue, the names 
have in no case been inserted. In all probability the names of the 
characters were added after the plays were transcribed, and by a 
different hand ; a view which derives confirmation from the fact that 
while in some plays they are written in red ink, in others, e. g. the 
Curculio , Casina, Epidicus, in black, which in some cases has been 
written or painted over with red ; in some cases, e. g. conspicuously 
in the Persa, the blanks have never been filled up at all, and while 
Roman characters are generally employed in some plays, Greek 
characters have been made use of in others. 

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Some plays, amongst which is the Aloslellaria, have been very 
carefully corrected, and by different hands, in others the corrections 
are few and insignificant, in others wanting altogether. 

Such then being the state of the MS. as a whole, it will be evidently 
necessary to describe the portion of the MS. which applies to each 
play separately, as the remarks which apply to one portion will 
obviously not necessarily hold good of another. 

The Aloslellaria is written upon twelve sheets, of which ten are 
complete, eight lines at the beginning of the first being occupied with 
the conclusion of the Bacchides, and twenty-five at the close of the 
twelfth being devoted to the commencement of the Alenechmus. Each 
complete page contains, as a rule, fifty-two lines, but two or three 
have only fifty-one, one or two fifty-three. We have first of all the 
title, INCIP PLAUTI MUSTF.LLARIA, in red capitals; then we 
have the acrostic argument in eleven lines, which reads Moskllaria, 
and then without a break 

GRUMIO— TRANIO. SERVI II in red-ink capitals. 

At the top of each left-hand page we have Plauti, at the top of 
each right-hand page Afus/ellaria, each in a large cursive hand. At 
the conclusion, 

all in red capitals. 

The play seems to be written from beginning to end in the same 
hand, though it is impossible to assert this positively, as in several 
places the size of the hand is suddenly enlarged (e. g. I. ii. 22-29, 
III. ii. 69-73), the original size being resumed after a few lines, 
while the last leaf, especially where it joins the Menechmus , is written 
in ink of a darker shade, and very probably by a different hand, from 
the rest. The changes in the size of hand may possibly have arisen 
from blanks having been left when the MS. was first transcribed, 
which were subsequently filled up from other sources. 


These are by many different hands. 

1. Corrections evidently made by the first hand on casual slips, 
the colour of the ink being the same as that of the original writing. 

2. Corrections made over an erasure, where the colour of the ink 
having been changed by the roughened surface, it is extremely 
difficult to determine whether they proceeded from the first or from 


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a later hand. To the same class belong erasures made we cannot 
tell by whom, as in I. i. 42, 

Non omnes possunt olere unguenla exotica , 
which was originally written in B, 

Non omnes possunt tolere unguenta exotica, 
but the / has been erased, leaving only a faint trace, and this erasure 
may or may not have been the work of the first hand. Ritschl 
therefore is hardly justified in giving tolere as the reading of Ba 
without remark.* 

3. Corrections in ink which is perfectly black, and which must 
proceed from a late hand. Most of the stops and marks of interro- 
gation have been added by this hand. These corrections in black 
ink are made in two ways, either in the word, or over the word. 
Thus in I. i. 15 the writing in the original brown ink has 

Rus mihi tu obiecta sane * 1 credo tranio, 
but an r is added in black ink at the end of obiecta ; oc has been 
added to the h in ink darker than the original, t but this may arise 
from an erasure made between sane and credo, some wrong word 
having stood there. A point has been added in red ink after obiectas, 
so that the whole now stands, 


Rus mihi tu obiectas. sane credo tranio. 

Again, I. i. 31 was written originally in B, 

Ante hoc est habitus pacus nec magis con tineas, 
but an r has been inserted in black ink after a in pacus, and an 
n also in black written over the a in contineas, so that the line 
now appears in the MS. 

Ante hac est habitus pacus nec magis contineas. 

This hand is called Bb by Ritschl. 

4. Corrections on the margin, written in a particularly neat, small 
hand with a fine-pointed pen, and preceded by a t. The ink of 
this hand is intermediate in colour between the brown of the original 
MS. and the jet-black of the last corrector. This hand is called 
Be by Ritschl. We have a good example of the correction of this 
hand in I. i. 5, 

Exi inquam . nidore cupinam quid talcs' ‘ 

* [My opinion is that the t is by the first hand. The ink is of the same 
colour, and the correction appears to have been made at once. — Ed.] 

t [I cannot agree with the author in thinking the ink of this cor- 
rection darker than that of the original writing. It appears to me to be, 
if anything, somewhat fainter than the average.— E d.] 

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So also I. i. i a was originally written 

Sine modo venire salvos quern abscntem comes, 
but has been changed by correction into 

Sine modo venire salvos quern abscntem comes ’ 

where the correction of salvos into salvum is from Bb and the 
marginal comedis from Be. The corrections of b are frequently 
rough and coarse. 

5. Occasionally stops are inserted in red ink. 

6. Occasionally a black line is drawn under a word, as if to call 
attention to something doubtful or erroneous, as in I. i. 52, which 
appears in B 

0 carnificum cribrum . quod credo fore, 

where the line under carnificum is in ink blacker than that of the 


first hand. Moreover there is a mark over the first i, carnificum, as 
if the first hand had wished to substitute a u for the i, but it is by 
no means distinct. 

So again, II. i. 70 is written, 

Neque quicquam nobis pariant exeisin commodi, 
the line being in black ink. 

So II. ii. 68 was written, 

Quia premature vita care operfidem, 

the e at the end of premature , the whole of the word vita, and the 
c following, being written over an erasure, and being much blacker 
than the rest. Then some reader was startled by the combination 
operfidem, and drew a line under it, and then lines were drawn to 
separate the 0 from perfidum, so that the whole now appears as 
Quia premature vita care o,‘perfidcm. 

These lines occur very frequently in several plays (e.g. the Rudens), 
and more or less in all, or nearly all. 

7. But there is another class of corrections in B to which 
special attention must be directed. These are inserted in small 
spaces left blank in the MS., in a small, scratchy hand in red 
ink, and are intended to complete imperfect lines. These are con- 
jectural emendations by Camerarius, and written in his own hand, 
and therefore of no value except as specimens of ingenuity. 
Several examples will be found in III. i., e. g. v. 6, argentum 
fenori ; v. 7, opus in sumplus fuit ; v. 21, atque ; v. 23, Tu. Ne- 
pal inquam. Th. Peril oppido; v. 24, Non confitetur, and many 

c 2 

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There is one correction, probably of a late date, in the margin 
of III. ii. 5, 

alq nam Non mi hi forte visum ilico fuit , 

i. e. aliqui legunt nam. This appears to be the only example of a 
correction in this hand in this play, and it is impossible to assign 
a date to it either positive or relative : the ink is rather pale. 

Finally, there are here and there, especially towards the end of 
the play, some corrections and remarks written in black ink in a 
hand strongly resembling that of Camerarius, and which have been 
ascribed to him. Thus, in I. iii. 93, which appears in B, 

Mulitr quest suamq etatem sperni! speculo elusa est, 
where the a in elusa is written over an erasure, we find in the margin 
in the hand spoken of, ti usus est. These notes, by whomsoever 
written, are evidently modern, and may be safely neglected by any 
collator, however scrupulous. They are most numerous in III. ii., 
and sometimes are a sort of explanatory commentary, as in v. 26, 

Hoc habet repptri qui senem ducerem, 
where we find, interlined above repptri, as/u/iam; and so in v. 51, 
above qui is written quomodo as an explanation. 

The following is a list of the interpolations in red ink by Came- 
rarius in the Mostellaria : 

III. i. 6, 7, stands in B, 

Danista adest qui dedit, 

Qui arnica da! emp/a quq' 

Camer. completes the lines with argentxl fenori A and opus in sup/us 
fuit. A 

v. 21 stands in B, 

Th. (so written above) 

Dixtin queso . dixi inquam or dine omnia. 

Camer. has atque interlined above the words inquam or dine. * 
v. 23 stands in B, 

Negat.' quom cogita. 

Camer. corrects, 77 /. Negat inquam. Tr. perii oppido, and an 0 in 
red ink over the a in cogita. 

v. 24 stands in B [with some scratches below and above the 
syllables si con.- t-Ed.], 

dicam si confessus sit 

Camer. has Non confitetur i and then some scratches [the first being 
apparently an erasure of the name Theu. or Tra . — Ed.]. 

* [Or rather between the two. — E d.] 

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In v. 36, at the beginning of the line, B has Tha. in red ink from 
the old hand. Camer. has erased this, and has written in his own 

hand Tr. above, thus, hilarus. 

w. 43, 44, and 45, stand in B, 

Magius oportunus advert advent's 

Quid esl.~ concede hue ditur 

Scio te bona ee ne 

Camer. v. 43, has ire quant and A at the end of the line. 

V. 44, D. Quin rnihi argentum red 

v. 45, he adds at the end of the line clama nimis 

v. 64 stands in B, 

Ferre hoc potes an quo habeat /oras 

where Camer. has filled up the blank with 
mavis ut aliquo. 

v. 65 stands in B, 

Vrbem exsul hie causa tui, 

where Camer. [after an erasure of parts of two or three words in his 
own hand, as if in some other conjecture had occurred to him 
first. — E d.] supplies the blank with 

linquat f actus. 

v. 66 stands in B, 

Quoi sortem cebit. Da. Quin non peto. 

Camer. supplies vix dare li [and places a circumflex over quot. 

It may be remarked that in these two lines the spaces left are 
much larger than would be required for the words supplied by 

At the end of each line, where he has inserted a correction, Camer. 
affixes the mark A in red ink. There are in other places here and 
there a few marks and scratches in the red ink of Camer., but nothing 
of any importance. 

[The only other insertion in the hand of Camerarius that I was 
able to discover, was after the line ( v . 78 of same scene), 


Quod illuc est fenus obsecro quod illic petit, 
where he has written on the margin in the same line, at a short 
interval, the words eia mastigia and something like dec. after them, 
so $■>. — Ed.] 

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C. The Codex alter of Camerarius, frequently designated, since 
the time of Pareus, as the Codex Decurtatus. 

On the death of Camerarius this MS. was purchased, along with 
the Ve/us Codex, and deposited in the Palatine Library; from thence 
it was transferred to the Vatican; in 1797 it was carried to Paris, 
and in 1815 restored to the Library at Heidelberg, where it now 

It belongs to the twelfth century, and is written on 238 leaves of 
parchment in quarto. It originally contained the whole twenty plays, 
but the first eight have been tom off, and the last twelve alone remain. 
It was executed by various hands, and the writing is by no means 
elegant. The division into words is more corrupt than in B ; there 
is no separation into lines except in a few cases in the Senarians. 
The names of the characters are generally inserted both at the com- 
mencement of the scenes and in the changes in the dialogue, and 
when omitted a space is usually left blank for their insertion. 

The arrangement of the plays is the same as in B. 

D. The Codex Vatieanus, numbered 3870. 

This has been proved to be the identical MS. brought to Italy in 
1429 by Nicolas of Treves from Germany, and delivered to Cardinal 
Orsini,* concerning which we have spoken at length above. 

It contains, in 308 sheets of parchment, the Amphitruo, Asinaria, 
Aulularia, about one-half of the Captivi, and the twelve last plays 

It bears a very close resemblance to C, both in age, shape, writing, 
and perverse distribution of the metrical lines, but was written uni- 
formly by a single hand, and is somewhat less faulty in the division 
of the words. 

P. The Codex Lipsiensis, belonging to the Bibliotheca Senatoria. 
It belongs to the fourteenth century, is written beautifully on 3 1 4 sheets 
of parchment in folio, and contains the whole twenty plays. It is 
sometimes designated as the Codex Suritanur, in consequence of 
having, during a portion of the sixteenth century, been in the pos- 
session of Hieronymus Surita, of Saragossa. It is regarded by R. as 
presenting the interpolated text under its best form. 

Lastly, we may mention Z, the Editio Princeps, edited by George 
Merula, and printed at Venice in 1472. 

[Hence called by R. ‘ Ursinianum.’ — En.] 

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It will be readily inferred, from what has been already stated, that 
the constitution of the text in the twelve last plays of Plautus de- 
pends entirely on B, C, D, together with such aid as we occasionally 
derive from A, whose authority, when distinctly available, is almost 
paramount. The readings of F are curious, as in them we trace 
the process by which so many of the Latin classics became corrupted 
in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, while Z, the value of which 
has frequently been greatly over-estimated, must be regarded as an 
attempt to return more nearly to the genuine text by rejecting several 
of the more flagrant interpolations. 

Moreover, there is such a close general resemblance between 
B, C, D, that it is evident that they belong to one family ; that is to 
say, that they were all three derived from the same archetype without 
passing through many intermediate stages ; but it is certain that no 
one of these three was copied from either of the two others, although, 
as noticed above, the connection between C and D is more close 
than that between B and either of them. 

B, C, D, have all been frequently collated since the time of Came- 
rarius, and it may be proper to notice the manner in which they 
have been variously designated. 

B and C are generally distinguished, since the time of Pareus, as 
Cod. Vet. and Cod. Dccurt., and, when spoken of jointly, as the 
Codd. PalaU. 

Until the time of Ritschl, D was not sharply distinguished from 
the three other MSS. in the Vatican (which he calls G, H, K), all of 
which were written in the fifteenth century, and all belong to the 
interpolated family, and as such are of little or no value, the whole 
being frequently referred to vaguely as Codd. Vatic. 


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Every one who is familiar with the text of Plautus, as presented 
in the printed copies, must be struck by the differences which it 
exhibits in orthography. Not only does he detect these discrepancies 
in the more important editions, when compared with each other, but 
he often finds the same word appear under a different form in the 
same edition, in the same play, and even in lines almost consecutive. 
Nor will he be able to discover any fixed principle by which editors 
have been guided. They seem to have followed at one time one 
guide, at another time another, and not unfrequently to have partially 
adopted some system founded upon their own individual views of 
grammar and etymology. This is most perplexing to a young scholar. 
It seriously embarrasses and retards his progress, and the labour 
necessary to master the difficulties, when unattended by any sure 
result, proves most irksome, because his memory is severely tasked 
without the conviction that his mind has been beneficially exercised. 
It is clearly desirable to put an end to this state of things. More 
than one method may be pursued. 

i. We may endeavour to restore the orthography of the Latin 
language as it existed during the third century B.C., and to reproduce 
the lines of Plautus exactly as we may suppose them to have pro- 
ceeded from the pen of the author. Every one acquainted with the 
subject will at once admit that this is simply impossible ; that we 
have no means at our disposal which would enable us to accomplish 
such an object. 

a. We may content ourselves with adopting what may be called 
the standard orthography of Latin, which, although varying slightly 
according to the views of scholats upon particular points, is sub- 
stantially the same in all the leading editions of the classics, and was 
probably formally adjusted during the first century of the Empire. 
This is perhaps the most simple plan, and is open to fewer objections. 
The learner is not discouraged by encountering unnecessary obstacles, 
and he can investigate the questions connected with the early history 
and orthography of the language when he has advanced farther in 
his studies. Moreover, this is the course which we here ourselves 
have adopted with regard to our own Shakespeare. 

3. There is however yet another path open, a sort of via media, 
and this is the one which I feel inclined to follow. It can be proved 

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by very satisfactory evidence that certain modes of spelling, not only 
particular words, but whole classes of words, were not introduced 
until long after the death of Plautus, and therefore could not possibly 
have been employed by him. Everything leads to the conclusion 
that a gradual change took place in orthography from the time of 
Ennius down to the first century of the Empire ; that for a consider- 
able period a struggle took place between some of the old and 
of the new forms, and hence we find them frequently side by side ; 
that several of the former were quickly superseded, while not a few 
of the latter were not admitted at all until a comparatively late period. 
It is to those old forms — which kept their ground steadily, and were 
still in general use when Cicero, Pompeius, and Caesar were bom, 
when not a little of the roughness of the olden time still lingered — 
that we desire chiefly to direct attention. They are not very 
numerous; they are easily learned; and they will serve to give an 
antique flavour at least to the language of one of Rome’s earlier 

It was probably something of this sort that Ritschl intended to 
effect when he says, “ id agamus ut, qualem aliquanto politior aetas 
Plautum legisse videatur, quoad eius fieri possit, recuperemus.” But 
in carrying out this intention it appears to me that he very frequently 
neglects the best testimony and puts faith in the worst — that he is 
inconsistent, arbitrary, fanciful, and not seldom positively wrong, so 
that we can in no way accept his conclusions as authoritative. 

Before going farther, it will be necessary to state and examine the 
sources from which our information upon questions of orthography 
is derived. These are three in number — I. The Grammarians ; 
II. Manuscripts; III. Inscriptions. 

I. The Grammarians. 

Any one who should attempt to ascertain the ancient orthography 
of the Latin language, or even the orthography of any particular 
period, by relying on the statements of the ancient grammarians, 
would speedily find himself involved in inextricable confusion. He 
will discover that they frequently contradict not only each other, but 
also themselves : they frequently declare, in treating of such matters, 
that a word ought to be spelled in a certain manner, in accordance 
with their own theories, without referring to the actual usage of any 
particular period, and not seldom present their own theories, fancies 
and conjectures as if they were real facts. Moreover, the text of these 


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writers is frequently so corrupt that it is impossible to determine 
their actual meaning. Of this we have a conspicuous example in 
the earliest grammatical essay which has come down to us, viz. the 
lines of Lucilius upon the termination El, which are in such con- 
fusion that it is impossible to elicit any satisfactory signification from 
them without having recourse to a number of conjectural emendations. 
Not that we would reject the evidence of the grammarians in a mass. 
All that we find in Quintilian is worthy of the most serious attention, 
and may for the most part be accepted without hesitation. The 
authority of Priscian also is considerable, although he is by no means 
a guide that can be entirely depended upon ; but the lower we 
descend the less trustworthy do the authorities become, and their 
evidence cannot be accepted except when corroborated by other 
sources of information. 

In order to give an idea of the small reliance that can be placed 
upon the statements of the ancient grammarians in matters of ortho- 
graphy, we may briefly examine their assertions with regard to the 
doubling of consonants. 

In cases where the same word occurs written sometimes with a 
single, sometimes with a double consonant, it may be difficult to 
decide with certainty which is the original form, but the presumption 
will always be that the more simple form is also the most ancient. 
Since no word or syllable can either begin or end with a doubled 
consonant, it follows that wherever doubled consonants occur they 
must stand between two vowels, except in the case of certain com- 
pound words. But some of the old grammarians maintained that 
a doubled consonant could not be admitted except after a short 
vowel. Thus Comut. ap. Cass. p. 2283 (ed. Putsh.): 

“ Causa per unam S, nec quemquam moveat antiqua scriptura, 
nam et accussare per duo SS scripserunt, sicut fuisse, divisisse, esse et 
causasse per duo SS scriptum invenio. In qua enuntiatione quo- 
modo duarum consonantium sonus exaudiatur, non invenio." He 
then goes on to give vostra , advorsum, pervorsum, votare (vetare), 
vortex , convotvere, amploctere, as examples of archaic spelling out 
of date in his time. 

Compare with this Mar. Victorin. p. 2456: “Est itaque in principio 
dicendum quemadmodum anliqui scripserint, dehinc quid nunc de- 
beamus observare. Consonantcs literas non geminabant ut in his 
Annius , Lucullus , Memmtus, et cetera his similia, sed supra literam 
quam geminari oportebat scilicet Sicilicum impon^bant cuius figura 
haec est, quod erat signum geminandi, sicut apparet in multis 

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adhuc veteribus ita scriptis libris. Iidem (sc. antiqui) voces quae 
pressiore sono eduntur, ausus, causa, fusus, odiosus per duo S scri- 
bebant, aussus” etc. Compare further Tertnl. Scaur, p. 2257, “ Causam 
item multis scio per duo S scribi ut non attendentibus hanc literam, 
ut etiam cognatam illius R, nisi correpta vocali praecedente, non 
solere geminari” etc. 

The passage from Velius Longus, pp. 2237, 2238, must be read 
carefully, but is too long to quote. From it we find, 1. That Nisus 
wrote comesc and asucsc (i. e. apparently comedisse and assutvissc, for 
the words are corrupt) with one s, giving two reasons for so doing ; 

(1) because a consonant cannot be doubled after a long vowel; 

(2) because the ‘ antiqui ’ did not double a consonant at all, but in- 
stead of doubling placed a mark over the single consonant. 2. Velius 
Longus contradicts Nisus on two grounds; (1) the unquestionable 
usus of doubling a consonant after a long vowel in such words as 
crrasse, sa/lassc, abiccisse, calcassc; (2) that there is no real difference 
between writing a doubled consonant and placing a mark over it to 
point out that it was to be pronounced as doubled. He goes on 
to remark that the reason why we write narare with one R is that 
it is derived from gnarus. 

Again, he questions the propriety of spelling paullum with two Ls, 
which was done by some because pullus has two Ls, and then adds, 
“ Hie (i. e. the word paullum) autem in longitudine syllabae ante- 
cedentis huic literae (i. e. /) obstatur. Est enim (i. e. syllaba an- 
tecedens) quam Graeci dicunt bitjidoyyas, iuxta quam omnino geminari 
consonans non potest.” 

Tliat the earliest Latins did not double the semivowels is distinctly 
asserted also by Quntilian, I. 7, § 14 : 

“ Semivocales non geminare diu fuit usitatissimi moris;” and the 
same ' statement is made repeatedly by Festus, who however extends 
the rule to mutes also. Thus, s. v. anus, p. 6, ed. Mull., he says, 
“ antiqui earn literam non geminabant,” s. v, aulas, “ antiqui . . nullam 
literam geminabant;” and again, “antiqui non geminabant conso- 
nantes;” and s. v. solitaurilia, p. 293, he ascribes the practice of 
doubling consonants to Ennius, who adopted in this, as in other 
things, the Greek fashion. 

But if we return to Quintilian, I. 7, § 20, we find a passage 
specially worthy of notice : “ Quid ? quod Ciceronis temporibus, paul- 
umque infra fere quoties S litera media vocalium longarum vel 
subiecta longis esset, geminabatur ? ut caussae, cassus, dwtsstones, quo- 
modo et ipsum (et) Virgilium quoque scripsissc, manus corum docent 

d 2 

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Atqui paulum superiores etiam illud quod nos gemina S dicimus 
iussi, una dixerunt.” 

From these passages then we see that Nisus, as quoted by Velius 
Longus, maintained that a consonant could not be doubled after 
a long vowel. Velius Longus controverts this doctrine when stated 
generally, but in discussing the orthography of the word paullum 
denies that it can be written with a double L, because the preceding 
syllable is a diphthong, “ iuxta quam omnino geminari consonans non 
potest.” Priscian expressly asserts, “ au dipthongus post se geminari 
consonantem prohibet;” and Terent. Scaur., when controverting the 
opinion of those who would spell causa with a double S, declares that 
“ S — ut etiam cognatam illius R — nisi correpta vocali praecedenti 
non solere geminari.” But when we turn to Quintilian, we learn from 
him that in the age of Cicero, and for some time after, wherever 
S occurred between two long vowels, or after a long vowel, it 
was always doubled, and that MSS. still extant in the hand- 
writing of Cicero and Virgil proved that they wrote caussac, cassus, 

Fresh complications arise from the loose manner in which the 
grammarians employ the words antiqui and anliqua scriplura. Thus, 
when Paul. Diac. p. 6, s. v. anus, says, “Anus dicta est ab annorum 
multitudine quoniam antiqui non geminabant consonantes ; " and 
again, s.v. aulas, p. 23, “Aulas antiqui dicebant quas nos dicimus ollas 
quia nullam literam geminabant;” and s folium, p. 83, “ Folium 
a Graeco venit quod illi dicunt <f>v\Xov, sed ideo per unum L quia 
antiqui non geminabant consonantes;” and again, when Festus, s. v. 
porigam, p. 218, ed. Mull., says, “ Port gam dixisse antiqui videntur 
pro porrigam propter morem non ingeminandarum literarum;” and 
again, p. 358, ed. Mull., “ Torum ut signified torridum, aridum, per 
unum R antiqua consuetudine scribitur; sed quasi per duo R scri- 
batur pronuntiari oportet : nam antiqui nec mutas nec semivocales 
litteras geminabant ut fit in Ennio, Arrio, Annio," we might entertain 
doubts as to the limits of the term antiqui, but these are removed by 
what he says when discussing the etymology of solilaurilia, p. 293, 
ed. Mtill., “ Quod si a sollo et Zauris earum hostiarum ductum est 
nomen antiquae consuetudinis, per unum L enuntiari non est mirum, 
quia nulla tunc geminabatur littera in scribendo : quam consuetudinem 
Ennius mutavisse fertur, ut pote Graecus Graeco more usus, quod illi 
scribentes ac legentes duplicabant mutas semi (vocales) et liquidas,” 
which passage proves most satisfactorily that when he speaks of the 
practice of the antiqui he means those who preceded Ennius. 

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But when Comutus, in the passage quoted above, enjoins us to 
write causa, and adds, “nec quemquam moveat antiqua scriptura 
nam et accussare per duo SS scripserunt,” and when Mar. Viet, 
asserts that the antiqui wrote such words as ausus, causa, fustis, 
odiosus, with a double S, aussus, &c., we infer from the passage in 
Quintilian, quoted above, that antiqua scriptura and antiqui indicate 
not the predecessors of Ennius, but the cotemporaries of Cicero and 

The passage from Mar. Viet, on the same topic is such a curious 
mass of confusion and contradiction, that we have quoted it at length 
above, to avoid the suspicion of misrepresenting his meaning. From 
this it will be seen that he enunciates three propositions: (i) that the 
antiqui did not double consonants at all; (2) that when it was neces- 
sary ( oportebat ) to double a consonant, they placed a mark called 
a Sicilicus over the consonant to be doubled; (3) that the antiqui 
did double the consonants in words quae pressiore sono eduntur, such 
as ausas, causa, See. Nisus says the same thing with regard to the 
Sicilicus, but is very properly censured by Velius Longus, who remarks 
that there is in reality no difference between doubling a consonant 
and placing a mark over a single consonant, to point out that it was 
to be pronounced as double. But the curious circumstance con- 
nected with these statements is, that among all the inscriptions 
preserved, no trace of any mark corresponding to what is called the 
Sicilicus can be discovered. 

Moreover, the ancient grammarians frequently state their own fancies 
and conjectures and theories as if they were acknowledged facts. 
Thus Comutus, in the passage already quoted, partially leads us to 
infer that the use of the double S in such words as fuisse, divisisse, 
esse, and causasse, was an antiqua scriptura as much as accussare, 
whereas in point of fact these words were uniformly written with a 
double S, except in the very earliest times. With equal recklessness 
Velius Longus, 1 . c., asserts that the verb narro ought to be spelled 
with a single R, because it is derived from gnarus ! 

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II. Manuscripts. 

The authority of MSS. must be considered inferior to that of 
the grammarians. Many of them were written at a late period (the 
oldest MSS. of Plautus belong to the tenth century) ; they passed 
through the hands of a series of transcribers, many of whom were 
ignorant, and many careless ; and so little attention was paid to such 
matters, that we repeatedly find the orthography of the same word 
varying in the same MS. ; and hence not only particular words but 
the forms of particular inflexions present the same variations (e. g. in 
the case of plural terminations in is or is). It may indeed be urged 
that where we meet with an archaic word in the MSS. of Plautus, 
even although that form is not uniformly observed, we may conclude 
that it is an archaism which has been transmitted from a remote 
period and preserved by the hand of the faithful copyist, and ought 
therefore at once to be admitted and adopted universally. But this 
is by no means a safe principle. Thus, although in the earliest 
Palimpsests we find uniformly adulescms and epistula, we have no 
right to infer that this is actually the archaic form, which would 
naturally accord more closely with the Greek, but, on the contrary, 
may only be the mode of spelling which became fashionable in the 
fourth or fifth centuries. Again, although we find in the best MSS. 
of Plautus the word htrus in the great majority of cases written crus 
without the aspirate, yet when we remember the variations which 
took place in the use of the aspirate at different epochs, it is just 
as likely that crus may be a modem as an ancient form. Where 
the archaism is undoubted, we know it to be such only from 
inscriptions, and in certain cases from the testimony of the gram- 
marians. We ought therefore in all cases to betake ourselves at 
once to the best evidence, where we have it at our command. I 
conceive that it would be just as reasonable to attempt to establish 
the orthography of the English language in the age of Queen 
Elizabeth by the aid of the text of Shakespeare, as exhibited in the 
edition of Johnson and Malone, as to ascertain the orthography 
of the Latin language in the sixth century of the city by the aid of 
the existing MSS. of Plautus. In either case the old form would 
be preserved here and there, while the great mass would be com- 
pletely modernised. 

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III. Inscriptions. 

By far the most reliable and authoritative evidence on questions 
of early Latin orthography is afforded by inscriptions. The only 
sources of fallacy, in so far as inscriptions are concerned, may be 
classed under four heads : 

1. The mistakes made by the original engravers on the stone or 

2. The mistakes made by the scholars who have transcribed 

3. The difficulty of ascertaining the exact period at which they 
were engraved. 

4. The genuineness of the inscriptions themselves. 

The mistakes made by the engravers are for the most part obvious, 
are not numerous, and but few of them affect the questions under 

The great care taken and exertions made by modem scholars to 
arrive at perfect accuracy in representing the originals, has in a great 
measure removed any difficulties which might have embarrassed one 
from this quarter. Still the necessity of care is rendered obvious by 
the errors pointed out, and the corrections introduced by each new 
copyist, and the difficulty of arriving at absolute accuracy is proved 
by the variations — trifling it is true, but still variations — presented in 
almost all the different editions of the inscription on the tomb of 
the Scipios. So also in transcribing from the original capitals into 
ordinary type, the eye and hand, however practised, will some- 
times fail. 

In the case of almost all the inscriptions we have selected and 
enumerated below, the date is clearly ascertained, within very narrow 
limits, by internal evidence. 

The genuineness of only one of the series has been seriously 
impugned by Mafifei, but the concurrent testimony of scholars is in 
its favour. 

[To the evidence of inscriptions, therefore, so far as these will 
serve us, we must betake ourselves in the first instance, if we desire 
to arrive at any certain knowledge as to those archaic forms by 
which we must suppose the spelling of Plautus to have differed from 
that of the later writers. In all cases where we can collect from 
genuine inscriptions a sufficient number of undoubted instances to 
justify the inference that a particular mode of spelling either a single 

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word, or a whole class of words, was prevalent up to and for some 
time after the time of our poet, and that the more modem forms did 
not come into general use till after his lime, we must consider this 
evidence to be conclusive, and might without scrapie, and even in 
defiance of MS. authority, employ that mode of spelling in the text 
of our poet. In other cases, where usage even in early times seems 
to have varied, or where the number of instances in inscriptions is so 
small as not to warrant us in arriving at any general conclusion, or, 
lastly, where inscriptions afford no evidence at all, we must be content 
to follow the method adopted with regard to the orthography of the 
later writers by our most distinguished modem scholars, and follow 
implicitly, in variety as well as in uniformity, the evidence afforded by 
our best MSS. Lachmann, Ritschl, Fleckeisen, and others in Ger- 
many, Mr. Munro in this country, have done vast service by pointing 
out how tenacious the best MSS. are of particular modes of spelling, 
and how great a mistake it is to suppose that in ancient spelling 
uniformity rather than variety was the rule. 

For the purpose of enabling us to decide, so far as the evidence 
of extant inscriptions will permit, what are those archaic forms of 
spelling which it is most probable that Plautus actually employed, we 
have selected for special examination twenty of the most important 
and reliable of the early inscriptions from the Corpus of Mommsen, 
and, with a view to facilitating reference, have numbered them, as in 
the annexed table, from 1 up to 20, by which numbers they will be 
referred to in the course of the following remarks. — Ed.] 

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No. as re- 
ferred to 
in Text. 

No. in 


29. 30 

L. Cornelius Scipio Barbatus, Cos. 
B.C. 298. 



Cornelia Hispalli, date uncertain. 


3 *> 32 

L. Corn. Scipio, Cos. B.C. 259. 



P. Com. Scip. Africanus, Augur 
B.C. 180. 



Epitaphs of ■ 

L. Corn. Scipio, son of Hispallus, 
Cos. B.C. 176. 



L.Com. Scipio, Quaestor B.C. 167, 
son of Asiagenus or Asia/icus, 
Cos. B.C. 190. 



Cn. Com. Scip. Hispanus, Praetor 
B.C. 139. 




— Com. Scip. Asiag., son of 0, 
died at age of XVI. 



Fragment containing PIONEM 




EpistulaConsulum ad Teuranos de Baccanalibus, 
B.C. 186. 



Tabula Bantina, B.C. 133-118. 



Lex Repetundarum, B.C. 123- 12 2. 



Sententia Q. M. Minuciorum inter Genuates et 
Viturios, B.C. 1 1 7. 



Lex Agraria, B.C. m. 



Epistula Praetoris ad Tiburtes, circ. B.C. 90. 



Lex Cornelia de XX. Quaestoribus, B.C. 81. 



S. C. de Asclcpiade Polystrato Menisco in ami- 
corum formulam referendis, B.C. 78. 



Lex Antonia de Termessibus, B.C. 71 . 



Lex Rubria 
B.C. 49- 

de civitate Galliae Cisalpinae, 



Lex Iulia Municipals, B.C. 45. 


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Orthography of I-ong Vowels. 

Quintilian and some of the later grammarians explicitly state that 
in the earliest times long syllables were distinguished in writing by 
doubling the vowel. Thus I. O. I. vii. 14: 

“ Semivocales non gcminare diu fuit usitatissimi moris : atque e 
contrario usque ad Accium et ultra, porrectas syllabas geminis, ut 
dixi, vocalibus scripserunt. Diutius duravit, ut e, i, iungendis, eadem 
ratione qua Graeci «, utcrentur. Ea casibus numerisque discreta 
est, ut Lucilius praecipit ” &c. 

And Mar. Victor, p. 2456, “ Naevius et Livius, cum longa syllaba 
scribenda esset, duas vocales ponebant, praeterquam quae in I literam 
inciderant, hanc enim per E et I scribebant.” 

Acting upon this principle, Dtintyer, who published an edition of 
the fragments of Livius Andronicus (Berol. 1835), represents them 
in the following fashion : 

“ In seedeis collocat see reegiaas 
Clutaimneestra iuxtim, tertiaas naatai occupant 
* * * * 

Quin, quod paareere voos maaiestaas mea 
Procat, toleraatis, templooque hanc deeduucitis.” 

But in so far as the doubling of vowels is concerned, it seems 
certain that no such system prevailed generally at the period when 
our oldest inscriptions were engraved, and these belong to an epoch 
as remote as Livius, and much more remote than Pacuvius, Accius, 
and Ennius. Thus on the tombs of Scipio Barbatus and his son 

The practice was not altogether unknown, for we find a few 
examples here and there, but these are so rare that we might almost 
ascribe them to ignorance or accident. In the whole of the twenty 
inscriptions we have enumerated above there are only seven in- 
stances, and the whole of these are found in 10 (No. 202 Momm.), 
which is as late as B.C. 81, viz. HAACE LEGE, HOICE 
twice, while in the same inscription LEGE or LEGEM occur three 
times, and LVCI twice. 

* Observe that both htuci and pegutatuu are anomalous on other con- 

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In point of fact, as far as we can learn from inscriptions, there 
was no method in general use, in the earliest period of Roman 
literature, by which the vowels d, e, 6, when pronounced long, were 
distinguished in orthography from the same vowels when pronounced 
short. We have seen that there is no trace of anything of the kind 
in the very oldest inscriptions, and although we find occasionally in 
some inscriptions engraved before the downfall of the Republic 
SEEDES, REE, and the proper names, MAARCVS, MAAR- 
few others, which are collected in the Index to Mommsen, these 
are for the most part solitary examples scattered over a wide 

With regard to those words which in later times were written 
with long u, we find the long vowel represented sometimes by the 
diphthong ot\ as in OINO, PLOIRVME [2], COMOINEM, 
LE [16], less frequently by oe, as POENICIO, OETVNTVR 
[14], but often by ou, as ABDOVCIT, LOVCANAM [ 1 ], IN- 
TIS [ 10 ], IOVSERVNT [13], IOVSERIT [ 12 ], IOVSISET [ 10 ], 
IOVS [ 12 , 14, 18], IOVDEX [ 11 , 12 ], IOVDICO [ 11 , 12 , 14], 
[ 10 ]. 

On the other hand, we have VIRTVTEI [1], VIRTVTES, 

The uncertainty that prevailed in the early part of the seventh 
century with regard to such words * is well illustrated by the T ables 
of the Lex Servilia, in which we find IOVS, IOVDEX, IOVDICES, 
CA(TA), IOVDICANDAM, intermingled freely with IVDEX, 

* Great uncertainty prevails also in the inscriptions anterior to the 
death of Caesar, with regard to the orthography of the perfect tense of 
the verb CVRO. Not only do we find CVRAVERVNT, CVRAVERE, 
but more frequently C01RAVIT, COIRAVERVNT, COIRARVNT, 
COERAVERE; in one instance, CORAVERONT (n. 63 ); and in one, 
QVRAVERVNT (n. 1428 ). In fact, in inscriptions commemorating the 
erection of some monument, the expression FACIVNDVM COIRAVIT 
(AVERVNT) or COERAVIT (AVERVNT) seem to have been the 
established forms. 

e 2 

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The case of long i deserves particular consideration. We find 
a multitude of examples from the earliest inscriptions downwards, 
in which it is represented by ei, and this both in terminations and 

But this mode of representing long i was not observed with 
anything approaching to uniformity even in our most ancient 
authorities : thus, AID 1 LIS [1], AIDILES, AIDILIS, BAR- 
OPTENVI [ 7 ], but in the same inscription PETIEI [ 7 ], 
[ 10 ]. 

The absolute uncertainty which prevailed upon this point is proved 
by the Lex Thoria, in which we find not only FRVEI and FRVI, 
AGRI, both in the genitive, but such combinations as POPVLEI 
and many others.* 

This uncertainty seems to have disturbed literary men, for Lucilius 
endeavoured to lay down rules which might determine the cases in 
which ei should be employed to denote the long vowel, and those 
in which the simple i should be used. Quintilian, t Velius Longus, t 
and Terentius Scaurus § all refer to the principles which he sought 
to establish, and quote his words, but the passages are so obscure 
and corrupt that it is very difficult to ascertain what his views really 
were. It would seem that in nouns of the second declension he 
wished to distinguish the numbers by writing pueri, viri in the 
genitive singular and puerei, virti in the nominative plural, while in 
nouns of the third declension he wrote ei in the dative singular, as 

* So in the Lex Servilia, LE1T1S and LITIS; DEIXERIT and 

t I. vii. 15. I p. 2 3 30 , ed. P. § p. 2355, ed. P. 

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furei mendacei , perhaps to distinguish it from the ablative mendaci. * 
There is no reason to suppose that the proposals of Lucilius were 
ever accepted and recognised in practice ; the use of ei for /' gra- 
dually, although slowly, fell into disuse, and to the last we find no 

There are however a few words in which, for a long period, ei 
was uniformly employed. 

Foremost among these is the relative Qui, which, both in the nom. 
sing, and nom. pi., appears almost invariably as Quei down to the 
beginning of the eighth century. 

QVEI in the nom. sing, occurs upwards of two hundred times in 
the inscriptions 1-19 ; QVI once only, viz. in 13 (B.C. 1 1 7 ). In 
20 QVEI occurs about fifty times, QVI twice. 

QVEI in the nom. pi. occurs about sixty times in 1-20, QVI once 
only, viz. in 13. QVEIQVOMQVE (sing, and pi.) appears first in 
11 , and in inscriptions 11-20 about twenty-six times without variation. 
SEI for SI occurs upwards of seventy times in 1-20 ; SI once only, 
viz. in 14. QVASEI is found in 11 , 12 , 10 , in all seven times ; 
QVANSEI, apparently a blunder, + in 14; QVASI never. VTEI 
appears first in 10 , and in the inscriptions 10-20 upwards of ninety 
times; VTI occurs five times, commencing with 11. In the in- 
scriptions 10-20, IBEI, VBEI, NEI, NEIVE, occur more fre- 
quently than IBI, VBI, NE, NEVE, but IBI, NE, NEVE are by 
no means uncommon. 

CEIVIS seems to have long maintained its ground. It is found 
in 10 , and in the inscriptions 10-14 CEIVIS and its cases, spelled 
with ei in first syllable, occur about fourteen times ; CIVES appears 
for the first time in 10 . % CEIVITATE occurs four times in 12. 
So in the inscriptions 11-19 DEICO occurs nearly thirty times: 
viz. DEICAT three times, DEICERENT once, DEICET eight 
times, DEICITO eleven times, DEICVNTO twice, DEICERE 
appear first in 20 ; the forms DIXI and DEIXI, with their 
derivatives, were used indifferently. 

* Varro also appears to have attempted to lay down rules upon the 
same subject (Terent. Scaur. I.c.), but the words of Scaurus are very 

t [Does not this spelling rather afford a trace of the original form 
of the word, quam jit — Ed.] 

t C1V1BVS is quoted from 14, but there is a flaw in the tablet at the 
commencement of the word. 

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Considerable uncertainty prevailed in the use of diphthongs. 
Originally ai seems to have been used in preference to at. Thus, 
QVAIRATIS [ 6 ], QVAIS(*r) [e], AID. CVR. [7], AEDEM, 
AIQVOM, TABELAI DATAI (nom.) [ 10 ]. So PRAIDAD, n. 63, 
64; QVAISTORES, n. 181, 185 (also QVEISTORES, n. 183); 
AIRE, n. 181. So in many proper names, especially in AIMILIVS. 

Again, we have oi used for ot : as FOIDERATEI [ 10 ], and 
FOIDERE [ 20 ]. 

Less frequent is the use of a simple vowel for a diphthong, as 
FORTVNE, n. 64 ; FRVDE [12], which may be an accidental 
blunder, since we have FRAVDE a few lines lower down in the 
same inscription. 

EIS for IS in Datives and Ablatives Plural 0/ the 
First and Second Declensions. 

The practice in this case was similar to what took place in the use 
of ei for long ». In all probability the longer form was universal at first, 
prevailed for a considerable time, and by degrees fell altogether into 
disuse. It maintained its ground however more firmly and for a 
longer period than ei. All the examples in the earliest inscriptions 
uniformly exhibit as. Thus FACTEI(S) [ 4 ], MIEIS [ 7 ], EEIS 
three times, and VOBF.IS [ 10 ], PROXSVMEIS [11 ter], TABO- 
LEIS [11 bis], EIS [ 11 ]. When we come down to 12 we find the first 
indications of uncertainty; although the examples of eis are nume- 
CEIS occurs also. We have three examples of PRIMIS in 12 , 
in 10 three examples of PRIMEIS, and, generally speaking, down to 
20 , and even later, the form eis will be found greatly to preponderate, 
so that we may without scruple employ it in the text of Plautus.* 

Plural Cases 0/ the Third Declension in EIS, ES, IS. 

It is well known that nominatives, and especially accusatives 

* [It would appear from this expression that the author had contem- 
plated employing in his text the form eis in the cases specified above. It 
will be seen from the Preface on what grounds I have thought it advisable 
to retain the more familiar orthography. — E d.] 

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plural of masculine and feminine nouns of the third declension, 
have the terminations in eis and is as well as ts. 

Thus we have the nominatives CEIVEIS in 12, FINEIS twice 
in 13 , and IOVDICIS in 12, FINIS in 13 ; the accusatives 
FINEIS [13 bis, 18 quinquies], GENVATEIS [ 13 ], OMNEIS [ 13 , 
16 bis], CALLEIS [ 14 ], DECEMBREIS [16 sexies], CIVEIS [18 
bis], ALPEIS [19 bis], and LITIS [12], SEXTILIS [ 13 ], OMNIS 
[12 ter], OCTOBRIS [ 14 ], MVNICIPIS [20 bis\ It is reasonable 
to suppose that eis was the original form, and that the two forms in ts 
and is arose from some dropping out one vowel and some the other. 

In some of the oldest MSS. of the Latin classics, the Medicean 
Virgil for example, the form in is, especially in accusatives, is much 
more common than that in es, although the latter is by no means ex- 
cluded. Hence a conclusion has been drawn that the form in is is the 
more ancient, and therefore ought to be introduced in all cases into 
the text of Plautus in preference to es, at all events in accusatives. 

But setting aside the consideration that the practice of the fifth 
century after Christ cannot be accepted as any evidence of the 
practice of the second or third century before Christ, we can prove 
that the termination in es was in use from the earliest period to 
which our knowledge extends, and appears even before eis: thus 
we have OPSIDES, acc. [1] ; VIRTVTES, acc. [8] ; VIRTVTES, 
acc. [ 7 ] ; HOMINES, nom., MVLIERES, nom. [10] ; RE- 
CVPERATORES, acc. [11] ; while we have no trace of is in the 
nominative or accusative until we come down to 11 and 12 ; we 
have given all the examples of is which are to be found in 12-20, 
amounting to eight* in all, while the termination es recurs much 
more frequently. 

Curiously enough, in the Polla inscription,! although extending 
to a few lines only, we have examples of all the three forms : PON- 
all in the accusative, and PAASTORES in the nominative. 

0 for V. 

Priscian (p. 553) tells us, on the authority of Pliny, that some 
states of Italy, especially the Umbrians and the Etruscans, had not 
the vowel 0, but employed the vowel v instead; and this assertion 

* [Besides these there is one instance in the Carmen Arvale, and in 
the Duilian Column four more, making thirteen in all. — Ed.] 

t Motnm. No. 551, B.C. tja. 

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is fully confirmed by the inscriptions in those - languages. Again 
(P- 554) he says— 

“ V quoque multis Italiac populis in usu non erat, sed e contrario 
O, unde Romanorum quoque vetustissimi in multis dictionibus loco 
eius O posuisse inveniuntur, poblicum pro publicum, quod testatur Papi- 
rianus de Orthographia, polchrum pro pulchrum , colpam pro culpam 
dicentes et Hercolem pro Herculemc. et maxime digamma antecedente 
hoc faciebant, ut servos pro servus, vo/gus pro vulgus, Davos pro Davus." 

This statement is borne out by existing inscriptions, and the further ■ 
back we go the more general do we find the use of 0 for v. Thus, 
TVR ter, SENATVOS* ter, OQVOLTOD {occulta), TABO- 
POPLICVS quater, TABOLEIS bis, (De) NONTIARI [11], 
NONTIATA [16], CONSOLIBVS [18]; and in the Tituli Con- 
sulares (Momm. 350 sq.), from B.C. 211-155, we have CONSOL 
three times. Many more examples may be collected from inscrip- 
tions belonging to the Republican period, but of which the precise 
period is uncertain. But although 0 seems to have lingered in some 
forms, especially in CONSOL, CONSOLO, the practice was not 
maintained steadily or long. 

With regard however to the second case mentioned by Priscian, 
when in the later orthography of the language the Digamma, that 
is v employed as a consonant, preceded v employed as a vowel, 
the use of 0 instead of the latter remained invariable down to the 
youth of Quintilian : “ Nostri praeceptores CERVVM SERVVM- 
QVE, V et O Uteris scripserunt ” (i. e. CERVOM — SERVOM) 

“ quia subiecta sibi vocalis in unum sonum coalescere et confundi 
nequiret : nunc V gemina scribuntur, ea ratione, quam reddidi : 
neutro sane modo vox, quam senlimus, efficitur. Nec inutiliter 
Claudius Aeolicam illam ad hos usus literam adiecerat. IUud nunc 
melius, quod cut, tribus, quas proposui, literis enotamus : in quo, 
pueris nobis, ad pinguem sane sonum, qu et oi utebantur, tantum 
ut ab illo qui distingueretur I. O. I. vii. § 26. 

* Srnatuos is perhaps for Senatms. 

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But we may go farther, and lay it down as a general rule, that down 
to B.C. too, or even later, the combination w (uu) was unknown, 
whether the first v had the force of a vowel or of a consonant. 
Thus not only did the ancients write votnus, volgus, cervos, servos, 
but also mortuos, compascuos, aequom, quom , and the like invariably, and 
1 know not why Ritschl and others should have made an exception 
and written /uus and suus instead of tuos, suos.* Thus MORTVOS 
[18], AEQVOM [16, 17, 18]. So with quom, queiquomque, &c. : 
QVOM [6, 10 bis, 12 quinquics, 14, 16 bis, 19 quater ], QVEI- 
QVOMQVE [11, 12 sexies, 14 octies, 18, 17, 19 sexies, 20 sexies] , 
QVOIA [12, 18 bis], QV01VM [12 bis, 14 bis], QVOIVS [1, 12], 
QVOIVSQVE [12,14, 20 quater], QVOI [12], QVOIQVE [20 bis], 
QVOIEI [6, 12, 14], QVOIEIQVE [14 quinquies]. 

0 for E. 

There are two words which, during the period of the Republic, 
so far as our evidence extends, were invariably written with o, 
although e afterwards prevailed. These are Voster, and Vorto t with 
its derivatives and compounds : thus VOSTRAE, VOSTRVM, 
ADVORSVS [18 bis]. 

There was a tradition in the time of Quintilian that the change 
from o to e in vertices, versus, and such like words, was first intro- 
duced by Scipio Africanus : “ Quid dicam vortices et vorsus, ceteraque 
ad eundem modum, quae primo Scipio Africanus in E literam 
secundam vertisse dicitur?” But if we can put faith in the gram- 
marians, many words in addition to the above were written with o, 

* [Here too, as in some other cases, I have thought it best to retain 
in the text the spelling sanctioned by Ritschl, Fleckeisen, and the Plautine 
critics, and have written uniformly turn, turn, tuum, tuum, &c., notwith- 
standing the opinion here expressed. — E d.] 

t VERSVS occurs in n. 603, an inscription which professes to belong 
to B.C. 58, but which is attended with so many suspicious circumstances 
that it cannot be regarded as possessing any authority. 

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in which it was eventually superseded by e. Among these we find 
Tonores for Tenores, Quintil. I. v. 33; Amplocti for AmpUcti, Prise, 
p. 552, Cassiodor. p. aa83. The latter gives Amploclert , Vortert, 
Advorsum, and Convollere, Vo/are for ConvelUre, Ve/are. Charis. p. 174, 
gives Voturios for Veturios, and this receives some support from the 
inscriptions, nn. 1039, 1057, 1083, in which the letters VOT. are usually 
interpreted to refer to the Tribus Veturia. Votitam for Vetitam is 
quoted from Plaut. As. IV. i. 44 by Nonius, p. 45 ; Volim for Velim, 
Prise, p. 848. 

V for E. 

Judging from the examples preserved, the form undus instead of 
endus was general in gerundives of the third and fourth conjugations 
until towards the close of the Republic. Thus we find DE- 
DEIS [14 bis\ LEGVNDEIS [16 bis], REFERVNDVM [ 17 ], 
DVM [20]; SAEPIVNDVM, n. 1419; VENIVNDVM, n. 1431, 
and so in many other inscriptions, which may be fairly reckoned as 
falling within the above limit. 

This form however did not prevail to the exclusion of that in endus, 
for we find FACIENDAM, EXDEICENDVM, as early as 10, and 
COLENDI [ 13 ]. Observe also that endus is employed uniformly 
in those verbs where the use of the termination undus would have 
involved the introduction of uu : thus TRIBVENDEI [ 12 ], 

[ 14 ], FRVENDEIS [20]. 

V for I. 

“ Etiam optimus, maximus , ut mediam I literam, quae veteribus 
V fuerat, acciperent, C. primum Caesaris inscriptione traditur fac- 
tum.” Quintil. I. O. I. vii. ai. This mode of spelling W'as not 
however confined to op/umus, maxumus, but extended to all super- 
latives which in later times were written with t'mus. Thus PARI- 
SVMVS quater [12], PROXVMVS bis, INFVMVM ter [ 13 ], 

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There are scarcely any exceptions but INFIMO [ 13 ], while 
INFVMVM, INFVMO occur in the same inscription. PLVRIMIS 
is quoted from 12, but the only portion of the word extant on 
the tablet is VR. PROXSIMVM is found on a stone, n. 1291, 
Momm., but although there are some archaisms in the inscription, 
there is nothing to fix the date even approximately. 

But the use of v for «' in the older forms of the language was by 
no means restricted to these superlatives: thus Cornutus ap. Cassiodor. 
p. 2284, “ Lacrumae an Lacrimae, Maxumus an Maximus, et si quae 
similia sunt, scribi debeant, quaesitum est. Terentius Varro tradidit 
Caesarem per I eius modi verba solitum esse enuntiare et scribere, 
inde propter auctoritatem tanti viri consuetudinem factam. Sed ego 
in antiquiorum multo libris quam C. Caesar est, per V pleraque 
scripta invenio, optumus, intumus, pulcherrumus, lubido, dicundum , 
faciundum, maxumat, monummtum, contumelia, minumae. Melius tamen 
est et ad enuntiandum et ad scribendum, I literam pro V ponere, in 
quod iam consuetudo inclinavit” 

So also Velius Longus, p. 2228, “ Antiquis varie etiam scriptitatum 
est mancupium, aucupium, manubiae : siquidem C. Caesar per I scrip- 
sit, ut apparet ex titulis ipsius, at Augustus 1 per V, ut testes sunt 
eius inscriptiones.” 

In so far as the words enumerated above, and not already dis- 
cussed, are concerned, we have the authority of early inscriptions 
for LACRVMAS, n. 1008; LVBENS [ 4 ], but LIBENS in n. 190, 
which Mommsen places among the “ antiquissima,” without however 
any very satisfactory reason, except the presence of the d in merilod; 
LVBENS in n. 1448; LVB(«jj), n. 1469; LVBE(N)TES, n. x 1 75 ; 
(LVBS, n. 183; LIBS, n. 182). MONVMENTVM occurs fre- 
quently; MONIMENTVM and MONEMENTVM are rare; 
MANCVPVM [14 bis]. There seems little or no evidence to de- 
termine whether the early writers used finitumus, mari/umus, Ugitu- 
mus, and the like, or finitimus, maritimus, legitimus; AVRVFEX is 
found in an inscription, n. 1310, whence it has been inferred that 
carnu/tx is an older form than carniftx. 

There can be little doubt that in many of these words the sound 
of the vowel was something intermediate between i and v : “ medius 
est quidam V et I literae sonus, non enim sic optimum dicimus ut 
opimum;"* and hence the Emperor Claudius endeavoured to intro- 
duce a new character into the Roman alphabet, which should 

* Quintil. 1 . 0 . 1 . iv. 7; Diomed. p. 416; Priscian, p. 539; Donat, 
p. 1735; Serg. 1827; Cledon. 1882. 

f 2 

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represent this middle sound. He selected h, the mark of aspiration 
in ancient Greek inscriptions, and hence, according to this proposal, 
we should write MAX PM VS, OPTTMVS, and the like.* 

E for I. 

In some of the oldest inscriptions e frequently holds the place sub- 
sequently occupied by t : thus, PLOIRVME, FVET, DEDET [ 3 ], 
LIS in same inscription; TIBE [ 4 ], VELET, nine times, VELENT, 
COMPROMESISE [10]. We have also in the Col. Rost. Exemet, 
Or nave/, En, Navebos; so Menerva , Magester, Leber , Quint I. iv. § 17; 
and Amecus, Ameca, Lepareses ( Liparenses ), Fest. s. w. Amicus, 


The ancient Romans employed the aspirate more sparingly than 
their descendants. They did not employ it before a vowel at the 
beginning of many words in which it was afterwards generally 
adopted, and they excluded it altogether from those syllables in 
which it was afterwards placed after a consonant. Thus Quintil. I. O. 
I. v. 7, “ Parcissime ea veteres usi sunt etiam in vocalibus, quum 
otdos, ircosque dicebant. Diu deinde servatum ne consonantibus 
aspiraretur, ut in Graccis et triumpis. Erupit brevi tempore nimius 
usus, ut choronae, chenluriones , pracchones, adhuc quibusdam inscrip- 
tionibus maneant : qua de re Catulli nobile epigramma est.” And 
Cicero, Orat. XL VIII. § 160, confirms the statement of Quintilian, 
“ Quin ego ipse, quum scirem ita raaiores locutos esse ut nusquam 
nisi in vocali aspiratione uterentur, loquebar sic ut pulcros, Cetegos, 
triumpos, Kartaginem, dicerem,” &c. 

Although the use of the aspirate became more common in the age 
of Cicero and of Augustus, it was again dropped to a considerable 
extent in the decline of the language : thus Marius Victorinus (fourth 
or fifth century), p. 2466, when speaking of the use of h in certain 
words, “ Sed credo vos antiquitatem sequi, sed quum asperitas vetus 
ilia paulatim ad elegantioris vitae sermonisque est limam perpolita, 
sic vos quoque has voces sine H secundum consuetudinem nostri 
seculi scribite;” where, when speaking of antiquitas and vetus ilia 
asperitas, he must be understood to refer to the Augustan age. 
Hence, in a matter of this sort, the testimony of MSS. is absolutely 

* On this see Tacit. Ann. XI. 14; Suet, Claud. 41 ; Vel. Long. 2235. 

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worthless, because the writers would in most cases represent the 
orthography prevalent in their own day. 

Where the question arises as to the insertion or omission of an 
aspirate at the beginning of a word, or between two vowels, we have 
absolutely nothing to guide us; but in so far as Plautus is con- 
cerned, we might be safe in omitting it after a mute, and in writing 
Corin/us, Cartago , Antiocus, Agaloclts, BACANAE [10 qua/er], Puleer, 
BRACIVM [12], A rcitectus, st pule rum, teatrum , triumpus ; although 
we could scarcely bring ourselves to adopt the form Pilipus, which 
is found on a coin, especially as Philipptis appears on other pieces 
belonging apparently to the same epoch ; and, generally speaking, in 
proper names, and especially those of foreign origin and rare occur- 
rence, we cannot look for accuracy, or adhere to Latin rules; and 
hence we may retain the Greek spelling, and adopt Philolachts, Phile- 
matium , and Theuropides, instead of Pilolaces , Piltmatium, Teuropides. 

In so far as the rule of Quintilian is concerned, it is closely 
observed in inscriptions. We have indeed an aspirate before a 
vowel at the commencement of a few words which discarded the 
aspirate at a later period, such as HARENATO, n. 557, HOLI- 
TOR, n. 1057, HERVCINA, n. 1495; on the other hand, it does 
not appear in EREDES, n. 1034, OSTIA, n. 819, ARRESPEX, 
n. 1348, ERCEISCVNDA [19 6 it]. The only violation of the 
precept which forbids the use of the aspirate after a consonant, in 
„ a word not a proper name, is SEPVLCHR(km) in n. 1107 (but 
there is nothing to fix the date of this inscription with certainty), and 
the proper name, PHISIDAE, which occurs in 18 , B.C. 71, but 
which is evidently a mere blunder, since the word (PISIDAE) 
appears in its correct form repeatedly in the same inscription. 
PVLCHER, as a proper name, appears on a Denarius minted in 
all probability towards the close of the Republic, on some coins 
struck in Asia, and on a fragment of sculpture found at Eleusis. 


Although q was never extensively employed by the Romans, it 
certainly was employed commonly, at an early period, in certain 
words in which it was afterwards supplanted by e. Foremost among 
these is PEQVNIA, which is written with a q in the great majority 
of cases in the oldest inscriptions, although, curiously enough, the 
first example of the word is in 10, where it appears as PECVNIAM. 
Thus PECVNIA and its cases take a Q about twenty-six times in 11, 

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12 , 13 , 14 , but in 14 we have also PECVNIAE once. So we have 
OQVOLTOD in 10, PEQVS bis, PEQVDES, but also PECVDES, 
PERSEQVTIO, OQVPATAM, all in 14 ; PEQVLAT(V) in 12, 
and the blunder PEQVLATW twice in 18 . To these we may 
add QVR, n. 1454, QVRA, n. 1006, QVRAVERVNT, n. 1428, 
PEQVARIORV, n. 1130. 

It has been proposed to write the adjective reliquus, where it occurs 
in Plautus, as relievos, because it is in many cases a quadrisyllable ; 
but this idea receives no support from inscriptions, in which we find 
n. 1051, and different parts of the verb rtlinquo, q being uniform in 
all cases. 

The letter X. 

X, the last letter in the Latin alphabet, was, according to Isidorus 
(I. 4) and Petrus Diaconus (p. 1582), not introduced until the age 
of Augustus. But this is an absolute mistake, for we find SAXSVM 
STRAD [ 10 ]. Much confusion however appears to have existed 
with regard to the exact power of x, and hence we find a great 
VXSOR, ALEXSANDER, and the like; and so SAXSVM and 
EXSTRAD in the examples quoted above. 

The question as to the orthography of Exsilium or Exilium 
depends of course on considerations altogether different. 


V did not properly belong to the Latin alphabet, but was intro- 
duced at a comparatively late period to represent Y in words 
transplanted directly from the Greek. We cannot fix with precision 
the period when it was first employed in writing, but there is 
scarcely a single trustworthy example of it to be found in inscrip- 
tions anterior to the death of Caesar, but the Y in Greek proper 
names, and the like, is represented generally by u, and more rarely 
n. 741, Momms., belongs to an inscription certainly not older than 
B.C. a 1. 

There is no reason to believe that such a character was known in 
the age of Plautus, and therefore we may safely eject it wherever it 

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occurs in the text, and write Suracusae, Gunacaeum , Suria, and the 
like, instead of Syracusae , Gynacaeum , Syria, See. 


It is natural to conclude that the softening of prepositions in 
composition by assimilation should have become more and more 
general as the cultivation of the language advanced, but it is a 
decided mistake to suppose that the practice was altogether unknown 
in early times. The statement of Pierius, in his note on the line 
(Virg. Aen. IV. 175), Mobilitate viget viresque adquirit eundo , “ Antiqua 
pene omnia exemplaria integras servant praepositiones in compo- 
sitis, ut adquirit : et ita scribi solitum usque ad Aurelii Antonini Pii 
tempora, publica declarant monumenta,” can be at once disproved 
by many of the “ publica monumenta ” to which he appeals. Setting 
aside the change of ab, ob, into ap, op, Se c., of which we shall speak 
below, and which may depend upon different considerations, we find 
in 7 ACCVMVLAVI ; ACCIPIO and its tenses are used in early 
inscriptions to the exclusion of the harder adcipio , and occur in 
11 , 12 , 14 , 10 quater, 10 quinquits , 20 bis, and also in n. 818 bis and 
VISSE [10], COMVALEM [ 13 ], COMPORTENT [ 14 ]. 

These examples are quite sufficient to disprove the broad asser- 
tion that assimilation was unknown until the time of Antoninus Pius, 
but on the other hand it is unquestionable that in early inscrip- 
tions, in the great majority of cases, prepositions in composition 
undergo no change. Thus we have ADFERATVR, ADSIGNARE, 
ROGARE, and others. 

In a few cases there seems to have been uncertainty ; thus we find 
and its cases in 11, 12, 14 , IMPERIO [10], INPERARE [ 14 ], 
INPERATO [ 18 ], IMPERATOR [20], and uniformly in all 

[* See Munro’s Lucretius, vol. II. p. a 6, where the want of uniformity 
in the spelling of this word and its compounds is dwelt upon and an 
explanation suggested. — Ed.] 

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inscriptions before the death of Caesar; PERLEGE, n. 1009; PER- 
LIGE, n. 1306; PELLIGE, n. 1007; SVFRAGIVM [11, 12], 
SVFRAGIO [12, 20]; SVBFRAGIA, n. 1492. We find in in- 
scriptions ADSIENT, ADFVERIT, ADFVERINT, but there is a 
line in Plautus, Poen. I. ii. 67, Ao. Milphio , hens / Milphio, ubi es ? 
M. Assam apud te, eccum ! A. Ego elixus sis volo : where the pun 
would be destroyed if we were to read Adsum instead of Assam. 

There is a remarkable softening of the preposition ad into ar, of 
which we have a few examples : thus ARFVISE, ARF (utrunl), 
ARVORSVM, all in 10 , and ARVORSARIO three times in 12. 

Generally speaking, therefore, in printing the text of Plautus it will 
be safe to retain the prepositions in composition unchanged, except 
in such cases as accipio, where our authorities are all opposed to the 
harder form. 

Doubling of Semivowels and Mutes. 

That the earliest Latin writers did not double the semivowels is 
asserted by Quintilian, I. O. 1 . vii. 14, “ Semivocales non geminare 
diu fuit usitatissimi raoris," words which however do not necessarily 
imply that they never doubled them. Tjie same statement is made 
more broadly by Festus and his abbreviator Paulus, and they in 
several passages extend it to consonants in general, e. g. Fest. s. v. 
so/i/aurilia, p. 293, ed. Mill]., “ quod si a so/lo et tauris earum 
hostiarum ductum est nomen antiquae consuetudinis, per unum L 
enuntiari non est mirum, quia nulla tunc geminabatur litera in scri- 
bendo ; quam consuetudinem Ennius mutavisse fertur, ut pote Graecus 
Graeco more usus, quod illi aeque scribentes ac legentes duplicabant 
mutas semi (vocales et liquidas)\" and again, s. v. porigam, p. 218, 
“ Porigam dixisse antiqui videntur pro Porrigam propter morem non 
ingeminandarum literarum ; ” s. v. pole/, p. 205, “ Pole/, pollet, quia 
nondum geminabant antiqui consonantes.” So also s.v. torum, p. 355, 
and Paul. Diac. s. w. anus, p. 6 ; ab oloes, p. 19 ; aulas, p. 23. 

We have already had occasion to advert to the contradictions and 
confusion which prevail among the later grammarians upon this 
subject, and therefore we need not now examine their discussions. 

Our most ancient inscriptions fully bear out the statement of 
Quintilian, provided we admit that the words usitatissimi moris denote 
that the practice, although general, was not invariable. Thus in 1 
we have PARISVMA; in 2 we have AVLLA and H 1 SPALLI, but 
the date of this is by no means certain ; in 4 , GESISTEI, LICV- 
(I)SF.T, SVPERASF.S, but in the same inscription F.SSENT and 

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TERRA; in 6 , POSIDET, but also ANNOS; in 6 , ANNOS; in 
7, ACCVMVLAVI, but the two Cs may here be regarded as 
belonging to separate words. In 10 (the S.C. de Bacchanalibus) 
the rule is most strictly adhered to ; there is no example of a con- 
sonant doubled, and between thirty and forty words written with 
single consonants where double consonants would have been used 
at a later period, e. g. BACANALIBVS, HABVISE, ESENT, 

The same holds good of the Polla inscription (B.C. 132 ), but the 
examples are less numerous : MILIARIOS, TABELARIOS, MEI- 
LIA bis, SVMA, REDIDEI. In 11, probably a few years later 
than the preceding, we find SVFRAGIVM, INTER(C)ESVRVM ; 
but on the other hand, FERRE, (G)ESSERIT, POSSIDEANTVR. 
POSIDERE, PO(SI)DERE ; but on the other hand, ANNOS, 
ANNI, INMITTERE, ESSENT, ESSE. The name of a place 
appears as MANICELVM, MANICELO, and also as MANNI- 
CELO; MALENT may stand for MALLENT or MALINT. In 
12 the preponderance is very decidedly in favour of the doubled 
DIMITERE; but on the other hand, ANNVM quater, ANNOS bis, 
(A)NNOS, ANNEIS bis, ANNIS, CAVSSA bis, ESSE quinquies, 
POSSITVR, INTERROGET ; and so also in 13. Throughout 13 
we have various forms of the verb Possidere: POSEDET, POSIDENT, 
POSIDETO, POSIDERE bis. In 14, uniformly, POSSESIO and 

Words ending in B. 

It would appear that the letter p approached very closely in sound 
to b, especially when the latter stood before s or /, and hence the 
orthography of words in which such a combination occurs became 
a matter of doubt and controversy. This is exactly what we might 

g • 

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have anticipated from the close, natural relation which subsists be- 
tween these two labial mutes, in virtue of which they are constantly 
interchanged, not only in cognate languages but in different dialects 
of the same language, and even in different parts of the same word 
in the same dialect, as, for instance, in nubo, nupsi; scribo, scripsi; 
labor , lapsus, and the like. The only Latin words which end in b 
are the prepositions ab, ob, sub. The connection of two of these 
with arrd and imo is obvious, and although no trustworthy examples 
of ap, op, or sup are supplied by inscriptions, it is certain that they 
frequently took this sound in composition when prefixed to words 
commencing with r or /. 

Thus Quintil. I. O. I. vii. 7 : “ Quaeri solet, in scribendo 

praepositiones, sonum, quern iunctae efficiunt, an, quern separatae, 
observare conveniat ; ut quum dico obtinuit, secundam enim B 
literam ratio poscit, aures magis audiunt P.” 

As might have been expected, in the earlier forms of the language 
the ear exercised greater influence than etymological considerations, 
and we find in the inscriptions which we have enumerated above, 
ap, op, and sup, for ab, ob, sub, when these prepositions are com- 
pounded with words beginning with s or /. Thus APSOLVTVS 
[12 bis], OPS1DES [1], OPSIGNETVR [12], OPTINENT [17], 
OPTINEBIT [12, 14, 16 bis], OPTENVI [7], SVPSIGNET, 
TVM, SVPSIAVO [14]. These instances are not very numerous, 
but they are all in the same direction, and we find no example of 
any of these prepositions retaining its proper shape before 1 or / 
until we reach 19, B.C. 49, which contains ABSOLVITO thrice; 
and 20, B.C. 45, which has OPTEMPERETVR, and therefore w’e 
may feel justified in assuming that the practice prevailed during the 
age of Plautus and long afterwards. We may safely extend the rule 
to those cases in which the preposition abs enters into composition, 
for we find in inscriptions of a comparatively late date such forms 

Numerous passages are to be found in the old grammarians 
bearing upon the relation subsisting between bs, ps, and the Greek 
\/r, the sound of the latter not being accurately represented by either 
of the two former,* so that Claudius, among other grammatical 

* Thus Priscian, p. 557, “ multo molliorcm et volubiliorem sonum 
habet ^ quam ps vel bs . . . sicut ergo \js melius sonat (quam ps txl bs) 
sic x etiam quam gs vel et: et x quidem assumpsimus, y/r autem non.” 

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reforms, proposed to introduce a new character into the Latin 
alphabet, the Antisigma )(, which might serve as the representative 
of yfr. See especially Priscian, pp. 557, 566; Vel. Long. pp. 2224, 
2233; Terent. Scaur, pp. 2252, 2261 ; Curt. Valerian, ap. Cassiodor. 
pp. 2289, 2290; Papirian. ap. Cassiodor. p. 2291; Mar. Victorin. 
pp. 2465, 2466. 

Before quitting this subject, we may notice that the preposition ab, 
occasionally, although rarely, appears under the form of a/: thus in 
15 , AF VOBIS; in the Polla inscription, AF CAPVA, but in the 
same, AB REGIO; n. 1143, AF MVRO; n. 1161, AF SOLO; 
see also nn. 551, 587, which are less satisfactory. 

Words ending in D. 

Ten Latin words end with the letter d — Ad, Atiud, Apud, Hand, 
Id, Iliud, Islud, Quid. Quod, Sed. It seems certain that, in later 
times at least, the sound of d in these words could not be distin- 
guished from that of /, and that, in writing them, t was frequently 
substituted for d. Thus Quintil. I. O. I. vii. 5, “ Ilia quoque servata 
est a multis differentia, ut ad, quum esset praepositio, D literam, 
quum autem coniunctio, T accipcret.” These words clearly indicate 
that, whichever letter was employed, the sound must have been the 
same, and seems to imply that many persons, and probably Quin- 
tilian himself, employed d and / indifferently in writing the words 
in question. 

In the testimony of the later grammarians, fact and opinion, theory 
and practice, are, as is usual with them, mixed up together. Terent. 
Scaurus (p. 2250) considers it a mistake to write the preposition 
with a /, or the conjunction with a d, proving that the interchange 
was not uncommon. Velius Longus (pp. 2230, 2287) tells us that 
to avoid confusion we ought to write the preposition ad and the 
pronouns id, quid, quod, all with a d, in order to distinguish them 
from the conjunction at, the verbs it and quit, and the adverb quot; 
he maintains that apud ought to be written with a d, because no pre- 
position ends with /, and because it sounds better “ propter nimiam 
T literae exilitatem.” On the other hand, he holds that sed ought 
to be written with a /, because no conjunction ends with d, but admits 
that in pronunciation the sound of the final letter was that of d rather 
than of /, and that therefore the question was whether we should 
write it as it was pronounced, or pronounce it as it was written. 

In direct opposition to this, Charisius (p. 87), Scaurus (p. 2251), 

g 2 

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and Marius Victorin. (p. 2458), agree that we ought to write sed and 
not set, because the word is an abbreviation of the ancient sedum. 
The words of Victorious are, “ Antiqui pro scd, sedum scribebant, sed 
quum nostra aetas partem literarum in eo reservarit, partem, brevitatis 
causa, ex eo detraxerit, nonnullam immutarit, et nos per sed quam 
per set scribamus ; ” where observe that he says scribamus , not scri- 
bimus: a few lines before he had observed, “ sed nos nunc et adventum 
et apud per D potius quam per T scribamus, atventum et apui." 
Again, the same Victorinus (p. 2462) derives baud from ob, and lays 
it down as a rule that it ought to be written baud when the word 
following begins with a vowel, as baud cquidem, but haul when the 
word following begins with a consonant, as haul placitura; but this 
must be regarded as an opinion of what ought to be done, not as 
the record of an established usage. The forms haud and haul were 
probably both in common use when Victorinus composed his treatise ; 
and he sought to establish a distinction as to their use. Ritschl 
(Proleg. XCIX, C.), who has a pet theory of his own with regard to 
the form hau, which may or may not have been occasionally em- 
ployed,* reconstructs the above passage, and endeavours to convince 
us that the precept which Victorinus intended to inculcate was that 
we ought to write haud before a vowel and hau before a consonant. 

But without attempting to penetrate farther into the thorny thicket 
of these grammatical speculations, it may be stated as a fact that the 
forms At, Aput, Set, Aliut, Haul, for Ad, Apud, Sed,Aliud, Haud, and 
also It, Quit, Quo/, for Id, Quid, Quod, occur not unfrequently in 
inscriptions and the oldest MSS., and hence Bentley has admitted 
Aput, Set, Haul, into the text of his Terence, while Ritschl adopts 
these and also aliut and illut. But although it is certain that in later 
times / was frequently substituted for d in many, if not all, of the ten 
words above enumerated, the real question which we have now to 
consider is whether there is any evidence to prove that this was the 
case in the earlier period of the language. If we examine the whole 
of the twenty inscriptions on which we chiefly rely, and even extend 
our researches into the whole of those which are ranked in the great 
work of Mommsen as belonging to an epoch anterior to the death 
of Caesar, we shall arrive at the following result : 

AD occurs upwards of ninety times ; 

AT, never in the inscriptions 1 - 20 , but once in n. 1252, an 

* We find HAV in an inscription, n. 1007, Mommsen, but the 
original tablet has long since disappeared, and the reading of the word 
is by no means certain. 

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inscription found at Pompeii, and ascribed by Mommsen to the age 
of Augustus. 

ALIVD, twice in 19, once in 20; 

ALIVT, never. 

APVD, 1 , 3, 10 , 11 quater, 12 sexies, 17, 19 sexies, 20 ; 

APVT, three times in 20, the last of the series, belonging to B.C. 45 . 

HAVD, no example in 1 - 20 , but one in n. 1306 . For HAV, 
see above. 

ID, nom. and. acc., 1 - 20 , about thirty-six times ; 

IT, never. 

ILLVD, no example. 

ISTVD, no example. 

QVOD, nom. and acc., 1 - 20 , upwards of ninety times; 

QVOT, never; 

QVOD, conj., 1 - 20 , about sixteen times. 

QVID, nom. and acc., 1 - 20 , about twenty-eight times ; 

QVIT, never. 

Sed, the conjunction, is not found in 1-20 ; it occurs on one of 
the curious brazen “ sortes,” n. 1442 , and a reference is made in 
the index to Sed, in n. 1220 ; but there must be some mistake in the 
number, for Sed is certainly not found in that inscription.* 

Under these circumstances there would appear to be no pretext 
for departing from the ordinary orthography of any one of the ten 
words in question. 

D Paragogicum. 

It is well known that in the earlier stages of the Latin language 
we find many words ending with a d, which was entirely dropped 
at a later period. Grammarians have given to the letter thus 

* To prevent mistakes we must call the attention of the young scholar 
to the fact that in the older forms of the language he will find two words, 
Sed, distinct from the conjunction and from each other. 1. Sed, which is 
equivalent to Sine, and which enters into some ancient legal forms ; the ex- 
pression le fraude being introduced to declare that the doer of certain acts, 
performed ministerially, should be relieved from responsibility. Thus, in frag- 
ment of the Laws of the XII. Tables, preserved by Aul. Gell. XX. 1, § 49, 
“ Tertiis . Nundinis . Partis . Secanto . Si . Plus . Minus .Ve . Secuerunt . 
Se . Fraude . Esto;" and in the Lex Servilia (12), “ Earn . Pequniam . 
Eis . Se . Frude . Solvito;” and again in the same Law, “ Id . Quaestor . 
. . . . Sed . Fraude . Sua . Extra . Ordinem . Dato . Solvitoqufe." See 
Paul. Diac. s. v. p. 336, ed. Mull. 2. Sed, the accusative of Sui, with 
what is called the D paragogicum. See next section. 

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employed the designation of D paragogicum , a term as irrational as 
that of €<pt\icv<rrtK(Sv in Greek. 

It appears chiefly in datives and ablatives, but by no means 
exclusively, and Charisius goes so far as to assert that in ancient 
times it was attached to all words ending with a vowel. Thus, in 
1 we have GNAIVOD; and in n. 63, 64, DE PRAIDAD; n. 181, 
AIRE MOLTATICOD; n. 190, MERITOD; 10 abounds in ex- 
amples, such as SF.NTENTIAD ter, OQVOLTOD, POPLICOD, 
PREIVATOD, CONVENTIONID. These are all ablatives, but we 
have in the same inscription, EAD, acc. pi., EXTRAD, FACILV- 
MED, SED for SE (the pronoun), SVPRAD ter. Charisius, p. 87, 
specially quotes ted from Plautus, and the forms med and ted occur 
repeatedly in the MSS. of the plays. Indeed, some scholars have 
imagined that by a free introduction of d at the end of words ending 
with a vowel, we might escape from the embarrassment felt by 
metrical scholars on account of the constant recurrence of hiatus. 

It is evident however, from our oldest inscriptions, that in the 
early part of the sixth century, although the use of the D para- 
gogicum had not fallen entirely into disuse, it was not generally 
employed, and hence any attempt to introduce it on an extensive 
scale into the text of Plautus would be unjustifiable. 

Final M and Final S. 

That final m was but faintly pronounced is evident from the fact 
that a final syllable ending in m was elided before a word beginning 
with a vowel in all ages of Latin poetry. The same took place 
frequently in words ending in As or is, in the earlier ages of Latin 
poetry ; the practice was still common in the age of Lucretius, but 
afterwards fell into disuse. Hence it is not surprising that, in the 
older class of inscriptions, final m is frequently omitted; and the 
same holds good, but to a smaller extent, in final s also. 

As instances of the dropping of final m we have OMNE(«) [1], 
ONE (m), CORSICA (m), ALERIA (m)que, VRBE(ot), AIDE(to) 
[8], APICE(w), INSIGNE(m), GREMIV (m) [ 4 ], HONORE(ot) 
[ 5 ], ANTIOCO(ot) [0], ANNORV(w) [8]. As we advance, the 
practice becomes more and more rare, and finally disappears. From 
the first, however, it was by no means uniformly observed : thus, 

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LAVDEM, CREATVM, STIRPEM [ 7 ]. From the above ex- 
amples it would be impossible to deduce any rule or principle by which 
writers were guided as to the insertion or omission of the letter. 

As to the omission of final s, we have ANTIOCV, n. 1095, 
LECTV, n. 1313 bit, PATRONV, n. 1033: and in combination 
with est, SATIVST, n. 1444, SITVST, n. 1297, VOCITATVST 
[ 13 ]. A few more examples will be found in the index to Mommsen, 
but they are by no means numerous. 

M, N. 

In derivatives and compounds m had a tendency to pass into n 
before the letters c, q, d, I. Thus we have uniformly before c, Clan- 
culum , Nuncubi, Sinciput, Princeps, but horumce or horunce ; before 
d, Tantundem, Tandem, quondam, Quando, Nundinae, C/andes/inus ; 
before t, Identidem, See. Before q, however, there seems to have been 
a diversity of practice with regard to the manner of writing the same 
words, depending probably upon individual taste : thus in MSS. we 
find indifferently umquam, numquam and unquum, nunquam; tamquam, 
quamquam and tanquam, quanquam ; utrimque, utcumque, quicumque and 
utrinque, utcunque, quicunque. On the other hand, m is almost always 
retained in numquis, quemquam, namque, plerumque, utrumque, quemquc, 
unumqtumque. As a solitary example of m into n before i, we have 
quoniam—quom iam. 

The passages in the grammarians, with regard to m into n, are, 
Priscian, p. 555, who, after giving as examples, tandem, tantundem, 
identidem, muncubi, adds, “ et, ut Plinio placet, nunquis, nunquam:" 
Priscian, p. 945, gives eundem, eandem, quendam, quondam, quorundam, 
quarundam, all of which however he adds may be written by simple 
composition, i. e. by m : Priscian, p. 958, gives as examples of m 
passing into n before c, hunc, hanc, horunce, harunce. Compare 
Vel. Long. p. 2236; Beda, pp. 2337, 2344; Martian. Capell. Lib. 
III. p. 55. Marius Victorinus, p. 2462, seems to say that we may 
at pleasure unite nonnunquam, nunquam, nunquid, quanquam, unquam, 
or substitute m for n. 

As an example of the care which it is necessary to exercise in 
reading the grammarians, in distinguishing an opinion from a fact, 
we may take the following statement of Comutus ap. Cassiodorum, 
p. 2285: “ Tamtus et Quamtus in medio m habere debent: quam 
enim et tarn est unde quamti/as, quamtus, tamtus, nec quosdam moveat 

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si m non sonat : iam cnim supra docui non sonare debere tametsi in 
scriptura m posita sit.” Cf. Caesell. ap. Cassiodor. p. *314, and 
Isidor. Origg. 1, 26 post med. But although it is here said that we 
ought to write /am/us and quamtus, we have no reason to believe 
that these words ever were written under that form, and therefore 
we must regard this as merely a theoretical speculation as to what 
ought to have been, not what actually was. 

N is occasionally omitted, in old inscriptions, in the middle of 
a word, but not apparently upon any fixed principle : thus in 2, 
SOR, in another part of the same inscription, and also in 1 ; in 10, 
TIONID. The abbreviations Cos. and Coss. for Consult, Consulibus, 
seem to have originated in the use of Cosol for Consul. 

Insertion of P btlwttn M and S or T following. 

There exists great diversity of opinion upon this point among an- 
cient grammarians. Priscian, pp. 551, 564, 854, 897, 898, 931, writes 
hiems, dempsi, cornpsi, prompsi, sumpsi and dtmp/us, comptus, promptus, 
sump/us, Itmpsi, adtmptus, redemptus, and also tmplus. Terent Scaur., 
pp. 2256, 2261, admits that it was common to write sump/us, demptus, 
comptus, but calls p in this case “ supervacua, ” and argues that the 
introduction of it is irrational. At the same time he tells us that there 
was a dispute whether hiems or hiemps was the correct orthography, 
and decides in favour of the former. Papirian. ap. Cassiodor., p. 2292, 
rejects hiemps, but says that sumpsi, sump/us, sumpturus, must be 
written with a p. Beda, pp. 2337, 2346, rejects hiemps, but adopts 
sumpsi, sumpturus. Mar. Victorin., p. 2466, insists upon writing 
hiems, sumsit, insumsit, demsit, and utterly rejects such forms as 
consumplum, emptum, temptat, attemptat. 

Thus we see that while Priscian, Terentianus Scaurus, Papirianus, 
and Beda agree in writing sumpsi, sumptus, dempsi, demptus, cornpsi 
comptus, emptus, and the like, Marius Victorinus rejects the p in each 
case. All seem to agree in preferring hiems to hiemps .* 

Setting aside hiems, inscriptions insert the p in the above words 
and their derivatives more frequently than they omit it. But a good 
many examples of both occur. 

* Compare Thornton and Thompson, Simson and Simpson, in English, which 
is Sapifrwv in Greek, and Samson in Latin. 

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Some forms of orthography seem to have been adopted by the very 
earliest Roman writers, which, like the duplication of the vowel, passed 
away at once : thus Priscian, p. 556, tells us on the authority of 
Varro, “ de origine Linguae Latinae,” that the “ vetustissimi auctores 
Romanorum ” wrote Agchists, agceps, aggulus, aggens, agguilla, igge- 
runt, for Anchises, anceps, angulus, angens, anguilla, ingrrunt, as the 
Greeks wrote oyy*Xor, : see also p. 569, and Mar. Victorin. 

pp. 2462, 2465. 


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Comic Metres * 

There is no topic connected with classical literature which, 
generally speaking, proves so repulsive to a young scholar as an 
inquiry into the metres of Plautus and Terence. This arises not 
so much from the difficulties which the subject presents, although 
these are unquestionably numerous and perplexing, as from the 
manner in which the subject has been handled. He will find him- 
self called upon to peruse a series of disquisitions by different 
authors who accord with each other neither in principles nor details, 
but, on the contrary, exhibit for the most part fierce antagonism, 
agreeing in this only, that each propounds his ideas with dogmatic 
confidence, and assumes a contemptuous and insolent tone towards 
those whose views differ from his own. 

The extreme positions in the controversy are held by two 
parties. The followers of the one, whenever they encounter a 
difficulty, are satisfied with calling it a ‘ licence ' — a term which, 
if used freely and without discrimination, suffices to abrogate all 
metrical laws. 

Those who adhere to the other have persuaded themselves that 
the verses of Plautus and Terence were constructed with the same 
delicate care, precision, and strictness which characterise those of 
the best Greek models, and that wherever we meet with any com- 
bination inconsistent with this doctrine we must at once pronounce 
the passage corrupt, and proceed to correct it. If we adopt this 
view to its full extent, we shall be called upon to re-write at least 
one-fourth of the plays now extant. 

The ample space between these two poles has been occupied by 
those who entertain more moderate opinions, and who by their 
researches have done much to throw light upon what is obscure. 
But almost every one of these has some favourite hypothesis ap- 
plicable to a particular class of cases ; these hypotheses are for the 
most part founded on a very limited and imperfect induction, and 

* Throughout this chapter it is taken for granted that the reader is 
familiar with Latin prosody and versification, as exhibited in the works of 
the Latin poets from Lucretius and Catullus downwards. 

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wherever any obstacle presents itself, a process literally Procrustean 
is forthwith resorted to, and short limbs are pulled out and long 
limbs cut short without compunction. 

If, before going further, we endeavour to ascertain what the 
ancients thought on this matter, we shall find that those who were 
best qualified to judge were blind to the extreme skill and grace 
which some modem critics have discovered in the Iambic Trimeter 
of the comic writers, and it is amusing to contrast the expressions 
of Cicero and Ritschl. 

The former, Oral. LV. § 184 — “At comicorum propter similitu- 
dinem sermonis sic saepe sunt abiecti senarii, ut nonnumquam vix 
in eis numerus et versus intelligi possit.” 

The latter, when arguing against the admission of the hiatus under 
certain circumstances, exclaims indignantly, “ Et hoc ut artis fuerit ? 
et Plautinae artis, cuius tantam in reliquis partibus senariorum sep- 
tenariorumque condendorum omnibus elegantiam merito admiramur ?” 
And yet Cicero was certainly familiar with, and greatly admired, the 
early literature of his own country, and was moreover an accom- 
plished Greek scholar. 

Again, Horace, although jealous perhaps of the blind admiration 
evinced by some of his contemporaries for the older Latin writers, 
would scarcely have ventured to attack the ‘ numeri ’ of Plautus so 
decidedly had they in reality been regarded generally as faultless. 
See Ep. II. i. 58, 170 sqq., A. P. 54, 270. 

From Priscian we learn that even in his time there were persons, 
we must suppose with some pretensions to learning, who asserted 
that there were no metres at all in Terence, while others pretended 
that they were of a mysterious, recondite character, and known to 
themselves alone. In the MSS. much confusion prevails as to the 
arrangement of lines, and the editor of the Editio Princeps seems to 
have been almost completely ignorant of the subject, and in many 
cases to have made scarcely an attempt to distribute the words 
into verses. 

Now although many difficulties present themselves when we 
proceed to scan particular lines, and although much diversity of 
opinion exists with regard to the precise laws which the dramatists 
imposed upon themselves in constructing their verse, it must be 
observed that, except in some particular cases to be noticed below, 
there is no more difficulty in determining the classes and species of 
verse employed than in the works of Virgil and Horace. We can 
assert with absolute certainty that, for the most part, the ordinary 

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dialogue is carried on either in the Iambic Trimeter Acat. or in 
Trochaic Tetrameter Cat.; that the Iambic Tetrameter Cat, the 
measure of which Aristophanes was so fond, is occasionally 
employed, and also, although more sparingly, Trochaic and Iambic 
Tetrameters Acatalectic. Moreover, Bacchiac and Cretic Tetra- 
meters are so frequently introduced that they can be easily recog- 
nised, and also, although with less certainty, the shorter species 
and varieties of verses belonging to the whole of the four classes 

But, in so far as the Cantica are concerned, the case is altogether 
different. Some of these present little or no difficulty, in others all 
is doubt, uncertainty, and confusion. Metrical scholars have accord- 
ingly here given free rein to their imaginations, and, as might have 
been anticipated, have arrived at the most discordant results. We 
have excellent examples of both kinds of Cantica in the Mostellaria. 
The Canticum with which the Second Act commences can be 
arranged in a satisfactory manner with little difficulty, and without 
any important changes in the text, and we shall take an opportunity 
below of reviewing it in detail. But the Canticum with which the 
Fourth Act commences presents a different aspect. In B, the most 
trustworthy of our MSS., the monologue is divided into twenty-five 
lines, of which four in succession (6, 7, 8, 9) are mutilated, ex- 
hibiting lacunae to the extent of about two words in each, and r. 15 
is evidently very corrupt. Hermann (Lib. II. c. xxiii.) distributes 
the words into twenty-six lines, leaves many blanks, and introduces 
several conjectural changes. Ritschl distributes the words into 
twenty-seven lines, introducing a set of changes different from those 
of Hermann, and agreeing with him as to the structure of seven or 
eight lines only. Weise distributes the words into thirty-seven lines, 
differing totally from those of Hermann and Ritschl. The remainder 
of the scene, in which a second speaker is introduced, is distributed 
in B into seventeen lines, and by Hermann into the same number, 
but his arrangement is totally different. Some critics had sup- 
posed that they were irregular Cretics, but Hermann has convinced 
himself that they may be divided into Iambic Tetrameters Cat, but 
admits that numerous alterations are necessary.* Ritschl adopts 
this theory and most of Hermann’s emendations in so far as the 
first eleven lines are concerned, but the remainder he supposes to 
consist of a compound measure, made up of an Iambic Dimeter 

* “ Bin ich vollig uberzengt, dass diese Verse iamtici jeptenarii sind, die 
abcr freilich mancher Veranderung bediirfcn.” 

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and a Trochaic Dipodia. Weise distributes the seventeen lines into 
twenty-one, differing toto caelo from both H. and R. Thus, alto- 
gether, Weise distributes the forty-two lines, as they stand in B, 
into fifty-eight, in the course of which he supposes the measure to 
change thirty times. Moreover, he is obliged to imagine all sorts 
of strange combinations; thus two of the lines are described as 
consisting of Dipod. Crct. cum Choriambo; two more as Critic, monom. 
cum Choriambis ; another, a single Anapacstus ; another as Trispon- 
dacus; another, Criticus cum anacrusi; four are Troch. Tetram. partim 
p/ctii, partim Catal. partim ctiam imminuti ; five are Dimttr. Anap. 
cum Iambis. It is hard to see how any one would suppose that any 
rhythm whatever could be detected by the nicest ear in such a hete- 
rogenous combination, where no attempt is made to discover a 
system of Strophes and Antistrophes, as in a Greek Chorus. Indeed 
it must be evident that any page in a prose author might, without 
violence, be cut up into fragments of varying length, each of which 
might receive a metrical title. 

The same Weise boasts that he has discovered and arranged 
upwards of seventy ‘ Saturnian Verses ’ in Plautus, and has ex- 
pounded his doctrine fully in a short treatise. But some scholars 
have as yet been unable to settle what Saturnian verse really 
was, since these so-called Saturnian verses, detected by Weise, 
differ widely from each other in structure, without being connected 
by any common bond; and since they are, according to his own 
admission, altogether distinct from the verses described as Saturnian 
by Terentianus Maurus and other ancient grammarians, we feel our- 
selves relieved from the necessity of investigating his arguments.* 

The truth is, however unwilling scholars may be to admit their 
own ignorance, that the metrical arrangement of many of the Cantica 
is altogether obscure, and they may be regarded as affording 
exercises for the ingenuity of those who love to speculate on such 
subjects. Regarded merely as problems of doubtful solution, they 
would not be without their use; but unfortunately many persons 
become so wedded to their fancies, and persuade themselves so 
firmly of the reality of the visionary children of their imagination, 
that they become not only violent and abusive towards those who 
venture to express doubts, but scruple not recklessly to mutilate the 
text of the poet. 

* See the 'Chapter on Saturnian Verses’ appended to the author’s 
‘Manual of Latin Prosody,’ Griffin and Co., 1859, in which the whole 
subject is carefully and critically discussed. 

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What we propose at present is to examine — 

I. Those kinds of verse employed by the dramatists, with regard 
to the existence and general structure of which no reasonable doubts 
can be entertained. 

II. The prosody of Plautus and Terence, in so far as it is really 
or apparently at variance with that with which we are familiar in the 
works of the Latin poets from Lucretius downwards. 

It may be urged that this is not the natural and logical arrange- 
ment of the subject — that a knowledge of the prosody ought to 
precede an inquiry into the versification. But in practice the plan 
we have indicated will prove the more convenient. We can find 
numerous examples which will enable those acquainted with the 
prosody of the Augustan age to comprehend the structure of the 
different verses of which we treat; and when we have acquired a 
general knowledge of these, we shall be enabled to discuss those 
particular cases in which the scansion is apparently difficult or 

The Iambic Trimeter Acatalectic 

is the principle vehicle for the dialogue of Latin comedy, when it is 
carried on in a calm, unimpassioned tone. Priscian, in his treatise 
De metris Comicis, asserts that the Iambus, the Tribrach, the Spon- 
dee, the Anapaest, and the Dactyl, are employed “ indifferenter ’* 
in all the places of the Comic Iambic Trimeter except the last, 
which is reserved for the Iambus exclusively, and this statement is 
fully borne out by the works of Plautus and Terence. It must not 
however be supposed that such lines as 

Tityre tu palulae recubans sub tegmine plri, 

Caslaneasque ituces mea quas Amaryllis habit it, 

Huic coniux Sychaeus era t ditissimus Agri 

could be recognised, although not directly incompatible with the 
above rule, any more than that 

Karova, Knrafia, Karaffa, Karafta, ctirajSijcrojim, 

could be accepted as a fair specimen of an Aristophanic Trimeter. 
The Latin poets always contrive to preserve the Iambic rhythm, and 
although Anapaests and Dactyls are not excluded from any one of the 
. first five places, they are used more sparingly than Spondees, and not 
strung together in an unbroken series in the same line. The Dactyl 

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especially is comparatively rare in the 3th place, although many 
examples may be quoted, as Most. I. i. 23, 

Parasilos opsonate polluciblliter ; 

and III. i. 40, 

D. Hie homo esl t'nanis. Tr. Hie homo certe est driolus; 

and in I. i. 69 we have two Dactyls consecutively in the 4th and 
5th places. Lines however constantly recur which contain no 
Iambus, except in the last place, e. g. Most. I. i. 4, 

Ego pol te ruri si vivam ulciscar probe, 

where we have an Anapaest in the 1st place, followed by four 
Spondees; in v. 18, 

Augcbis ruri numerum genu' ferratile, 

we have Spondees in the 1st, 2nd, and 5th, and Dactyls in the 
3rd and 4th; in v. 16, 

Quod te in pislrinum set's actutum tradier, _ 

we have five Spondees in succession. 

The penthemimeral caesura is preserved with considerable regu- 
larity, although, as might have been expected, it is frequently 

The Iambic Tetrameter Catalectic, 

called by the Latin grammarians Septenarius and Comieus Quadratus, 
was formed, according to the views of Varro, by the addition of 
three syllables to the Iambic Trimeter.* 

It consists of seven and a-half feet, and admits the same feet as the 
Trimeter, viz., the Iambus, Tribrach, Spondee, Anapaest, and Dactyl. + 
There is a division of the verse at the end of the 4th foot, 
which thus ought to end with a word, and this rule, although occa- 
sionally violated by the Latin writers, is observed by them more 
strictly than by the Greeks. 

All the above-named feet are admissible in any place of the verse, 
but the Spondee and the Anapaest are rarely found in the 4th, and 
the Dactyl is still more uncommon. Bentley would exclude both the 

* Varro, quoted by Diomedes, p. 514, and by Rufinus, pp. 3706, 2707. 
t Bentley and Hermann add to these the Procelcusmaticus (i.e. 
but I believe that all the passages quoted in support of this opinion are 
either manifestly corrupt, or may be scanned so as to get rid of such an 

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Spondee and the Anapaest from the 4th place, but Hermann, while 
he admits the canon when the division of the verse is observed, 
considers that when the division is not observed, the Spondee, the 
Anapaest, and even the Dactyl, are all admissible. 

In so far as the 7 th foot is concerned, the Latins admit freely 
the proper foot, the Tribrach, the Spondee, and the Dactyl, the Ana- 
paest more rarely, and generally include it in a single word. 

Finally, this verse is Asynartete, and therefore the last syllable of 
the 4th foot may be either long or short, and the hiatus in this 
place is freely permitted. 

According to what has been said above, the scheme of the Iambic 
Tetr. Cat. will be as follows: — 

W — 
W W W 

w — 


w — j w — 


w — 


w — 


w — 


w w — 
— w w 

w w — 
— w w 

w w — 
— w w 

w w — 
— w w 

w w — 
— w w 

w w — 
— w w 

i — W W > I 

We shall give a few specimens to illustrate the varieties of struc- 
ture indicated above, selecting our examples from the Mostellaria, 
in which the lines at the commencement of I. iii. (1-90) are com- 
posed in this measure : — 

I. iii. i, regular, 

Iampridem teas lor frigida | non lavi magi' lubentcr. 
v. t, Asynartete, and Spondee in 7th, 

Nec quom me melius, mea Scapha, || rear esse defaecatam. 
v. 3, Spondee in 7th, but not necessarily, 

Evenlus rebus omnibus, \ velut horno messts magna. 
v. 6, Asynartete, 

Haec ilia est tempestas mea, || mi hi quae modesliam omnem. 
v. 7, regular, 

Detexit lectus qua fui, \ quam mihi Amor el Cupido. 
v. 8, regular, 

In pectus perpluit meum, | neque iam umquam optegere possum, 
v. 9, regular, 

Madent iam in corde parieles \ : periere haec oppido aedes. 
v. to, Asynartete and Dactyl in 7th, 

Conlemp/a amabo, mea Scapha, || satin hate me vestis deceat. 

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v. i a, regular, 

Qui tu te exornas moriius | lepidis quom Upida tute es. 
v. 13, nt&lylri , Spondee in 7th, but not necessarily, 

Non vestem ama lores amant \ mulicris sed vtsti' far turn, 
v. 14, Asynartete, 

I la me di ament, lepida tit Scapha : || sapit tceles/a mu! turn, 
v. 15, regular, 

Vt lepide res omnes tenet | sententiasque amantum. 
v. 16, Dactyl in 7th, 

Quid nunc ? S. Quid est i P. Quin me aspice et | contempta ut haec 
me deceat. 

v. 17, Tribrach in 7th, 

Virtute formae id evenil | te ut deceat quidquid habeas, 
v. 18, Asynartete, 

Ergo hoc ob verbum te, Scapha, || donabo ego hodie aliqui. 
v. 19, regular, 

Neque patiar te istanc grain's \ laudasse quae placet mi. 
v. 21, Spondee in 7th, 

Eho mavis vituperarier | /also quam vero extolli. 
v. 32, Spondee in 7th, 

Equidem pol vel fatso /amen | laudari multo malo. 

The Trochaic Tetrameter Catalectic, 

called Septenarius by Cicero (TuscuL I. 44), and Versus Quadratus 
by Aulus Gellius (N. A. II. 29), is used very frequently by the Latin 
dramatists, especially in those portions of the dialogue which are 
characterised by unusual animation, bustle, or excitement. 

The line consists, as the name implies, of seven and a-half feet, 
and, in addition to the Trochee and Tribrach, admits the Spondee, 
the Dactyl, and the Anapaest in any place except the 7th, where 
the Trochee and Tribrach alone are found. 

There is a division of the verse at the end of the 4th foot, which 
ought thus to end with a vowel, but the Romans observe this rule 
much less strictly than in the case of the Iambic Tetr. Cat. 

Like the Iambic Tetr. Cat. the verse is Asynartete, and therefore 
the last syllable of the 4th foot may be long or short, and hiatus 
is neglected. 


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According to what we have said above, the scheme of the Troch. 
Tetr. Cat. will be as follows: — 

— W 

— w 


— w 


— w w 
w w — 

— w w 
w w — 

— w w 
w w — 

— w w 
w w — 

— w w 
w w — 

— w w 
w w — 

— w w 

Bacchiac Verses. 

It is doubtful whether Bacchiac Verses were ever employed by the 
Greeks, for the few examples quoted are all susceptible of a different 
mode of scansion. They are common in the fragments of the Latin 
dramatists, and specimens are to be found in most of the plays of 

The species which occurs most frequently is the Bacchiac Tetra- 
meter Acatalectic, which is found sometimes in a system, sometimes 
combined with other species, and sometimes interspersed among 
verses belonging to other classes, especially Cretics. Bacchiac 
Tetrameters Catalectic, Trimeters Acat. and Cat., and also Dimeters, 
are met with occasionally, but they are comparatively rare. 

The proper foot is, as the name implies, the Bacchius — ), and 
the following is a pure Tetrameter: — 

Sibi quisque run' metit si male emptae. 

The Molossus ( ) is used freely, and is admissible in every 

place, frequently in the rst and 3rd, less frequently in the 2nd 
and 4th. 

In 1 st. 

Quid mine, vise, specta, luo usque arbitratu. 

In and, 

Recordatus miiltum et diu cogitavi. 

In 3rd, 

Ego esse autumo quando dicta audietis. 

In rst and 3rd, 

Quiindo hie natus est, ei rei argumenta dicam. 

In 2nd and 4th, 

Simul gnariires Vos volo esse banc r?m mecum. 

In 1st, 2nd, and 4th, in Amph. II. ii. 22, 

Forti utque ob/irmato : id modo si meren/is. 

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Nay, examples such as the following, if genuine, would go to prove 
that a whole Tetrameter might be made up of Molossi alone: — 
Amph. II. ii. 20, 

Et patria et* prognatt, tu/antur, servanlur. 
and Poen. I. ii. 9, 

Postquam aurora illuxil , numquam concessamus. + 

In addition to the Bacchius and the Molossus this verse permits 
of the resolution of the first syllable of the Molossus, and thus the 
Ionic a minore (v^ w — ) finds a place, but is used much more 
sparingly than either the Bacchius or the Molossus: — 

In 1 st, 

Meriio hoc nobis fit qui quidem hue vmerimus. 

In 2nd, 

Soror, cogila, dmabo, item nos perhiberi. 

In 3rd, 

Quamquam baud falsa sum nos ixtiosds haben 

Nam multum loquaces merito omnes habemus. 

In 4th, 

Tun me , verbero , audes herum ludificari. 

Lastly, either of the long syllables of the Bacchius may be resolved, 
and then we shall obtain the fourth Paeon (u u u -) and the second 
Paeon (y - w w) as feet available in any place except the 4th, 
from which the second Paeon is excluded : thus — 

Quam si sa/sd milrldtica esse autumantur. 

Neque eis ul/a ornandi sdtls sdtleias est. 

Novarum aedium esse arbltror slmllem (go hOmlnim. 

According to what has been said above the scheme of the Bacchiac 
Tetrameter will be as follows: — 

\J \J — — 
W W — 
— W W 

\J — — 
\J — 
Kt — \J 

V-/ ^ 

W — 

W W ■ 


* To be scanned Et patrf et . 
t So Hermann, but the text is very doubtful. 

X This is the doctrine of Hermann, which has generally been adopted 
by metrical scholars, but I have serious doubts as to the admissibility of 
the fourth and second Paeon. In the first of the examples given above, 
mZrlatica might be pronounced murjatica , and this actually takes place 
some lines lower down — so, s&tUtas may become satjltas y jlmUem may 
become simlem , and bGmlnem may be bomnem . 

i 2 

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There is usually a division of the verse at the end of the second 
foot, as in 

Rfcorda/us mu! turn et || diu cogitavi, 

but this is not strictly observed, as, 

Auscultate argumenta dum dico ad hanc rem. 

The following passage will afford a good example of a system of 
Bacchiac Tetrameters. It is from Poen. I. ii. r, and we have for 
the most part preserved the Vulgate text. Some of the lines have 
been differently arranged by Hermann in his Elementa D. M. Lib. II. 
cap. 23— 

Negoti sibi qui volet vim parare, 

Navem et mulierem * haec duo sibi comparato, 

Nam nullae magis res duae plus negoti 
Habent, forte si occeperis exornare, 

Neque umquam sat istae\ duae res ornantur, 

Neque eis ulla ornandi satis satietas\ est. 

Atque haec ui loquor nunc domi § docta dico, 

Nam nos usque ab aurora ad hoc quod diei est 
Ex industria ambae numquam conctssamus || 

Lavari aut fricari aut tergeri aut ornari 
Poliri, expoliri, pingi, fingi, et una 
Binae singulis quae dalae nobis ancill(ae) H 
Ecu nos lavando, eluendo,** operam dedere (Ad-) 

-gerundaque aqua sunt viri duo defessi. 

Apagesisff negoti quantum in muliere\\ una est; 

Sed rero duae, sat scio, maximo uni 

Populo quoi§§ lube t plus satis </arr|||| poll's sunt. 

Quae nodes diesque omni in aetate semper 
Ornantur, lavantur, tergentur, poliuntur 

* Mulierem, pronounced mnlyerem ; duo, a monosyllable here and below 
in v. 13; sibi, inserted by Hermann, 
t Sat istae, Herm. The MSS. have satisbae. 
j Second Paeon in third place, unless we pronounce ihtyetai. 

$ The MSS. have modo for domi. || Contraction for concessavimus, 

ii Last syllable of ancillae cut off before eae. See also next line. 

** Eluendo, pronounced as a trisyllabic, etuvendo, and then we have a 
second Paeon in the third place, unless we pronounce opram. 
ft Ionic a minore. Pronounce millyere. 

§§ Ionic a minore, unless we read pof/o. 

1111 Second Paeon in third place. 

•Ill Ionic a minore in the fourth place, unless we pronounce pdyuntur. 

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There is a system of Tetrameters Acat. and Tetrameters Cat. in 
Men. V. vi. i — 

Spectamen bono servo id cst, qui rent herilem 
Procurat , vide/, collocat, cogitat, 

Vt apsente hero suo* rent heri diligenter 
Tutetur, quam si ipse assil, aut rectius : 

Tergum, quant gulam , crura, quam vcntrem, oportet 
Potior a esse, t quoi cor modesU situm est. 

Records tur id, qui nihili sunt,\ quid Hit's 
Preti de/ur ab suis heris, improbis 
Ignavis viris, verbera et compedes. 

Molae [magna] lassitude, fames, frigus durum. 

It will be observed that in these Catalectic lines the third and 
fourth feet are uniformly Bacchii. 

The following are regarded by Hermann as Bacchiac Dimeters 
Catalectic, while by Weise they are scanned as Dochmiacs : Pers. 
V. ii. 28 — 

Perge ut coeperas 
Hoc leno tibi 

* * * 

Delude ut lubet 
Her us dum hinc abest 
* * * 

Videsne ut tuis 
Dictis pareo. 

Bentley detected, or believed that he had detected, a few Bacchiacs 
in the Andria, III. ii. 1 — 

Adhuc, Archylis , quae adsolent quaeque oportet 
Signa esse ad salulem, omnia huic esse video. 

Nunc primum fac istaec lave/: post deinde 
Quod iussi et' dari bibere, et quantum inperavi 
Date, mox ego hue r ever tor. t) 

The first line presents no difficulty ; in the second we must scan 
es | se video | as a Bacchius ; in the third, deinde must be a trisyllable ; 
in the fourth we have the second Paeon in the and place. || But 

* Suo, a monosyllable. 

t Ionic a minore in first place, unless we pronounce pityora. 

J Ionic a minore in third place, unless we read nili. 

§ If the lines are really Bacchiacs, it is the only example of this class 
of verses to be found in Terence. 

|| Bentley seems to have supposed that any one of the Paeons was 
admissible in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th places, v. 1. s.c. 

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Priscian (p. 1326) takes a totally different view of these verses; 
“ Terentius trochaico mixto vel confuso cum iambico utitur in 
sermone personarum, quibus maxime imperitior hie convenit, quem 
puto ut imitetur hanc confusionem rhythmorum facere. Sunt autem 
trimetri ac plus minusque, et habent penultimam versus syllabam in 
quibusdam longam, et in quibusdam breve, ut in Andria." He then 
quotes the first four lines quoted above, and then goes on, “ Haec 
sequitur dimeter catalecticus finiendi sermonis causa, quem ad Ar- 
chillida habuit; 

Dale, mox ego hue revertor. 

Similiter Plautus in Truculento eodem metro usus est in sermone 
ancillae Astaphii ; 

Ad forts auscultate, atque asservate atdes, 

Ne quis adventor gravior abeat atque adveniat, 

Neu quis manus attulerit steriles intro ad nos, 

Gravidas fores exportet, navi ego hominum mores." 

The lines to which he refers in Plautus (True. I. ii. seqq.) are called 
by Weise Saturnian / 

We may now proceed to discuss in detail all the Bacchiac Verses 
in the Mostellaria. The peculiarities which these exhibit in their 
structure will, when explained, be sufficient to enable the intel- 
ligent student to examine for himself those which appear in other 

A number of Bacchiacs occur in Act. I. ii. t seqq., and these we 
shall give according to the arrangement of Hermann, noting the 
changes which he has introduced into the text, which are neither 
numerous nor important. It is to be understood that the whole of 
these lines are Tetrameters Acatalectic, except such as are specially 
noted as belonging to a different species — 

v. 1. Molossus in 2nd place. 

v. 2. Molossus in 1st and 3rd. Institui, the reading of the 
MSS., was changed by Reizius into institrvi, a form analogous to 
posivi, from pono. 

v. 3. Pure. 

v. 4. Pure, but the MSS. have earn rem volutavi , which scans 
equally well if we pronounce diu as a monosyllable, and make a 
Molossus in the 4th place : hence any change seems quite un- 

v. 5. A Trimeter Acat. with Ionic a minore in 1st, followed by 
two Molossi. 

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v. 6. Ionic a minore in ist and 3rd. 
v. 7. Iambic Dim. Cat. 

v. 8. Here we must pronounce similem, homirum , as stmlem, fiom- 
nem, the last syllable in stmlem being elided, and thus we shall have 
a pure Bacchiac Tetr. 
v. 9. Molossus in 3rd. 

v. 10. Molossus in ist and 3rd, simile being pronounced as simle. 
v. 11. A Trimeter Acat., with an Ionic in the ist, Bacchius in the 
and, and Molossus in the 3rd. Faciam is pronounced as facyam, 
and the last syllable elided; moreover, the MSS. have esse i/a. 
v. 12. Pure; the MSS. have i/a esse, 
v. 13. Molossus in ist. 
v. 14. Molossus in 3rd. 

v. 15. Iambic Dim. Cat., Mea being entirely elided before aliter. 
It will be observed that the arrangement of the words in lines 
>3. M> 15 is different from that found in B, as exhibited in our 
text of the play, but no change has been introduced in the words 

v. 16 (15). Molossi in ist and 2nd. 
v. 17 (16). Molossi in 2nd and 4th. 
v. 18 (17). Molossi in ist and and. 
v. 19 (18). Iambic Dim. Cat. — | v - | c/ - | - 
Then follow some Iambic, Cretic, and Trochaic lines, the Bacchiac 
measure being revived in 
v. 37 (36). Molossus in ist. 
v. 38 (37). Molossus in ist and 2nd. 

v . 39 (38). Molossus in ist, el being placed at the end of this 
line instead of at the beginning of the next, as in B. 

v. 40 (39). Ionic in ist, speciem pronounced specyem and populo 
as a dissyllable, poplo. 

v. 41 (40). Molossi in 2nd, 3rd, and 4th, ma/eriae being pro- 
nounced ma/iryae. 
v. 42 (41). Iambic Dim. Cat. 

v. 43 (42). Molossus in ist, expoliunt being pronounced expolyunl. 
v. 44 (43). Iambic Dim. Cat., followed by Iambic, Cretic, and Tro- 
chaic lines to the end of the scene. The lines 39-44 are arranged 
differently from B, but no change has been made in the words, ex- 
cept that Hermann has sibi sump/ui esse ducunt instead of ibi sumplui 
esse ducunl, and sump/u suo instead of suo sumptu. 

We find another series of Bacchiac Tetrameter lines in III. ii., 
extending from v. 94 to the end of v. 112 (in Vulg. 96-114), but 

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several of these cannot be scanned without conjectural emendations 
more or less violent — 

v. 94. Molossus followed by two Bacchii, but unless we pronounce 
the word congrediar as a trisyllable, and regard the line as Catalectic, 
we must have recourse to some such conjectural emendation as 
that proposed by W. and R., who read congredibor. 

'v. 95. Molossus in 1st. 

v. 96. As it stands the line is Catalectic, but the MSS. are in 
some confusion. 
v. 97. Molossus in 1st. 

v. 98. Considering the first syllable in lllic as short (of this we 
shall treat below), wc have here the first Paeon followed by three 

v. 99. Pure, but in that case we must lengthen the second syllable 
in erat. 

v. 100. Molossus in 1st. 

v. 1 01. Molossus in 1st. To avoid the hiatus R. reads hoc vtrbum. 
v. 102. The text rests upon the authority of A, C, and D. To 
scan we must pronounce / (iciest , and then we have three Bacchii 
followed by a Molossus. 

v. 103. This line is quite refractor)', even if we read potivi. R. 
corrects it thus — 

Ego hie esse et illi simitu haud potivi. 
v. 104. Molossus in 1st. 

v. 105. Cannot be scanned without correction; the most simple is — 
Age i duce me — Num moror — Supsequor le. 
v. 106. Molossus in and. 

v. 107. Cannot be scanned without corrections; the most simple 
are — 

Sed is maeslus est se hasce vendidisse, 

or — 

Sed ut maeslus est se hasce vendidisse. 
v. 108. Molossus in 1st. Philolacheti pronounced Ph/olache/i. 
v. 109. Pure. There is an hiatus between sibi and haud, but 
this can scarcely be objected to by the most fastidious, since there 
is a change of person. 
v. no. Pure. 

v. hi. Pure, the first syllable in redhibere being regarded as long. 
v. 1 1 a. Can only be scanned by resolving the last syllable of the 
Molossus in the 3rd place, domum traher’ ( w - w vj), or contracting 

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traher into one long syllable. The lines which immediately follow 
are confessedly in a mutilated state. At v. 119 a series of Troch. 
Tetr. Cat. commence. 

The Catalectic Tetrameter is sometimes found subjoined to the 
Acatalectic, as in Men. V. vi. 1, 

Spectamen bono servo id est qui rent heri/em, 

and so on to the end of v. 10. 

The following four lines, at the commencement of the fourth scene 
of the first Act, are set down by Weise as ‘ Bacchiaci,’ 

Advorsum venire mi hi ad Philolathem 
Volo temperi : audi : hem, tibi imperatum est. 

Nam illi, ubi fui, effugi for as : 

Ita me ibi male convivii scrmonisque taesum est. 

The first presents no difficulty if we change venire into veniri and 
Philolachem into Philolachetem, pronouncing Philo as one long syl- 
lable, Phlo. 

In the second line we can make out two Bacchii at the commence- 
ment and one at the end, but it is hard to squeeze Hem tibi imp 
into anything, unless we avoid elision, contract tibi into one long 
syllable, and call the result a Molossus. 

The third line has confessedly a Catalectic ending, and is mutilated 
in the middle. 

The fourth line presents us with six short syllables at the begin- 
ning, which may be conceived to result from the resolution of a 
Molossus, and then follow two Molossi and a Bacchius. 

C re tic Verses. 

The Cretic measure was extensively used by the Roman tragic 
and comic poets. The species generally employed was the Tetra- 
meter Acatalectic, but specimens of the Catalectic variety occur here 
and there, and Dimeters are not uncommon. 

The proper foot, as the name implies, is the Pes Creticus (- w -), 
and the following are pure Tetrameters — 

I licit res fbriis labitur liquilur. 

Ne arHUri dicti nostra arlitlrari queant. 

Nam dull non dbli sunt nisi dstu colas. 

Sed malum maximum, si id pd/am prdi’inil. 

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Either of the long syllables of the Cretic may be resolved, and in 
this way the fourth Paeon (w w w -) and the first Paeon (- w w w) 
become admissible, thus — 

Fourth Paeon in and, 

Musics hercle agifis ae/a/em i/a ut vos deed. 

Fourth Paeon in 3rd, 

Nos profecto probe ut voluimus viximus. 

Fourth Paeon in 1 st and first Paeon in 3rd, 

Duminus indi/igens reddere ftftas nevolt. 

But, in addition to these feet, the Romans (not the Greeks) admit 
the Molossus. This doctrine was first distinctly laid down by Bentley, 
in his notes on Cic. Tusc. III. 19, and Terent. Adel. IV. iv. a.* 

Examples are common — 

In 1 st and and, 

Vino et vXctu pisciitu probo electili. 

In 1st and 3rd, 

Prbcrsserunt i/a ut dices /acta baud nego. 

In 1st, 2nd, and 3rd, 

Venit navis nostras nav 7 i quae frangat ratem, 
where navis is to be pronounced as a monosyllable. 

Generally speaking, the Cretic vindicates to itself the 4th place, 
but even into this the Molossus and the fourth Paeon occasionally 
intrude, but not the first Paeon. 

According to what has been said the scheme of the Cretic 
Tetrameter Acat. will be — 

— U — 
\J — 
— • W W U 

There is another point connected with the scansion of Cretic 
Tetrameters which deserves special attention, viz., that the two halves 
are Asynartete, and thus the last syllable of the second foot may 

— Vw* — I — V/ — 
U U U — V V v — 

— WWW ! — WWW 

* It is admitted, somewhat grudgingly, by Hermann, with a qualification 
not very precise nor easily applied — “ qui pes tamen ita temperari solet, ut 
aut propter ambiguitatem mensurae non sit molossus, ut in Plauti Captivis 
II. i. 11 ; aut solutos sinat, quos argento emerit, vel ubi concede hue, secede 
hue, et similia retracto in primam syllabam accentu dicuntur ; aut a pro- 
nuntiatione accentum solum sequente obscuretur, ut in Rudente I. v. 15, 19, 
Quaene eiectae e ntari ambae sumtu , te opsecro 
Vl luo recipias tecto, servesque nos." 

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be long or short at pleasure, and a hiatus may be freely admitted ; 
thus Cas. II. ii. 29, 

Quin viro aut suptrahat || aut siupro invent r it ; 

and v. 16, 

Nec mihi ius rneum || opUnendi optio esl; 
and Rud. IV. iii. 1 2, 

Sed boni cons Hi || tcquid in te mihi esi; 
where suptrahat, ius meum, and consili, although each is followed by 
a vowel, stand for Cretics. In so far as the hiatus is concerned, we 
may remark that it is not unfrequently neglected in other parts of 
the verse. 

The following passage will afford a good example of the Cretic 
Tetrameter Acat. ; it is from Cas. III. v. 1 — 

Nulla sum , nulla sum ! Tola , Iota occidil 
Cor metu mortuom esl: membra miserac* tremunt, 

Ntscio unde auxili, praesidi, per/ugi 

Mi, aut opum copiam comparem aut expetam : 

Tanta factis modo mira miris modis 
Intu’ vidi, novam atque integram audaciam. 

Cavef tibi, Cleostrata apscede ab is la, opsecro, 

Ne quid in le mali /axil ita\ percita. 

The Cretic Tetrameter Catalectic occurs here and there in detached 
lines. Hermann arranges seven in succession in Trin. II. i. 17-23, 
but several of these cannot be scanned without conjectural emenda- 
tions; one presents no difficulty, and may serve as an example — 

Da mihi hoc, mel meum, si me amas, si audes ; 
see also what is said below on Most. I. iv. 

Cretics combined with Trochees. 

Lines are occasionally found in Plautus which belong unquestionably 

to the class of Cretics, but which terminate in a peculiar manner. 


* Fourth Paeon in 3rd place, unless we pronounce misrae. 
t Cave, a monosyllable, pronounced Cau. 
t Cleostrata, a trisyllable, pronounced Clostrata. 

$ Fourth Paeon in 3rd place, ha is a conjectural emendation, for the 
MSS. have ira, but it is not satisfactory. The next line, which concludes 
the speech of Pardalisca, seems to be a Choriambic Tetrameter Acat., — 
Eripite isti gladium quae sui est impos animi. 

k 2 

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The best example of a measure of this sort is to be found in 
Most. III. ii., where there is a system extending from the com- 
mencement of the scene down to the end of v. 37. Take the first 
half-dozen lines as a specimen — 

Melius anno hoc mihi non fuit domi, 

Nec quod una esca me iuverit magis. 

Prandium uxor mihi perbonum dedit; 

Nunc dor mi turn iubet me ire. Minume / 

Non mihi forte visum ilico fuit , 

Melius quom prandium, quam sole!, dedit. 

According to Hermann the lines consist of a Cretic Dimeter Acat., 
to which is subjoined a Trochaic Monometer Hypercat. These 
we should scan — 

Mi this ann’ \ hoc mihi || non fil\it dtlm |i 
Nec qudd tin' \ esed me || iuvir\it mdg\is 
Prandl’ tlx \ or mihi || perb 6 n\um did\it, 
and so on. There is a passage in the Bacchides, IV. iv. 4, where 
those verses which Hermann believes to be Trochaic Monom. Hyperc. 
are interspersed among Cretic Tetrameters Acat. — 
i>. 1. Callidum senem. 
v. a. Callidis dolis. 

v. 3. Compuli et perpuli mi omnia ut credcret. 

v. 4. Nunc amanti hero. 

v. 5. Film senis. 

l>. 6 . Quicum ego bibo. 

v. 7. Quicum edo et amo. 

v. 8. Fegias copias aureasque optuli. 

v. 9. Vl domo sumeret, neu for is quaererct. 

v. to. Non mihi isti placenl Parmencnes Syri. 

v. 11. Qui duas tres minas auferunt her is. 

where w. i, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 are Trochaic Monom. Hyperc.; w. 3, 8, 
9, to are pure Cretic Tetram. Acat.; and v. it, after which the 
measure changes, is composed of the Cretic Dim. with the Trochaic 
Monom. Hyperc. subjolhed, and may be considered as a Clausula. 
Others do not recognise any admixture of Trochees, but hold that 
such lines as 

Melius anno hoc mihi non fuit domi 
are complete Cretic Trimeters, followed by a Pyrrhich (the last 
syllable of the verse being common), which arises from the resolution 

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of the first long syllable of the Cretic, and thus the scientific name 
would be Cretic Tetrameter Brachycatalectic, while such lines as 

Callidis dolis 

are in like manner Cretic Dimeter Brachycatalectic. 

Although Cretic verses are extremely common in Plautus, they 
are very rare in Terence. An isolated line may here and there be 
picked out, as in Adel. IV. iv. i, 

Discrudor animi 

Hoccine ex improviso mali mihi obici, 
where Bentley has substituted ex for the MS. reading de. The only 
example of a continuous series is to be found in Andr. IV. i i, 
which are thus arranged by Bentley, the first being a pure Dactylic 
Tetram. Acat, and the nine following Cretic Tetram. Acat. — 

Hoccine credibile aul memorabi/e, 

Tanta vecordia irniata cuiquam ut siet, 

Vt malis gaudeant atque ex incommodis 

Alterius sua ut comparent commoda? ah 

Idne est verum ? into id esl genus hominum pessumum in 

Denegando, modo quis pudor paullum adest : 

Post, ubi tempus promissa iam perfici, 

Turn coacti necessario se aperiunl, 

Et timent: et tamen res premit denega- 
-Re, ibi turn corum impudentissima ora/io est. 


It is well known that the Hiatus is occasionally, although sparingly, 
admitted by the epic and lyric poets. We might have anticipated, 
a priori , that it would take place more frequently in familiar dialogue, 
and we are positively assured by Cicero that such was the practice 
of the older poets. When speaking of the tendency of the speech of 
the Romans to run together vowels, opposed to the practice of many 
among the Greeks, he goes on (Orator, c. 45), ‘ Sed Graeci viderint : 
nobis ne si cupiamus quidem distrahere voces conceditur. Indicant 
orationes illae ipsae horridulae Catonis, indicant omnes poetae praeter 
eos qui ut versum facerent saepe hiabant, ut Naevius, 

Vos qui accolitis Histrum /lumen, atque algidam 

Et ibidem 

Quam numquam vobis Graii atque Barbari 

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At Ennius semel 
Scipio irtvic/e . . 

Et quidem nos 

Hoc motu radia nil's Etc si at in vada ponli.’* 

There is no controversy that, in so far as the text of Plautus and 
Terence depends upon MS. authority, there is an immense number 
of cases in which elision is altogether neglected, that is, in which the 
last syllable of a word ending in a long or in a short vowel, in a 
diphthong or in the letter m, is not elided before a word beginning 
with a vowel, a diphthong, or the letter h. Weise refers to sixty-six 
“ indubitata exempla ” in the Amphitruo alone, and every play will 
furnish a large number. But notwithstanding this, not a few of the 
editors of Plautus, by changing the order of the words, by inserting 
or omitting monosyllables and ejaculations, or, when the more simple 
means fail, by bad and arbitrary conjectural changes, have con- 
sidered themselves entitled, at any cost, to force the verses of Plautus 
into accordance with the metrical rules observed by poets whose 
compositions are of a character totally different, and who flourished 
at a period when the language and the laws of versification had 
reached their highest point of cultivation and stringency. The first 
who undertook to satisfy the conditions of this self-imposed law was 
Pylades, of Brescia, who considered the simple explanation, “ metri 
causa,” a justification for any change he thought fit to introduce 
into the text, and many of his interpolations were adopted by his 
successors, and long maintained their ground. Others followed in 
the same direction until the work of destruction and reconstruction 
seems to have been pushed to its extreme limit by Bothe and Ritschl. 

Bentley, while admitting that the licence was frequently resorted 
to by Terence, endeavoured to establish a code of rules by which 
he supposed it to be defined and limited. These were — “ In his 
autem aliisque similibus tria sunt obscrvanda; numquam hoc fieri 
nisi in verbo monosyllabo ; quod vcrbum si in vocalem exit, oportet 
syllabam esse longam ; ictum denique habere in prima syllaba 
Anapaesti. Harum vero conditionum ignorantia quot nuper peperit 
crrores ? dum et in polysyllabis verbis, et in syllabis brevibus, et in 
aliena sede, posse fieri hoc existimabant.” 

It was soon perceived however by all who took an unprejudiced 
view of the subject that the boundaries here marked out were far 

* [See Ritschl, Prolog, p. cxcviii., who vainly attempts to get rid of the 
evidence afforded by this passage. — E d.] 

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too confined. In 1819 a tract was published by Lingius, afterwards 
Rector of the Gymnasium of Hirschberg, in Silesia, entitled De Hiatu 
in Versibus Plau/inis, written with great good sense and moderation, 
in which, after a careful examination, he endeavours to classify the 
different examples of hiatus found in Plautus, and to distinguish 
those which are common from those which are more rare, and to 
specify cases in which, according to his views, hiatus is altogether 
inadmissible. Although the limits which he assigns are so wide as 
•to comprehend a vast number of examples, and practically it will be 
found very difficult, if not impossible, to fix upon any limits at all, yet 
we shall have no difficulty in enumerating the different cases in which 
the licence, if we can call it so, is most common, and in which there is 
no reasonable ground for altering the text on this account alone. 

t. Long Monosyllables. In these elision is freely neglected. The 
long monosyllable may remain long, or may be shortened, as in the 
familiar Virgilian lines, 

Eel. VIII. 108, 

Credimus ? au qul arnant ipsi sibi somnia fingunt. 

Aen. VI. 507, 

Nomen et arma locum servant , li, amice, nequivi. 

Thus Most. I. i. 42, 71, 

Si /A || oles : neque superior quam her us ac cumber e, 

Molestus ne sis : nunc iam i rus, te || amove. 

Mil. II. vi. 88, 

Nae tu hercle, si te di || amant , linguam comprimes. 

Eun. V. viii. 50, 

Neque istum metuas ni || amet mulier : facile pellas, ubi veils. 
Phorm. Prol. 27, 

Quia primas partes qu\ || age/, is erit Phormio. 

Mil. IV. viii. 4, 

P. Quid vis? Pr. Quin {tu) iubes eeferri omnia quae || isti dedi. 
a. The Pen/hemtmeral Caesura in Iambic Trimeters. Hiatus is 
exceeding common in this place: thus Pseud. I. i. 24, 

Interprctari || alium posse neminem, 
which is the reading of all the MSS., including A. 

Rud. Prol. 7, 

Inter mortales ambulo || interdius. 

Most. I. i. 80, 

Video corruptum || ex adulescen/e oplumo ; 
so all the MSS. Stich. III. ii. 7, 

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M us tela murem || apstulit praeter pedes; 
so all the MSS., including A. 

3. The Hepthemimeral Caesura in lambic Trim. Hiatus is less 
common in this than in the Penthemimeral, but is by no means rare. 
Most. I. i. 38, 

Digue omttes perdanl : oboluisti || allium. 

Men. 111 . ii. 11, 

Prandi, po/avi, scortum accubui, || apstuli. 

Sometimes we find a hiatus both in the Penth. and the Hepth. irf 
the same line, e.g., Most. I. i. 20, 

Corrumpe herilem || adulescenlem || op/umum, 
where Pylades foisted in filium, and Ritschl nostrum after herilem , in 
order to bolster up the metre. Rud. III. vi. 21, 

Ego hunc series turn |j in ius rapiam || exulem. 

So also Merc. IV. iv. 1 5, 

Videre, amplecti || osculari || adloqui, 
where, if it were worth while, we might avoid the hiatus by writing 
amplectier and oscularier. 

We find in Trin. II. iv. 138, 139, two lines in succession which 
appear in all the best MSS. under the form — 

Nam f ulgur itae sunt alternae || ar bores 
Sues moriuntur angina || acerrume. 

In the former Camer. inserts hie after sunt, and is followed by W., 
while R. foists in ibi; in the second, Hermann has hie after angina, 
R. has illi, Lind, transposes and reads — 

Sues angina moriuntur acerruma, 

leaving the last syllable in moriuntur long, and in his preface quotes 
this as an example of this peculiar prosody. 

4. Wherever there is a distinct pause in the sense. Even Virgil 
thought himself justified in writing, Eel. II. 53, 

Addam cerea pruna : || honos erit huic quoque pomo. 

Et vera ineessu patuit Dea. || llle ubi matrem. 

Thus Capt. III. iii. 17, 

Nugas inept iasque incepso. || — Haereo. 

Cist. II. iii. 12, 

Age, perge, quaeso : || animus audire expetil. 

5. A fortiori when there is a transition in the middle 0/ a verse from 
one speaker to another : thus Merc. I. ii. 74, 

C. Qui potuit videre p || A. Oculis. C. Quo pacto ? || A. Hiantibus; 

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and Most. III. i. 55, 

D. Iam hercle ego illunc nominabo. || T. Euge ! strenue ; 
and again, ii. m (J09), in a Bacchiac Tetr., 

Vt istas remittal sibi. || Tu. I laud apinor. 

6. All exclamations, interjections, imprecations, and the like, are 
exempted from elision, as they are indeed from all the ordinary 
rules of prosody. Aul. II. viii. 22, 

Perii hercle t || aurum rapitur / aula quaeritur. 

Mil. IV. viii. 20, 

0 mei oculi! 0 mi animet P. Opsecro, tene mulierem. 

Most. III. i. 156, 153, 

Euge, oplume, eccum, aedium dominus forus ; 

so in I. i. 1, 

Quid tibi, malum, hie ante aedes clam alio esti 
Bothe, by a slight change, esl clamatio, gets rid of the hiatus after 
malum, but it is clearly unnecessary to introduce any change. 

7. We have already pointed out that Iambic, Trochaic, and Cretic 
Tetrameters must be regarded as Asynartete verses, and therefore it 
is unnecessary to notice, the hiatus which occurs again and again at 
the end of the 4th foot in these measures. 

We must repeat, however, that we would not confine the neglect 
of elision to the particular cases specified above. We would merely 
point out that it occurs frequently under these circumstances, and 
when encountered need excite no suspicion with regard to the 
genuineness of the text. 

Rule of Position. 

But after these obstacles have been cleared away, the chief 
difficulty remains untouched. As soon as scholars began to turn 
their attention to the metres of Plautus and Terence, they found 
a great number of lines which apparently could not be scanned" at 
all without violating the Rule of Position, which may be said to lie 
at the very foundation of Latin prosody. We shall quote several 
of these lines, selecting as examples those which belong to the 
kinds of verse whose structure is well ascertained, and in which 
there is no evident corruption of the text. 

Bentley, in his celebrated Schediasma de Metris Terentianis, admits 
the facts as in many cases indisputable, and points out that his 


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predecessors had endeavoured to escape from the difficulty by fol- 
lowing one of two paths — 

1. Either by correcting every passage in which they discovered 
a violation of their own metrical canons, and in this way — to use 
his own vigorous words — “ singulos fere versus miseris modis, ad- 
dendo, mutilando, invertendo, contra Codicum fidem, iugulant et 
trucidant ” — a description which applies very closely, not only to 
the persons indicated by Bentley, but to many modern editors, 
conspicuously to Bothe and Ritschl. 

2. Or else they lay down the broad principle that wherever a word 
occurs in Plautus and Terence, in which the quantity differs from 
that exhibited by the same word in the epic and lyric writers, it must 
be held that the dramatists merely represented the ordinary pro- 
nunciation of these words at the time when they wrote. If this doctrine 
be accepted in its full extent, it will supersede the necessity for all 
further inquiry, and we may freely make long syllables short, and 
short syllables long, and at pleasure extend or curtail the natural 
dimensions of words. Bentley, while rejecting this hypothesis as 
untenable and even ridiculous, urges that if it were true we should 
find at all events uniformity of practice with regard to the same 
words, while, on the contrary, it is notorious that the dramatists 
sometimes observe the ordinary prosody, and sometimes deviate 
from it, in the same word. Thus lilt, Esse, Propter, have the first 
syllable invariably long in the later poets; in Plautus and Terence 
they are apparently sometimes long and sometimes short. 

Bentley then proceeds to propound his own views. He admits 
that these departures from the ordinary rule must be regarded as 
a licence — “ Licentia certe erat ; et indigna forte, cui Romuli nepotes 
indulgerent ” — but a licence restricted within well-defined and nar- 
row limits: — 

r. That vowels naturally long are never shortened, but those only 
which being naturally short become long by their position before two 
consonants. According to this view, although matrts from mater 
could never have the first syllable short, simil/imus from simllis might 
have the second short. This rule may be true, but the number of 
examples is too limited to enable us to speak positively. 

2. The number of words which admit of such licences is small, 
and they are for the most part monosyllables, dissyllables, or com- 
pounds of these with prepositions. 

There is much truth in this observation, but the statement is not 
sufficiently qualified. It will be seen, from the instances given, 

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that several words which are not comprehended in the definition 
appear to violate the Law of Position. 

3. This we shall give in the words of Bentley, as he claims the 
doctrine as original: “ lllud tantum monebo, quod ante me opinor 
nemo — In primo fere versuum pede, et parcius alias, Licentiam 
hanc exercuisse Nostrum:* idque rectissimo iudicio: cum Actor, 
in fine prioris versus anima recepta, plenum rapidumque spiritum 
posset cfTundere.” He then quotes thirty -eight examples from 

Here again the observation, although just to a certain extent, is 
stated too strongly. There are many examples of this licence at 
the beginning of a line, but we cannot say that they are even com- 
paratively rare in other parts of the verse. The explanation seems 
altogether fanciful. 

We may now consider the opinion of Hermann, and this is 
deserving of the most careful study and the greatest respect on 
account of his profound scholarship, singular acuteness, and the 
special attention which he devoted throughout his long life to 
metrical topics. His views may be gathered from a number of 
passages in his great work, the Eltmenta Doctrinae Metricae , but 
they are distinctly and tersely enunciated in his Epitome Doctrinae 
Metricae, and seem to have undergone no change during the long 
period which elapsed between the publication of the first edition 
and the appearance of the third in 185a, the words in both (§ 79) 
being the same : — 

“ Apud Latinos duplex recitatio in usu fuit, una accentum max- 
ime vocabulorum et vulgarem pronuntiationem sequens, qua scenici 
veteres usi sunt, altera ad Graecorum exemplum conformata, quae 
ab Ennio primum in epicam poesin, Augusti aevo in omnia fere 
genera poeseos introducta est. Scenica ilia recitatio abundat cor- 
reptionibus, neque curat positionem, unde Hit, atque, Philippi , iuven- 
lulis et alia plurima correptis ante duplicem consonantem vocalibus 
pronuntiantur. Quin etiam vocales longas corripiunt, ubi ultima 
eliditur ut concede hue , secede hue." 

It will be observed that in the above passage a fact is stated and 
an explanation given. It is stated as a fact that the dramatists 
neglect the Rule of Position (this without limitation), and that they 
moreover in certain cases shorten vowels naturally long. The 
explanation proposed is that there were two modes of pronouncing 
Latin ; the one natural, national, and familiar to all ; the other 
* Sc. Tcrentium. 

1 2 

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foreign, artificial, and known only to the learned, introduced first 
by Ennius along with the Greek epic measure, and gradually adopted 
in poetical compositions until it became universal in the time of 
Augustus. Even if we accept this hypothesis it is clear that we do 
not advance one step in our inquiry, for the result is merely this — 
Certain syllables are long in the epic poets because they pronounced 
them as long, and the same syllables are found short in the dramatic 
poets because they pronounced them as short. But the objections 
to the hypothesis are so numerous and so obvious, that we feel sur- 
prised that it should have been seriously propounded by Hermann 
as affording a general solution of the difficulties encountered. In 
the first place, if there had been two distinct styles, the differences 
between them must have been much more numerous and more 
serious than anything we can infer from the prosody of the dra- 
matists. Secondly, since the supposition that a new pronunciation 
was introduced by Ennius must rest u|x>n the belief that such a 
change was necessary to give effect to the Dactylic Hexameter and 
other metres which he borrowed from the Greeks, it is inconceivable 
that the dramatists should, like him, have borrowed all their metres, 
or at least all their chief metres, the Iambic and the Trochaic, from 
the Greeks and adopted the Greek mode of scanning, while at the 
same time they retained a pronunciation which would have destroyed 
their rhythmical effect. Lastly, had there been a marked and well- 
defined distinction between the popular and what we may call the 
epical pronunciation, the dramatists would have adhered steadily to 
the former, and not, as is really the case, have resorted to it only 
occasionally, while in the great majority of cases they adopted the 

It will be seen that Hermann, in the passage quoted above, 
mentions cursorily the “ accentum vocabulorum ” as combined with 
and, we must suppose, forming part of the “ vulgarem pronuntia- 
tionem.” This leads us to say a few words u]>on the Latin accent, 
in which not a few' scholars imagine that they have discovered the 
true key to the metrical anomalies in the dramatists. Foremost 
among these is Lindemann, who, in an elaborate treatise, De 
Prosodia P/au/i, prefixed to his very' useful edition of the Captivi, 
Miles, and Trinummus, after adopting in a somewhat modified 
shape the views of Hermann with regard to a change in the popular 
pronunciation which, if not absolutely introduced by Ennius, was by 
him first fully established, thus goes on — “ Igitur Graeci sermonis 
et graecissandi consuetudo, quamquam cius non sunt immunes 

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scriptores antiquiores, tamen magis structuram occupat, quam pronun- 
tiationem et quae ei est coniunctissima, prosodiam ; minime vero in 
vulgus transierat, sed doctiorum hominum erat propria. Quapropter 
peculiarem quandam et litterarum appellationem et prosodiam re- 
perimus apud scenicos Romanorum poetas, quippe qui, tametsi 
ingruente iam Graeca consuetudine scripserint, ad volgi tamen aures 
se componere et communi sermone uti deberent.” * 

Now I would earnestly impress upon the young scholar, that the 
belief that we can employ the knowledge which we possess with regard 
to the accentuation of Latin words in any way whatsoever so as to 
explain or illustrate questions with regard to quantity, is an absolute 
delusion, and is moreover a mischievous delusion, because it is not 
only erroneous itself but tends to divert us away from a path which, 
although intricate, may possibly be threaded, into an inextricable 
labyrinth of fanciful conjectures. Although from the language held 
in the passage quoted above and adopted by others, we should be 
led to suppose that we were handling something real and substantial, 
a very few words will suffice to show that in following such researches 
we are in reality striving to grasp an airy nothing. 

1. Anything which we know with regard to the accentuation of 
Latin words is derived from the old grammarians, who state in 
the most specific terms that Accent and Quantity are perfectly 

2. The rules which they give for the determination of the accentt 
in each word are founded on the previously ascertained quantity of 
certain syllables in the word. To determine the position of the 
accent therefore from the quantity of certain syllables, and then to 
employ the accent as an instrument for determining the quantity of 
the same, or of other syllables in the same word, is altogether 
illogical, and in many cases amounts to a circular argument. 

3. Among much confusion and many discrepancies our ancient 
authorities are unanimous upon one point, that the accent in poly- 
syllables can fall only on the penultimate and antepenultimate. But 
Lindemann is obliged at the very outset to throw this canon over- 
board, and to carry back the accent in many words to the fourth 
syllable from the end of the word. 

4. In reality all the mistakes with regard to this matter have 
arisen from the loose manner in which the word “ Accent ” is 

* But see what Ritschl says on this subject, Prol. p. ccvii. 

t When we speak of accent we must be understood to mean the acute 
accent, for it is to this alone that any power is ascribed. 

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employed in our own language, and the corresponding Latin term 
A ccenlus by several continental writers. In popular language the 
terms Quantity , Accent , and Emphasis, although perfectly distinct, 
are frequently confounded, but all who employ precise and scientific 
language understand that Accent applies only to that elevation or 
depression of tone which correspond to what arc termed high and 
low notes in music. It is by the proper application of accent that 
we prevent reading or recitation from becoming monotonous, but 
this has no necessary connection whatever with the quantity of a 
syllable, which depends solely on the time that the voice dwells 
upon it in comparison with other syllables. 

But while several modem grammarians have vainly imagined that 
the quantity of a syllable might be influenced by the accent, Bentley 
introduced fresh complications and fell into the strange mistake of 
confounding the Acute Accent w'ith the Ictus Metrius, which has by 
some writers been most unfortunately termed the Metrical Accent. 
This phrase, Ictus Mctricus, it is now universally admitted, was em- 
ployed by grammarians to denote the stress which must be laid upon 
certain syllables in repeating verse in order that the rhythm of the 
measure may be made perceptible to the ear. In Dactylic verse 
the Ictus falls upon the first syllable of the Dactyl and of the Spondee; 
in Iambic verse, on the long syllable of the Iambus and the second 
syllable of the Spondee ; in T rochaic verse, on the long syllable of 
the Trochee and the first syllable of the Spondee. When feet are 
resolved, the Ictus maintains its place, and hence in Iambic verse the 
Ictus falls on the second syllable of the Tribrach, the second syllable 
of the Dactyl, and the last syllable of the Anapaest ; in Trochaic verse, 
on the first syllable of the Tribrach, the Dactyl, and the Anapaest. 
That the Ictus Metricus has not in itself any connection with quantity 
is evident from what has been stated above, that it falls according to 
the verse, sometimes upon the first and sometimes on the second 
syllable of the Spondee, on the first or second of the Dactyl, and on 
the first or second of the Tribrach. Of the two syllables of the 
Spondee, which are, in so far as quantity is concerned, equally long, 
the first receives the Ictus in Dactylic verse, and the second in Iambic 
verse, while one of the short syllables of the Dactyl has the Ictus in 
Iambics, and one of the short syllables of the Anapaest in Trochaics. 
That it has no connection with the Acute Accent or Accent proper 
is equally evident from the fact that in polysyllables the Acute Accent 
can fall only on the penultimate or antepenultimate, while in innu- 
merable instances the Ictus must fall upon the last syllable. Bentley 

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saw this difficulty very clearly,* and was obliged to have recourse to 
the strange and gratuitous hypothesis that this rule, with regard to the 
accentuation of the last syllable, was enforced in the second dipode 
of an Iambic Trimeter, but might be freely neglected in the first and 
third dipode, but he is obliged to admit that even these limits, wide 
as they are, will not embrace every case, and that examples occur, 
even in the second dipode of a Senarian, where the last syllable of 
a polysyllable must receive the Ictus. 

To show that we are not misrepresenting the views of this great 
but rash scholar, we give his very words : — 

“ Totum autem hoc, quod de Ictu in ultimis syllabis cantum fuissc 
diximus, de secunda tantum Trimetri tlnroita capicndum ; nam in 
prima et tertia semper licuit ; siquidem ista sine venia conclamatum 
actumque erat de Comoedia Tragoediaque Latina. Cum igitur hunc 
versum similesque apud nostrum videris, 

Malum quod isli di deaeque omn/s duint, 

cave vitio id poctae verteris ; etsi Malum illud et Omnes si in 
communi quis sermone sic acuisset, deridiculo fuisset. Nimirum 
aures vel invitae patienter id fe rebant, sine quo ne una quidem 
in fabula scaena poterat edolari. * * * * In secunda igitur 

Trimetri SmoSuf hoc de quo agimus non licebat. * * * * 

Rarissime igitur, semel atque iterum, sed magno sententiae lucro, 
admisit hoc in Trimetris Terentius; 

Persuasit nox amor vinum, adolesccniia 
Scelesta mem lupo eommisi, dispudet. 

Nam illud 

Nosse omnia haec salus est adolescen/iius 
in hac editione Sa/u/e est." 

Hence we find, in every page, solo, ducturdm , habSl, homini, 
corrumpi, commutaturum, or the like. It must be understood there- 
fore that these marks, which distinguish Bentley’s edition, and which 
have been adopted by several recent editors of Plautus and Terence, 

* Indeed, he himself quotes the leading passages from the ancient 
grammarians in which it is laid down, as a positive law, that in poly- 
syllables the penultimate and antepenultimate alone admit the acute 
accent — “Illud sane in lingua Latina notabile, ne unum quidem verbum 
praeter Monosyllaba tonum in ultima habuisse. Drum igitur, Firum M/um 
Tuum priore licet brevi pronuntiabant, numquam nisi in Versu Deum , 
Pirum, Me Um % Tuum." It is to be observed that in not one of the passages 
referred to by Bentley is there the slightest indication of the limitation 
he would insist upon. 

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indicate nothing except that the syllables over which they are placed 
receive the Ictus Metricus or are In Arsi; and there can be no 
objection to their use, since they frequently guide a young scholar 
to the proper scansion of the line, although the object would be more 
fully attained if the quantity of each syllable were marked according 
to the practice followed in some editions of Caesar and other ‘ First 
Reading Books,’ for the use of those commencing the study of the 

But although we must regard the views of Bentley, of Hermann, 
of Lindemann, and their followers, as untenable, taken as a whole, 
it by no means follows that we must give up the inquiry in despair. 
Many of their remarks are most just and valuable, and will prove 
of the greatest service, if we pursue the investigation according to 
a rational system. Two things arc essential — 

1 . We must not form a theory founded upon a limited induction, 
and then insist upon forcing reluctant facts into accordance with it; 

2. We must carefully collect all those words which present ano- 
malies in quantity, and then endeavour to ascertain whether they 
form an incongruous heap, or whether they admit of being, to a 
certain extent at least, grouped and classified. If we succeed in 
classifying them, we may, lastly, proceed to inquire whether there 
is any principle which will serve to explain our difficulties. 

We may begin by what may be called a natural arrangement ; 

1. Words in which the vowel is apparently shortened before a 
consonant at the end of the word followed by a consonant at the 
beginning of the next word. 

2. Words in which a vowel is apparently shortened before two 
consonants in the same word. 

3. Lastly, we may consider the case of those vowels or syllables 
which, although not affected by the Rule of Position, exhibit in the 
dramatists a quantity different from that assigned to them by the 
practice of later writers. 

To class 1 belong the following words, the last syllables of which 
seem to be occasionally, many of them frequently, left short before 
a word beginning with a consonant: A pud, Amor, Bonus , Caput, 
Carum, Colos, Domus, Enim, Fores, For as, Her us, Manus, Malus, 
Minas, Miser, Modus, Nimis, Pater, Potest , Quidem, Senex, Simul, 
Soror, Tamen, Volunt. 

Under class 2 are ranked the following words, the last syllables 
of which seem to be occasionally, many of them frequently, left short 

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before two consonants which follow in the same word ; est, esse, 
eccum, Vie, isle, Ipse, inde, unde, intur, 'inter, nempe , (minis, and some 

In the above and other words of a similar character many metrical 
scholars have maintained that there was an evident violation of the 
Rule of Position, and scanned lines in which those words occur, as 
if the last syllables in apud, amor, &c., were short, and so also the 
first syllables in esse, eccum, &c. 

But another solution of the difficulty has been proposed, which we 
have no hesitation in adopting, viz., that all the words given above 
were occasionally, in familiar conversation, pronounced * corrcptim;’ 
that is, the first syllable was almost entirely suppressed in enunciating 
the word, and thus the dissyllables were transformed into mono- 
syllables. Much may be said in favour of this view. 

1. It will be seen that, with very few trifling exceptions, all the 
changes made by the Roman poets upon words are in the direction 
of contraction. 

2. It will be observed that all the words enumerated in class i 
are dissyllables, having the first short, and that in the greater number 
the short vowel is followed by a liquid, so that there would be little 
difficulty in pronouncing them in a syncopated form without de- 
stroying the sound of the word. Some of these words must be 
pronounced ‘ correptim,’ even when position is not involved. 

3. Those in class 2 are all words which recur perpetually 
in dialogue, and are exactly the kind of words which would be 
abbreviated in conversation. 

4. We can find abundance of analogies in our own language, 
some of them completely in point. 

5. If we pass to foreign languages we shall find that the same 
holds good with respect to them. 

6. If we trace the passage of certain of these words into the 
Romance language we shall perceive that many of them were 
adopted in an abbreviated form, thus affording an indication at 
least that in the popular dialect such abbreviations were common. 

Now before proceeding to give and discuss examples of the two 
classes of metrical anomalies we have just mentioned, it is necessary 
to call attention to the fact that even the epic and lyric writers of the 
Augustan age assumed the right of modifying the form or pronun- 
ciation of certain words which must otherwise have been altogether 
excluded from their measures, or which, in their ordinary shape, 
would have been productive of embarrassment. These changes have 


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been comprehended by grammarians under the general title of 
Poetical Licences. Without stopping to inquire into the strict pro- 
priety of this term, we should expect that all the ‘ licences ’ found 
in the epic and lyric poets would present themselves in the dra- 
matists, and we need feel no surprise if they exceed those of the 
later writers both in number and boldness. 

i. The letter I. Since the character i was employed to denote 
both a vowel and also a consonant, which, it is probable, had the 
sound of an English y, the Augustan poets permitted themselves 
occasionally to give it the force of a consonant in certain words in 
which it properly represented a vowel. Thus the words, abietibus , 
parietibus, which as quinquesyllables, with the first four short, would 
be inadmissible in Dactylic verse, were pronounced and scanned 
as quadrisyllables, abyetibus, paryetibus, the first syllable being now 
made long by position. So also, without the plea of absolute 
necessity, we find fluvyorum, abyegnae, as trisyllables, and such 
combinations as const ly'et (for consilium et), principy hue (for prin- 
cipium hue), and a few others. 

In the same way in Plautus we have such contractions as 
diu; Most. 1 . ii. 4 (Bacch. Tetr.), 

Earn rem volulavi, el diu disputavi, 

(but diu in v. 1), and in Epid. II. iii. 40; dies, Trin. II. iv. 180 

Dies constituatur; eadem haec confirmabimus ; 
die (dat. for diet'), in IV. ii. 1 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Huic ego die nomen Trinumo faciam, nam ego operam meam; 
die totally elided in True. V. 15 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Numquam hoc uno die efficiatur opus quin opus semper siet ; 
hbdie in Stich. V. ii. 6 (Senar.), 

Me hbdie venturum ut cenam coquerem temperi; 
and so Pers. II. v. 13; quoiusmodi. Most. III. i. no (106) (Senar.), 
Ain tu aedes? Aedes inquam, sed scin quoiusmodi; 
it's, Capt. III. iv. 23 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Quibus insputa ri saluti fuvit atque its pro/uit; 
alios, Most. I. iii. 23 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Qtutm i'ero cutpari aut meam speciem altos inridere 
(so the MSS. ; Tylad. has alios meant speciem ) ; mulieris is a 

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trisyllable {=mulyefis) in Most. I. iii. 13 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), where 
all the MSS. have, 

Non vestem amatores amani mul ten's sed vestis far turn. 

Pylad., Bothe, and R. have re-written the line in various ways: I 
would scan it, 

Non vest\em ama\tores | amani || mvfyirV | sed ves \ti' far\/um. 

In verbs, Ritschl allows that sew in all its parts, and also nescio, &c., 
admit synizesis freely ; ais and ait may be monosyllables, and aibam 
in all its persons a dissyllable. Such forms as audibam, &c., he 
regards as grammatical rather than metrical, and with these excep- 
tions he lays down a canon that, in the case of verbs (as in the case 
of nouns, with the exception of diu, dies, and trium), the letter 1 
never forms a synizesis with any vowel following it in the more 
regular metres, but only in Octonarians and Anapaests. But we 
have an undoubted instance of sarriuht in Capt. III. v. 5 (Senar.), 

Nam semper occant priusquam sarriuht rustici, 

which R. would attempt violently to get rid of by substituting sariunt, 
a form unheard of elsewhere. So ambiuht, Mil. I. 69 (Senar.), where 
all the MSS. have, 

Molestiae sunt, orant , ambiunl, opsecrant. 

In the same manner R. vainly endeavours to get rid of eveiuat, Trm. 
I. ii. 3 ; eveniaht, Most II. i. 48 ; provenidht, v. 67 ; substituting the 
forms evenat, evenant, provenant, for what is in each case the reading 
of all the MSS. Expoliuht occurs Most. I. ii. 42. 

2. The letter V. In like manner the character v being employed 
to denote a vowel and also a consonant, which, it is probable, had 
the sound of the English w, we find tenuia, tenuius, converted into 
lenwia, tenwius, and, without the plea of necessity, genua, curruum, 
tenues, &c., become genwa, eurwum , temves, &c. 

Again, without any reference to the exigencies of verse-making, 
there was a tendency in the language to drop altogether the v when 
it occurred between two vowels, and to contract the vowels into one 
syllable ; thus instead of movibilis, movimentum, iuvenior, noviter, 
providens, we have mobilis, momentum, iunior, nuper, prudens, & c. ; 
while in verbs the double forms amaverunt, amarunt ; amaveram, 
amaram; audivi, audit', and the like, are employed indifferently. 

Thus in the dramatists, wherever v is found between two vowels 

m 2 

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in such words as arus, avis, oris, navis, novus, & c , the two syllables 
may be contracted into one: thus Bac. IV. vi. 27 (Senar.), 

Bene navis agitatur, pukre haec confertur ratis; 

Aul. IV. vii. 3 (Senar.), 

Fac meniionem cum avonculo, mater mea; 

Asin. I. iii. 65 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Arcs adsuescunt. Necesse esi facere sumptum qui quaerit lucrum, 
where aves is a monosyllable and necesse esi a dissyllable; II. ii. 105 
(Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

J fox quom Saurcan imitabor edveto ne succenseas, 
w here caveto is pronounced cauto. 

There is a curious passage in the Truculentus, III. ii. 15, where 
Stratilax enunciates cavillator as caullalor, and Astaphium ridicules 
him for his pronunciation, 

S. Heus lu, iam pos/quam in urbem crebro commeo, 

Dicax sum f actus : iam sum cavillator (i. e. caullalor) probus. 

A. Quid id est, amabo > Istaecce ridicularia 

Cavillationcs vis fortasse dicere. 

S. Ita, ut pauxillum dijferanl a cari/lulis (i. e. caululis or 
caulibus, 1 cabbages ’). 

The well-known story in Cic. Div. II. 40 serves to illustrate the 
popular pronunciation of cave. There was a town in Caria called 
Caunus, famous for its figs, which were imported into Italy and 
hawked about, the cry used by the vendors being Cauneas l When 
Crassus was embarking his troops at Brundusium, previous to his 
fatal campaign against the Parthians, he encountered one of these 
itinerant dealers, and Cicero says it might be urged by the super- 
stitious that if he had been warned by the omen he might have 
escaped destruction ; Cauneas and Cave ne eas being, it would appear, 
identical in pronunciation. 

So with the word inventus ; Amph. I. i. 2 (Iamb. Tetr. Acat.), 
luvehlutis mores qui sciam, qui hoc noctis solus ambulcm, 

where we must pronounce Iwentutis or Iuntulis, not, as some would 
have, Iilvintatis ; in Cure. I. i. 38 (Senar.), 

luvehiute el ptieris liberis; ama quid lubet, 

luventute is a trisyllable, ama a monosyllable ; in Most. I. i. 29 

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Quo nemo adaeque iuventute ex omni Attica, 
there is no correption, as indicated by Weise, but an Anapaest in 
the 3rd place. 

Obliviscendi is a quadrisyllable in Mil. IV. viii. 49 (Troch. Tctr. 


Muliebres mores discendi obliviscendi stratiotici ; 
divitias a trisyllable in Rud. II. vi. 58 (Senar.), 

Ibi me corruere posse aiebas divitias. 

With regard to the line Merc. Prol. 29, 

Inhaerct etiam avidi/as, desidia, iniuria, 

which is sometimes referred to as an example of v dropped, it is 
scarcely possible to scan it as it stands, and Pareus is probably 
right when he proposes to omit etiam altogether. 

The example of avo contracted, quoted from Aul. Prol. 5, depends 
upon an unnecessary change in the reading of the best MSS. In 
Amph. IV. iii. 16 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Seu patrem sive avom videbo || optruncabo in ae dibus, 

we may either consider avom as a monosyllable, or sive as a mono- 
syllable and totally elided. A good example of avos as a monosyllable 
occurs in Men. Prol. 44 (Senar.), 

El ipsus eodem est avos vocatus nomine. 

3. But this shortening or contraction takes place in the middle 
of many words without the presence of the letter v. Thus aspero, 
circulos, manipulus, gubernaculo, oracula, saecula, pericula, vincula, 
laminae, and many others become aspro, circlos, maniplos, gubernaclo, 
oracla, saecla, pericla, vinda, lamnae. This takes place most fre- 
quently when a short vowel in the middle of a word is separated 
from another vowel by a liquid, as in the above examples ; but this 
is by no means a necessary condition, for we find caldior for calidior, 
puertia for pueritia, unversum for universum, calfadt for cale/acit, 
and Quintilian I. 6, tells us that in his time cal/acit was more 
common than cale/acit. 

4. Other contractions. When e is followed by another vowel in 
the same word, it frequently coalesces with it in dactylic verse, 
generally, though not uniformly, from necessity. Thus we have aurea, 
alvearia, eadem, eaedem, respondeamus, acrei, aranet, ferret, alveo, 
aureo, eodem, eosdem. 

So also 00 is contracted in such words as cooluerint, ebbperiani. 

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Those cases in which /' precedes a vowel, vindemiator, omnia, denariis, 
connubio, omnium, in/erius, &c., may be regarded as provided for in 
the remarks made above on the letter i. 

The following words in the comic writers always appear under 
a contracted form : as monosyllables, dein, deht'ne, proin , praeut, quoi; 
as dissyllables, antehac, anteit, coire , delude, (deineeps,) dear sum, proinde, 
quoniam, sear sum; as trisyllables, introire, praeoplare. 

As examples of the letter e coalescing with a vowel following, we 
may take the various cases and genders of is, meus, idem : thus 
we have id in Poen. Prol. 2 (Senar.), 

Inde mi print ipium capiam ex ia Iragoedia ; 
ei, Trin. Prol. 14 (Senar.), 

Quoniam ei, qui me aleret, nil video esse re/icui 
(where A and all the MSS. have reliqui ) ; and v. 15, 

Dedi ei meam gnatam quicum aelatem exigat ; 
and again, I. ii. 138 (Senar.), 

Vtrum indicare me Fi thesaurum aequom fuit; 
cum, v. 81 (Senar.), 

Quin cum restituis, quin ad frugem corrigis; 

Fae, Most. III. i. 157 (148) (Senar.), 

Videndumst primum utrum ide velintne an non vetint ; 
corum, Trin. I. ii. 178 (Senar.), 

Ego de eorum verbis famigeraiorum inscius; 

Fas and duds, III. iii. 43 (Senar.), 

Duos ids nos consignemus quasi sin / a pa Ire; 
iodem, Mil. III. i. 18 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Sed volo scire Fodem consilio quod in/us medilati sum us ; 

Tadcm and dies, Trin. II. iv. 180 (Senar.), 

Dies constituatur, eadem haec confirmabimus ; 
meant, I. ii. 127 (Senar.), 

El meam fidelitatem et ce/a/a omnia; 
meum, v. 137 (Senar.), 

Quod fuit officium meum me facere, fac sciam; 
and Most. III. i. 60 (56) (Senar.), 

Beatus vero es nunc quom c lamas. Meum pelo; 

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meo, Trin. I. ii. 44 (Senar.), 

Ne admittam culpam ego nub sum promus pectori; 
and Mil. I. 1 (Senar.), 

Curate ut splendor meo sit clupeo clarior; 
meae, Most. III. i. 23 (19) (Senar.), 

MitAo | ne tech\nae meae \ perpitil\d perl\erlnt. 

Deus also occurs as a monosyllable: Trin. I. ii. 19 (Senar.), 

Deos oro ut vitae tube supersles suppetat; 

Asin. IV. i. 37 (Senar.), 

Deuni nullum : si magi’ religiosa fuveril; 

Most. III. i. 154 (Senar.), 

Di te dedeque omnes funditus perdant, senex. 

Rei is a monosyllable, Trin. I. i. 16 (Senar.), 

Remoramque faciunt ret privatae et publicae. 

The possessive pronouns tuus, suus, are frequently contracted by 
the dramatists: thus we have suds and tubs in Mil. I. 12 (Senar.), 
Neque aequiperare suds vir lutes ad tubs; 

tub is entirely elided, and tin a dissyllable, in Aul. IV. iv. 27 (Troch. 
Tetr. Cat.), 

Tuo arbitratu nequi lui me quicquam invenisti penes ; 
tubs, Mil. I. 40 (Senar.), 

Novisse mores tubs me meditate decet; 
luum, entirely elided, Trin. III. ii. 49 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Si istuc conare ut nunc /act's indicium luum incendes genus; 
tubs, tut, Stich. II. ii. 4 (Troch. Tetr. Acat.), 

Tubs inclama lui delinquent : ego quid me relies visebam; 
slum, suam, Trin. I. ii. 73, 74 (Senar.), 

Siibmque fi Ham esse adultam virginem 
Simul cites matrem TuSmque uxorem mor/uam; 
tuae, v. 80 (Senar.), 

Qui tube mandatus esl fidei et fiduciae; 
sub, v. 1 17 (Senar.), 

Ft cm me opsecravit sub ne gnalo c rede rent; 

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suum, v. 1 19, 

Nunc si ills hue salvos rei'tnit rtddam suum sihi. 

The letter u coalesces occasionally with the vowel following in the 
words duo quatuor; both forms, duos and duos, occur in the same pas- 
sage in Most. III. ii. 147 (145) and 149 (147) (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 
Viden pictum uhi ludificatur comix una volturios duos i 
Cornix as/a/, ea volturios duos vicissim vcllicat; 

so Trim III. iii. 45 (Senar.), 

Duds eas nos consignemus quasi sint a patre; 

True. II. ii. 52 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Quisquam homo mortalis posthac duarum rerum creduii; 

Poen. IV. ii. 75 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

De praedone Siculo. M. Quart Ii I S. Duodeviginti minis. 

M. Duds illas duodeviginti ? S. Et nutricem earum tertiam, 
where we must pronounce duas as a monosyllable : duodeviginti may 
in each line be regarded either as a sexsyllabic or quinqucsyllabic 
word : in the one case the first three syllables will form an Anapaest, 
in the other a Spondee; Most. III. i. 121 ( 1 1 7) (Senar.), 

Quatuor quadraginla illi debentur minae. 

In Men. I. iii. 22, 23 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Qudtuor minis ego emi istanc anno uxori meae 
Quatuor minae perierunt plane, ut ratio redditur, 
it will be observed that quatuor is a trisyllable with the first 
syllable long. 

Fuit is a monosyllable True. II. i. 7 (Iamb. Tetr. Cat.), 

Dum fuit, dedit : nunc nihil habet: quod habebat, nos habemus. 

We have thus seen that the principle of synizesis, of which we find 
occasional examples in the writings of the Augustan poets, was em- 
ployed to a far greater extent, and in a much bolder manner, by the 
early dramatists. But Ritschl, while in his eagerness to establish the 
purity and correctness of the metres of Plautus he would deprive 
him of those licences in which the most fastidious versifiers have 
indulged, is in some particulars willing to grant him an amount of 
license from which the most careless would have shrunk. In sup- 
port of the theory that the dramatists were in many cases indifferent 
to the Rule of Position, he adduces a number of examples to prove 
that such words as perlstromala, expaplllalo, sab Hites, supt/lix, trapezita, 

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Phi/ippus, and others, must be considered to afford instances of the 
violation of that rule. We shall examine in detail the most remark- 
able of these examples, and show how insufficient is the evidence 
they afford to support the theory that has been built upon them. 

The word peris/roma/a occurs twice : 

1. In Stich. II. ii. 54, upon which nothing can be founded, for 
the MSS., including the Palimpsest, are in the greatest confusion. 
The Vulgate, which is due to Camerarius, 

Turn Babulonica peristromata, consu/aque tapetia, 
may be readily scanned as a Troch. Tetr. Cat. without doing violence 
to the obvious quantity of peristromata. Weise has — 

Turn Babulonica peristromata, conchuliata tapetia, 
which may also be scanned as a Troch. Tetr. Cat. by pronouncing 
conchylyata. Ritschl has — 

Turn Babylonica peristromalia conchyliala tapetia, 
which is less plausible than either of the preceding. 

2. The second example is in Pseud. I. ii. 13, 

Vi ne peristromata quidcm aeque pic/a sinl Campanica. 

Here the MSS. present no important variation, and the Vulgate, 
W., and R. acquiesce in the same reading. Editors have regarded 
this as a Troch. Tetr. Cat., in which case it is impossible to scan it 
without considering that the three first syllables of peristromata form 
an Anapaest ; but the line may be scanned without difficulty and 
without violating the ordinary rules of quantity as an Iambic Tetra- 
meter Aca/alectic, and it cannot be objected that an Iambic verse is 
here intruded into a series of Trochaics, for the measure in this 
passage changes in almost every line, and Iambic Tetrameters 
immediately follow the verse in question. According to the arrange- 
ment of W., we have from the commencement of the scene — 

v. 1-5. Tetr. Spondiaci Acat. 

6. Dimeter Creticus. 

7-9. Cretici Tetram. 

10. Iamb. Tetr. Hyperm. 

11, 12. Troch. Tetr. Acat. 

13, 14. Troch. Tetr. Cat. 

15-29. Tetram. Iamb, partim Acat. partim Cat. partim Hypercat. 

There is nothing therefore startling or unnatural in supposing that 
v. 14 is an Iamb. Tetr. Acat. instead of Troch. Tetr. Cat. 

Another example quoted is the word expdpillu/o, found in Mil. I V. iv. 4 4 , 
Id connexum in humcro taevo cxpapitlato brachio, 

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where it is to be observed that elision is neglected in the division of 
the verse after latvo. Nonius, p. 103, refers to this very line: " Ex- 
papillato brachio, quasi usque ad papillam renudato. Plautus Milite 
glorioso: id, connexum in numero let'o, expapitlaio brachio;” and the 
expression expapiUato brachio is acknowledged by Paul. Diac., p. 79 : 
“ ExpapiUato brachio, exserto : quod quum fit, papilla nudatur.” 
But on the other hand expapiUato appears in not one of the best 
MSS., all of which seem to have had cxfafillato brachio, and this in 
one of the interpolated family appears as cxpalliato brachio. More- 
over, Paul. Diac., p. 83, has, “ Effafilatum, exsertum, quod scilicet 
omnes exserto brachio sint exfilaii, id est, extra vestimentum filo 

Now while we are free to repudiate the etymological explanation, 
we can scarcely avoid the conclusion that there existed a phrase, 
effafilato brachio, which was equivalent to exserto brachio, and it seems 
highly probable that the word effafilato, having become obsolete at 
an early period, was explained by grammarians by the more obviously 
intelligible expapiUato, and thus the latter found its way into the text. 
It would be contrary to the natural and usual process to suppose 
that expapiUato, with regard to the force of which there would be no 
doubt, would be changed into the forgotten effafilato. The conjecture 
of O. Muller, that fafila in old Latin was equivalent to fibula, is very 
plausible; reading therefore, 

Id connexum in humero laevo effafilato brachio, 

we can scan the line without difficulty, supposing the quantity of the 
verb to be either fiifilo or fd/ilo; the meaning will clearly be, ‘ The 
arm being thrust out beyond (or below) the buckle.’ 

Again, with the word satellites. This word is found in Mil. I. 78, 
with its proper quantity, 

Age eamus ergo — Scquimini, satellites, 

but R. is disposed to allow the second vowel to remain short before 
the double U, and pronounce satellites, relying on Trin. IV. i. 14, 
one of a series of Trochaic Tetrameters Acatalectic. He prints — 
Distraxissent disque tulissent satellites tui miserum foede, 
whereas all the MSS. have — 

Distraxissent disque tulissent satellites tui me miserum foede, 

and me seems to be required by the idiom of the language. Under 
this shape the line is impracticable, and hence Hermann reads — 
Distraxissent disque tulissent tui satellites me foede, 

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transposing tui and omitting mistrum , which will make all smooth. 
Moreover, it will be found that much confusion prevails in this por- 
tion of the scene, and that various violent changes and transpositions 
are necessary in order to maintain the system in its integrity. Hence 
obviously we may pronounce that there is in reality no authority for 
satdlites. In VVeise’s text we find the reading of the MSS., and he 
calls the line a Troch. Tetr. Cat., but how he proposes to scan it 
I cannot tell. 

The word supdlex in the nominative occurs in Aul. II. v. 17, 
Men. II. iii. 53, V. ix. 96, Pers. IV. viii, 2, Poen. V. iii. 27, in all 
of which we may adhere to the quantity of sApellex, as found in 
Virgil, Propertius, Horace, and Juvenal, although some of the MSS. 
and earlier editions, including the Vulgate, uniformly write suppdlex. 
But two passages, in which the word appears in oblique cases, 
present a difficulty. In Poen. V. iii. 26 (Senar.) we have — 

Taceatque parct muliebri supdlcctili ; 
and in Stich. I. ii. 5 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Iam quidem in suo quidque loco nisi cril mihi situm supelkctilis , 

where the Palimpsest and the Vet. Cod. Caraer. have quicque ; the 
Cod. Decurt. and the best Vatic., quiqiu ; the Cod. Lips., quoqut ; 
the Ed. Princ., quaeque ; the Cod. Lips., si/a ; the Palimps., the Cod. 
Lips., and the Ed. Princ., suptllcctilis ; the two Pall, and the Vat., 
suppellectilis. Moreover, Festus (p. 294) and other grammarians 
recognise supdlcc/ilis as a form of the nominative. 

This being premised, if the two lines as given above exhibit the 
genuine text, then the word supdlcc/ilis must undergo some modi- 
fication. According to the views of R. it will belong to the same 
category as that in which he has placed expapll/alo and sa/elli/es, 
and may be scanned as supellec/His ; a less violent mode of escaping 
from the difficulty would be to sink the second syllable and to pro- 
nounce suplcctilis. But neither expedient is necessary. As to the 
first example (Poen. V. iii. 26), we may avoid all embarrassment 
by a simple transposition — 

Tact a/que muliebri pares supdlec/Hi ; 
in the second (Stich. I. ii. 5), the rhythm of which is so harsh that 
R. proposes to re-write the line, we may, without violence to the MSS., 
consider supdlectilis as a nominative, and write — 

lam quidem in suo quaeque loco nisi erit mihi si/a supclledilis, 

the corruption having in all probability originated in some early 

n 2 

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transcriber, who was not acquainted with suptlbctilis as a form of 
the nominative. 

Trapezita. Goeller, Lindemann, and Ritschl would allow the 
second syllable in Trapezita to be short, on the authority of Trin. II. 
iv. 23 (Senar.), 

Trapezitae milk drachumarum Olympicum, 
in which they suppose the first foot to be an Anapaest. B has 
drachumarum ; C, D, E, draheumarum ; but A has the common 
form drachmarum. But although the first syllable in drachma must 
be long, it by no means follows that the first syllable in drachuma 
is also long; on the contrary, we should be justified in asserting 
that it must be short, for the Greek hpaxun is naturally short, and 
accordingly being followed by the aspirated mute x and the liquid p 
appears as short in Aristop. Plut., 884, 

Thv iaierbXiov rovSi Trap E vid/iov ipiixpijt. 

Hence all difficulty as to the scansion of the above line vanishes, and 
it is unnecessary to have recourse to the expedient of pronouncing 
mille as a monosyllable. In other passages of Plautus trapezita has 
uniformly its proper quantity, e. g. Asin. II. iv. 32, Capt. I. ii. 90, 
II. iii. 89, Cure. II. iii. 62, 66, III. 36, 50, IV. iv. 3, V. ii. 20, 
iii. 34, 43, Pseud. II. iv. 67. 

Phi/ippus, Philtppeus, Philippics. The case of these words is 
peculiar, and demands special notice. They occur upwards of 
thirty times in Plautus with reference to gold coin, and in every 
instance, except perhaps one, to be noticed below, the two first 
syllables are to be pronounced as one — Ph/ippus, Phlippeus. (Phi- 
lippeus however does not occur in nominative sing.) This cannot 
be accidental, but must have resulted from the ordinary pronun- 
ciation of the word, for the form Philipps would be quite as ser- 
viceable in an Iambic or Trochaic line as Phlippus. Again, Philippeus, 
Phi/ippeo, Philippei, &c., seem sometimes pronounced as trisyllables, 
Phlippeus, & c., but more frequently as dissyllables, Phlippeis, &c., 
never as tetrasyllables, PMlippeiis. Philippicum occurs once only, 
and must be pronounced Phlippicum. Thus Poen. I. iii. 6 (Senar.), 
Trecenlos Philippos Collubisco villico ; 

Bac. IV. ix. 83 (Senar.), 

Pol baud derides, nam ducentis aura's 
Philippi's redemi vi/am ex flagitio tuam; 
viii. 27 (Senar.), 

Kune nisi ducenti Philippi redduntur mi hi ; 

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Poen. I. i. 38 (Senar.), 

Trectnti numi Philippei — Sexcenti qiinque, 
where Philippei is a dissyllable ; Cure. III. 70 (Senar.), 

Solidam, faciundam, ex auro Philippeo, quae siet, 
where Philippeo is a dissyllable ; Trin. IV. ii. 113 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

An ille lam esse t s/ul/us, qui mihi mille numum crederet 
Philipptum, quod me aurum deferre iussil ad gnatum suum, 

where Philipptum is a dissyllable; Asin. I. iii. 1 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 
Vnumquodque istorum verbiim numis Philipptis aurcis, 

where Philipptis is a dissyllable. But on the other hand, Poen. III. 
iv. 4 (Senar.), 

Trectnti numi qui vocanlur Philippei, 
where Phlippei is a trisyllable; Trin. I. ii. 115 (Senar.), 

Nemo esI—Numorum Philipptum ad tria millia, 
where Philipptum is a trisyllable. We find Philippicum in True. V. 
60 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Hem tibi talenlum ar genii ! Philippicum est, lent libi, 

where Philippicum must be pronounced Ph/ippicum. The only 
example of the word Philipptis , employed to denote a piece of 
money, being a trisyllable, is in Poen. III. v. 36 (Senar.), 

Qui ad te treccntos modo Ph'tlippos detulit, 
but the word modo is wanting in some of the MSS., and is probably 
the interpolation of a transcriber to complete an imperfect line. 

But when Philippus or Philippa are proper names, either the full 
or the contracted forms may be employed. Thus in Aul. IV. viii. 4 
(Senar.), it is a trisyllable, 

Ego sum ille rex Philippus ! O lepidum diem ; 

but in I. iii. 8 (Senar.), it is a dissyllable, 

Philippum regem aul Darium, trivenefica ; 
and also in Pers. III. i. 1 1 (Senar.), 

Mirum quin regis Philippi causa aul Attali. 

PKiVippa is found in Epid. V. i. 29 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

E Philippa matre na/am ac Thebis, Epidauri satam. 

For other examples of Philippus, &c., as a coin, see Bac. II. ii. 52, 
IV. ii. 8, viii. 38, 41, 78, ix. 10, 74, 103, 127, Trin. IV. ii. 117. 123. 

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V. ii. 34, Poen. III. ii. 22, iii. 57, iv. 22, v. 26, V. vi. 26. The 
following are in Anapaestic lines: Bac. V. ii. 64, Mil. IV. ii. 69 (72). 
The line, Bac. II. iii. 38, cannot be scanned as it appears in the 
MSS. The reading of Rud. V. ii. 27 is very doubtful. 

Ex. There are some passages quoted from Plautus in which 
the syllable ex appears to be short in the words exemplum, rxigere, 
and excrcitus. 

For exemplum we are referred to Rud. II. iii. 40 (Iamb. Tetr. Cat.), 

laclamur cxemplis plurimis miserae perpetuam nodem. 

But iactamur is an unskilful conjecture by Scheider; all the MSS. 
have — 

Iadatac exemplis plurimis miserae perpetuam nodem, 

which presents no difficulty either in metre or construction, for 
iadatae is here equivalent to iadatae sumus. 

Exigere is quoted from Trin. IV. iii. 46 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Si mage exigere cupias duarum rerum exoritur optio. 

All the MSS. have si mage ; A, F, have exigere ; B, C, D, E, have 
ex genere ; A has coapias-duarum ; all the rest of the MSS. cupias 
duarum. Since the verb exigere and its tenses occur in at least 
twenty passages in Plautus with the ex long, and this is a solitary 
example on the other side, this is precisely one of those cases in 
which a slight transposition may fairly be resorted to, and all difficulty 
removed by reading — 

Mage si exigere cupias duarum rerum exoritur optio. 

There is yet another method of avoiding the supposition that lx 
is shortened. Magis being one of those words which may be pro- 
nounced as a monosyllable, mage may be altogether absorbed, as not 
unfrequently takes place in sibi, tibi, scio, mea, cum, & c. 

Exercere and its tenses, excrcitus and its cases, occur nearly forty 
times in Plautus, and in three of these exercitum and exercitu appear 
to have the first short. It is to be remarked that the whole of these 
examples are in the Amphitruo, and two of them within a few lines 
of each other in the Prologue — a portion of the play which contains 
a number of metrical licences within a short compass, and with 
regard to the genuineness of which some good scholars have enter- 
tained grave doubts. The passages arc as follows: — 

Excrcitus. 1. Amph. Prol. 125 (Senar.), 

Qui cum Amphitruonc abiit hinc in exercitum. 

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where the difficulty may at once be removed by introducing, as 
proposed by Bothe, indu, the old form of in. 

2. v. 140 (Senar.), 

Kune hodie Amphitruo venitt hue ab exercitu. 

Bothe maintains that as hie and hoe pronouns are of doubtful 
quantity, the same holds good in the earlier poets with regard to 
hie and hue adverbs, although this is opposed to the dictum of the 
grammarians. If we have a choice of difficulties, few will hesitate 
to make hue short rather than ixercitu. 

3. I. iii. 6 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Std ubi summits imfxralor non adest ad exercilum. 

W. gets rid of the difficulty by proposing to read eserei/u, but 
unfortunately there seems to be no authority for this form. I would 
suggest that the true reading is — 

Sed ubi summits impercitor non adest exercitu, 

where exercitu is the dative. Some half-learned transcriber mistook 
this for exercitti, i. e. exercitum, and then the ad was inserted to 
complete the construction. 

Weise, in his Index (first edition), gives four additional examples 
of exe reitus with the ex short, all of them from the Amphitruo. 

1. Prol. 102 (Senar.), 

Is prittsquam hinc abiit ipsemet in exercitum, 

where the line scans perfectly with a Spondee in the fifth place and 
a Tribrach in the fourth. 

2. I. i. 245 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Qui cum Amphitruone hinc una iveram in exercitum, 

where \V. leaves the last syllable in iveram unelided, and supposes 
the first in exercitum to be short. It is quite as simple to suppose 
that cum is not elided, in which case the line scans easily with an 
Anapaest in the sixth place. 

3. II. ii. 1 01 (Troch. Tetr. Cat), 

Neque meum pedem hue inluli etiam in aedes, ul cum exercitu. 

There are several ways in which the line may be scanned without 
shortening the first in exercitu : pedem may be pronounced as a 
monosyllable, and then totally elided ; or hue may be taken as short ; 
or we may leave cum unelided ; or we may resort to a simple trans- 
position, and read Neque pedem meum. 

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4. V. ii. 7 (Senar.), 

Tu gravidam item fecisti, quom in exercitum, 
where quom is not elided, and then the fourth foot is a Dactyl. 
Accepisti seems to occur in Trin. IV. ii. 122 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 
Vel trccentis — Haben tu id aurum quod accepisti a Charmide ? 

This seems to be the reading of the MSS., and if retained would in- 
volve the shortening of Accepisti; but a case of this sort fully justifies 
a simple transposition ; read therefore with Hermann — 

Vel trecentis — Haben tu aurum id quod accepisti a Charmide i 

which is more natural and obvious than the emendation of R. 
W. retains the Vulgate without remark. 

Gabirnabunt is quoted from Mil. IV. ii. 99. Even supposing the 
line to form one of an Anapaestic system, the measure is avowedly 
loose and irregular. W. says, in his Index, ‘ gubernabuni correptim.’ 
Argenti is quoted from Capt Cat. 3 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Nec pueri suppositio neque argenti circumductio, 
which I would scan by pronouncing neque as a monosyllable, and 
then eliding it altogether; again, in Cure. V. ii. 15 (Troch. Tetr. 

Quod argentum, quas tu mihi tricas narras ? quam tu virginem ? 

quod, like quid, must be suppressed.* See other examples in the 
Index of W. under quod est. 

Astutia, apparently in Capt. II. i. 53, 

Memoriter meminisse, inest spes nobis in hac astutia. 

So the Vulgate. There is a difficulty in the scansion, which Linde- 
mann removes by reading hac in Astutia. Bothe has nobis huic 
astuliae. [If for inest we substitute est, there would be no difficulty. 
— Ed.] 

Fenestra seems to occur in the following passages : Rud. I. i. 6 

Illustriores fecit fenestrasque indidit ; 

Cas. I. 44 (Senar.), 

Quid facies ? — Concludere in fenestram fir miter ; 

* [Would not this line be scanned more simply by transposing tu, 
and reading — 

Quod tu argentum, quas mihi tricas narras f quam tu virginem f 

— Ed.] 

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Mil. II. iv. 26 (Iamb. Tetr. Cat.), 

Nee fenestra nisi clatrata. — Nam certo ego te hie in/us vidi, 
where W. reads nee, R. neque, without remark ; Ba has fenetra, A and 
all the Test, fenestra. Clatrata or clathrata is a conjectural emendation ; 
A has neque clarata; all the rest, nisi clarata. We learn however 
from Macrobius, S. III. 12, that there was an old Latin word festra 
used by Ennius, the precise meaning of which was a subject of dis- 
cussion in the age of Cicero, and which was interpreted to signify 
ostium minusculum, while Paul. Diac. p. 91, ed. Mull., says expressly, 
“ Feslram antiqui dicebant quam nos fenestram Muller in his note 
says, “ Corrupte Placidus, p. 464: Frestram, fenestram,” and refers to 
Doederlein, Syn. et Etym., Tom. VI., p. 127, q. v. Feslram is quoted 
from Petronius also, Frag. xxi. 6, but there it is a conjectural emen- 
dation for festam of the MSS. There can be little doubt therefore 
that Bothe was fully justified in substituting festra for fenestra in the 
passages quoted above. The word festra or fenestra does not, ap- 
parently, occur elsewhere in Plautus. 

1 nvidia , Ingenium. We have a line in Terent. Andr. I. i. 39 (Senar.), 
Sine invidia laudem invenias, et atnicos pares, 
where B. “ Cetcrum invidia primam hie corripit ut pote positione 
tantum longam : sono literae / hie exili : adde quod in primo versus 
pede maior concessa sit licenlia. Sic ingenium primam corripit, 
III. i. 8 ” (Senar.), 

Bonum ingenium narras adulescentis — Optumum. 

The true explanation is the same in both cases; sine and bonum 
being words which may be pronounced as monosyllables, are in these 
passages altogether elided. 

Intro. The following examples of Intro have been quoted : Aul. 

III. iii. 3 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Ite sane nunc iam intro omnes et coci et tibicinae, 
but it is much more simple to regard iam as a monosyllable elided 
before intro ; II. viii. 22 (Senar.), 

Nimirum occidor nisi ego intro hue propero currere, 
but even thus the line will not scan unless we read ni for nisi or sink 
ego altogether. Gulielmus and others, relying upon a MS., insert 
propere before propero, thus transforming the line into a Troch. Tetr. 
Cat., but the whole of this scene is composed of Senarians. Stich. 

IV. i. 29 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Deos salutatum atque uxorem rnodo intro devortor domum. 


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So the MSS. Guyetus and R. get rid of the difficulty by transposing, 
and have intro modo. 

We occasionally find violent transgressions of quantity depending 
upon a single example; thus Aul. III. v. 42, 

Strophiarii adstant , adstant semizonarii, 

where, if we retain the Vulgate, we must shorten the two first 
syllables in semizonarii. Nothing is more likely than that a cor- 
ruption should be found in this passage, where there is a long string 
of strange words invented apparently for the nonce. Bothe has pro- 
posed a simple emendation — 

Strophiarii slant, slant semizonarii, 

but the word semizonarii itself is very doubtful. 

[Having thus shown that little or no reliance can be placed on 
the above examples as affording evidence that the early dramatists 
had no scruple in violating the Rule of Position, wherever it suited 
the exigencies of their verse to do so, we will proceed to give a few 
examples of lines containing one or other of the two classes of anoma- 
lies referred to above, p. lxx, and which we have sufficiently indicated 
are in our opinion to be scanned by the process called ‘ correption,’ 
that is, by slurring over and running together two syllables into one, 
rather than by an indiscriminate neglect of the fundamental Law of 
Position. — Ed.] 

I. Under class 1, consisting chiefly of dissyllables with a short 
penultimate, we may instance the following : — 

Apud must be pronounced as a monosyllable in Epid. III. iv. 14 

Memorant apud reges armis arte duellica, 

where it will be observed that the two first syllables of duellica suffer 
synizesis ; again, in Amph. III. ii. 66 (Senar.), 

Vt quae apud legionem vota vovi si domum. 

Other instances will be found in Capt. I. ii. 90, Cure. II. iii. 66, Most. 
I. iii. 141. 

Enim is a monosyllable Trin. I. ii. 23 (Senar.), 

Namque enim tti credo mihi imprudenti obrepseris. 

So the MSS.; Camer. has numquam enim, and R. corrects nempe 
enim. In Trin. I. iii. 77 (Senar.) we have both enim and nimis as 

Ila faciam — At enim nimis longo sermone utimur. 

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Magis occurs as a monosyllable in Capt. IV. ii. i (Bacch. Tetr. 

Quanto in peclore hanc rem meo magis votuto; 

and in the same manner we have magis/ratus as a trisyllable in 
Rud. II. v. ao (Senar.), 

Magistrate si quis me hanc habere viderit. 

Cf. Amph. Prol. 74. Epid. IV. ii. 22 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.) has been 
quoted as an instance of magister as a dissyllable, 

Epidicus ntihi fuvil magister. Perii, plaustrum perculi; 

but observe that if we read fuit and pronounce it as a monosyllable, 
there will be no necessity for pronouncing magister ’ correptim.’ 
Manus seems to be a monosyllable in True. V. 9 (Troch. Tetr. 

Mane vetat priequam penes sese habeat quicquam credere ; 

while in Trin. II. ii. 10 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.) we have manu, manus, 
and habent all as monosyllables, 

Quod manu nequeunt langere tantum fas habent quo mane 

Tamen is shortened in Stich. V. iv. 20 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 
famen ludere inter m>s strategum te facio huic convivio. 

Potest also occurs as a monosyllable; Pseud. II. ii. 38 (Troch. 
Tetr. Cat.), 

Potest ut alii i/a arbi/ren/ur, et ego ut ne credam tibi ; 

so all the MSS., including A; R. has potis ut. Bac. III. iii. 75 
(Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Nullon pacto rds mandata potest agi nisi ide'ntidem ; 

so W. and R. accent it, but if we have a Dactyl in 4th and neglect 
the division we may give to potest its usual form. True. IV. ii. 42 
(Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

R/din An non l A. Redeum, sed vocal me, quae in me pie potest 
quiim poles, 

where we have vocal as well. Trin. III. iii. 2 (Senar.), 

Potest fieri prorse quin dos detur virgini; 

so the MSS. ; B. and R. have pote. Stich. I. ii. 64 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Qui potest mulieres vitare, vile l, ut quotidie ; 

O 2 

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so A and the MSS. ; Li. and R. have pole, Scalig. poll's. Trin. II. 
ii. 71, 

Quandoquidem nec tibi bene esse poles pati tuque alien ; 
here, according to R., A has pole ; the rest of the MSS., poles. In 
Poen. I. iii. 35 the Vulgate has — 

Opus esl coniedore qui Sphingi interpres fuit, 
in which case opus esl must be a pyrrich ; but the old reading is the 
true one, 

Opus coniedore esl qui Sphingi interpres fuit, 
i. e. op it coniedore. 

Of senex as a monosyllable we may quote the following exam- 
ples:— Aul. II. iv. 1 6 (Senar.), 

Senex opsoiutri filiai in nupliis ; 

Epid. I. ix. 3 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Animi causa. Corium perdidi: nam seiux ubi senserit ; 

Cas. Prol. 35 (Senar.), 

Senex hie maritus habitat : eii esl filius ; 

IV. i. 4 (Senar.), 

Seni nostro el nostro Olumpioni villico; 

v. 6 (Senar.), 

Senex in culina c/amal, hortatur cocos ; 

Rud. Prol. 35 (Senar.), 

Senex qui hue A them's exul venit baud malus ; 
while senedus and senec/a arc dissyllables in the following : — Trin. 
II. iii. 7 (Senar.), 

Suae seneduti is acriorem hiemem para/ ; 

Most. I. iii. 6o (Iamb. Tctr. Cat.), 

Bum Ubi nunc hacc aetalu/a esl, in senec/a male querere. 

Sedens is shortened into one syllable in Bac. I. i. 14 (Troch. Tetr. 


Poleris agere ; atque, is dum venial, sedens ibi opperibere, 

where the MSS. vary between sedens ibi and sedens hie; we have 
also sedenlarii, Aul. III. v. 39, 

Sedentarii su/ores, diabathrarii ; 

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and vetustate, Poen. III. iii. 87, 

Yetustate vino edentu/o aetatem irriges. 

Of volo and its derivatives we have vo/un/, Pseud. IV. i. a (Troch. 
Tetr. Acat.), 

Turn me et Calidorum servatum volunt esse el lenonem ex tine turn ; 
so all the best MSS., except that B. has serv/um; R. and others 
‘correct’ it. Voles, Cist I. i. 48 (Iamb. Tetr. Cat.), 

Necesse est, quo tu me modo voles esse, i/a esse, mater; 

Both, ‘corrects’ by transposition. Volun/a/e, Trin. V. ii. 42 (Troch. 
Tetr. Cat.), 

Si id mea voluntate factum est, est quod mihi succenseas. 

The second est, which is required both by the metre and the idiom, 
is wanting in the MSS. and was supplied by Camer. ; R. and W. 
both read as above. Stich. I. ii. 2 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Nee voluntate id facere meminit, servos is habitu baud probust, 

where there is no important variation in the MSS. Yoluptabilem, 
Epid. I.i. 19 (Iamb. Tetr. Acat.), 

Yoluptabilem mihi tuo advenlu attulisti nuncium. 

The Vulgate is different, but so the best MSS. Voluptariis, Mil. III. 
i. 46 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Neque dum exarui ex amoenis rebus et voluptariis, 
Voluptarii, Men. II. i. 34 (Senar.), 

Voluptarii atque potatores maxumi. 

Voluptarios, Rud. Prol. 54 (Senar.), 

Eat in Siciliam : ibi esse homines voluptarios. 

Voluptarium, Poen. III. ii. 25 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Liberum ut commons traremus tibi locum et voluptarium. 
Voluptas , Most. I. iii. 92 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Omata ut siem quom hue venial Philolaches voluptas mea ; 

Mil. IV. viii. 36 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Hominem, perii, sumne apud me ? Ne time, voluptas mea. 
Voluptalum, Pseud. I. i. 67 (Senar.), 

Harum voluptalum mi omnium a/que i/idem tibi. 

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Examples abound. The word however is found under its natural 
form also, e.g. vbluptas, Men. II. i. i, 

Voliiptas nulla est navilis, Messenio. 

Tibi and sibi are occasionally pronounced as monosyllables and 
altogether absorbed before a word beginning with a vowel : Amph. 
II. ii. 86 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Amphitruo, speravi ego istane libi pari/uram filium, 
where Lind, reads parturam; V. i. 36 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Omnium primum tibi Alcumena geminos peperi. t filios ; 
ii. 1 (Senar.), 

Bono animo es: adsum auxilio Amphitruo tibi et tuis; 

Bac. II. ii. 10 (Senar.), 

Sa/ulem tibi ab sodali solidam nuntio ; 

Mil. III. iii. 15 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Ea sibi inmorlalis memoria est meminisse et sempiterna ; 

Aul. Prol. 32 (Senar.), 

Sibi uxorem poscat : id ea faciam gratia. 

II. Next, we shall give a few examples of lines containing words 
ranked under class 2, in which a vowel appears to be shortened 
before two consonants in the same word, but which are in our 
opinion to be scanned by the method of correption above explained. 

Esse seems to be a monosyllable in the following : Bac. IV. ix. 
144 (Senar.), 

Curatum est esse te senem omnium miserrimum. 

So all the MSS.: R. has Cura turns l esse te. Asin. V. i. 10 (Troch. 
Tetr. Cat.), 

C redam istuc si esse te hit arum videro. A. An tu esse me 
tristem putasi 

ii. 5 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Artemona si huius rei med esse mendacem inveneris ; 

Aul. II. iv. 36 (Senar.), 

Censen vero adeo esse par cum et misere vivere; 

Mil. IV. iii. 25 (Senar.), 

Dicas uxorem tibi necessum esTe ducere, 
where esse may be considered equivalent to 'sse; True. I. i. 65 (Senar.), 

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Quern inf es turn ac odiosum sibi esse memorabat mala, 
where sibi is elided altogether. 

Jnest is a monosyllable in Mil. III. i. 38 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Inest in hoc amussilata sua sibi ingenua indoles, 

where there is no doubt as to the reading. So is est, Trin. III. ii. 
71 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Is es t honos homini pudico meminisse officium suum, 

where however we might get rid of the difficulty by a simple trans- 
position, Is honos es/; II. iii. 73 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Is es/ immunis quoi nihil est qui munus fungatur suum. 

This line occurs in a long unbroken system of Troch. Tetrameters, 
and so there can be little doubt as to the measure. Observe however 
that the line might be scanned as an Iamb. Tetr. Acat., and the same 
remark applies to the preceding line. 

Adest (according to the other view, Odes/) is quoted from Trin. 
Prol. 3, 

Adest, en, illae sunt aedes. I intro nunc iam. 

So Hermann ; but as the MSS., including A, have hem for en, the 
example is not satisfactory. Bac. IV. ix. 63 (Iamb. Tetr. Acat.), 
Nunc superum limen scinditur / nunc adest exitium Ilio. 

Weise quotes True. V. 28 and Cas. II. iii. 30 as instances of ades, 
but neither example is satisfactory. 

Quid est must be pronounced as a monosyllable in Rud. IV. iv. 1 6 
(Troch. Tetr. Cat), 

Quid est de qua re li/iga/is nunc inter vos f T. Eloquar. 

In Most. I. i. 66 (Senar.), 

Quid est f quid tu me nunc optuere, furcifer f 

if we pronounced optuere, then quid est must be a monosyllable ; but 
if we take the form optuere, quid 1st will form an Iambus. Cist. V. 1 
(Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Quid hoc negoti est quod omnes homines fabulantur per viam ? 

Quid is absorbed in Most. IV. iii. 20 (iv. 20), where the Iamb. Trim, 
begins with — 

Quid a Tranione servo ? 
so Trin. II. ii. 36 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Quid exprobras ? bene quod fecisti ; tibi feci'sti non mihi . 

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So ail the MSS., including A; B. omits quid, Cure. I. iii. io (Troch. 
Tetr. Cat.), 

Pa/inure, Palinure. P. Eloquert, quid est quod Palinurum voces i 
Epid. IV. ii. i (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Quid est, pater, quod me excivisti ante aedes i P. Vt matrem tuam. 

Of inde as a monosyllable we may give the following examples : 
Amph. I. L 4 (Iamb. Tetr. Acat.), 

hide eras e promptuaria cella depromar ad fiagrum; 

Aul. II. vii. 4 (Senar.), 

Inde coclum sursum subducenms corbulis ; 

Pers. III. i. 66 , 

Dabunlur dotis tibi inde sexcenti logi, 
where we have the choice of absorbing tibi or of making inde a long 
monosyllable; Capt. I. ii. 25 (Senar.), 

Inde me continuo recipiam rursus domum ; 

Poen. Prol. 2 (Senar.), 

Inde mi principium capiam ex ed tragoedia ; 

V. iii. 34 (Senar.), 

Inde porro ad puteum, atque ad robustum codicem. 

So unde, Cist. II. iii. 19 (Senar.), 

Vnde tibi talenta magna viginti pater ; 

Trin. I. ii. 182 (Senar.), 

Vnde quidque audi/um dicant : nisi id appareat ; 

Poen. Prol. 109 (Senar.), 

Vnde sit, quoiatis, captane an surrep/a sit; 

V. ii. 95 (Senar.), 

Vnde sum oriundus. H. Di dent tibi omnes quae velis. 

Three examples are quoted of per'mde with the penultimate 
syllable short: Pseud. II. i. 4, where the metre is very doubtful; 
Stich. I. ii. 43. 

Per inde habetis quasi pracsenles sint. P. Pudici/ia est, pater, 

where A has proinde , although the rest of the MSS. have per inde ; 
Hcaut. I. ii. 21, 

Atque haec perindc sunt ut i/tius animus qui ea possidet, 

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which is to be scanned as an Iamb. Tetr. Acat., and presents no 
difficulty. It is not pretended that any example can be found of 

Inter must be pronounced as 'nter in Amph. IV. iii. i (Troch. 
Tetr. Cat.), 

Vos inter vos is/aec partite : ego abeo : mihi negotium est; 

Capt. III. iv. 84 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Nunc ego inter sacrum saxumque sto, nec quid faciam scio; 

Cist. I. i. 54 (Iamb. Tetr. Cat), 

Equidem hercle addam operam scdulo , sed quid tu inter islaec verba, 
where we have a choice between ’nter and 'staec. 

So interim. Cure. IV. i. 85 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Sed interim fores crepuere r linguae moderandum est mihi ; 

Stich. V. iv. 33 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Sed interim, slratege nosier, cur hie cessat canlharus l 
Most. V. i. 45 (iL 30) (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Ego interim hanc aram occupabo. T. Quid ita ? Tn. Nut lam 
rem sapis, 

Illc is a monosyllable, Trin. I. ii. 100 (Senar.), 

Ilk qui mandavit eum ex/urbas/i ex aedibus; 
and so illic and illuc, III. i. 82 (78) (Senar.), 

Quod illuc est faenus, opsecro, quod illic petit i 
and v. 87 (83) (Senar.), 

Quid ais tu i quid vis i quis illuc est i quid illic petit f 
and again below, Quod illuc argentumst. 

Ipse as a monosyllable occurs rarely; we have in Cure. I. iii. 14 
(Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Ipse se excruciat, qui homo quod amat, videt, nec potitur dum licet; 
Epid. I. i. 45 (Senar.), 

Ipse mihi mandavit, ab knone ut fidicina, 

where the MSS. vary, but all give at the beginning either Ipse 
mandavit or Ipse mihi; Amph. I. i. 259 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Et ipsus Amphitruo optruncavil regem Plerelam in praelio, 
where ipsus =’psus. 


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Nempe occurs as a monosyllable, Pseud. I. iii. 124 (Troch. Tctr. 

B. Fakor. C. Nempe concepts verbis. B. Eliam consul Us quoque ; 

IV. vii. 92 (Troch. Tetr. Cat), 

Meo peculio empta. B. Nempe quod fcmina summa sustinet; 

Mil. II. iii. 66 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Nempe tu istic ais esse her Hem concubinam f S. Atque arguo; 

III. iii. 32 (Iamb. Tetr. Cat), 

Nempe ludificari miliiem tuum herum vis. P. Elocula es; 
v. 48, (Iamb. Tetr. Cat.), 

Nempe tu novisli militem, mum herum f A. Rogare mirum est. 
Other examples may be found in Cas. III. iv. 9, Aul. II. iv. 15, 
Epid. III. iv. 13, Trin. II. ii. 51, iv. 25. 

Eccum is found, Rud. III. v. 25 (Senar.), 

Ehem, optume edepol, eccum, clavator advenit ; 

Stich. IV. i. 71 (Troch. Tetr. Cat), 

Atque eccum tibi lupum in sermone ! praesens esurieru adesi. 

Sed eccum forms a Spondee, Pers. I. iii. 3 (Senar.), 

Sed eccum parasitum quoius mihi auxilio est opus: 

Pseud. IV. ii. 10 (Troch. Tetr. Cat), 

Sed eccum, qui ex incer/o faciet mihi quod quaero certius. 

Omnis and its cases seem to be monosyllables (=’mnis) in the 
following : Mil. I. 55 (Senar.), 

Quid tibi ego dicam quod omrus mortales sciunt ? 

Trin. I. ii. 41 (Senar.), 

Quia omrtes bonos bonasque adcurare addecet, 
but here, as elsewhere, quia may be sunk; III. i. 20 (Troch. Tetr. 

Quoi tuam quom rem credideris sine omni cur a dormias; 

Rud. I. i. 5 (Senar.), 

Ita omnes de tec to deturbavit tegulas; 

V. i. 5 (Iamb. Tetr. Cat.), 

Ita omnes mortales si quid est mali lenotti gaudent ; 

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Mil. HI. i. 66 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Lepidiorem ad omnet res, ntc qui amicus amico sit magis ; 

Cist. V. i (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Quid hoc negoii est quod omnes homines fabulantur per viam, 
where quid hoc also is a monosyllable. 

Ergo. Aulem. Quippe. But although the principle of shortening 
certain common words in pronunciation may be fairly admitted in 
the words enumerated above, it has been extended to others upon 
very feeble and imperfect evidence. Such are ergo, aulem, quippe, 
and perhaps some others, but we shall be content with examining 

Aulem is one of the words which it was held might be pronounced 
as a pyrrich, aftfcm, with the first short, as if it were diem, or 
‘ corrcptim,’ that is, as a monosyllable ; but although Lindemann 
seems to acquiesce in this (Ad Trin. II. ii. 53), he admits else- 
where (De Prosodia PI. p. xxiv.) that only one satisfactory example 
can be adduced: Stich. I. iii. 60 (Senar.), 

Quo t potiones mu/si : quo t aUtem prandia, 
a reading which is retained by W., who remarks, “ Luculentum hoc 
exemplum correpti aulem ab initio. Cf. et Amph. ProL 36, Merc. II. 
iii. 85, Mil. III. i. 84, Pers. V. i. 11.” There is no doubt that 
in the above passage all the MSS., including A, have aulem ; 
Brixius, who is followed by R., corrects item. In Mil. III. i. 84 the 
MSS. are corrupt and the reading is very uncertain. In Amph. 
Prol. 36, W. has got into confusion, for while in his note he 
speaks of aulem as pronounced ‘correptim,' his text (which is here 
the Vulgate) presents no difficulty — 

lusla aulem ab inius/is pelere insipientia esl, 
although he says that pelere is not to be elided. In fact, he seems 
to have forgotten that the last syllable of aulem is elided before ab. 
See his accentuation. Merc. II. iii. 85 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Litigare nolo ego vos, neque tuam aulem accusari fidem, 

is another of the examples given by W., but surely the simple way 
to scan the line is to sink tuam — 

Litl\gdre | nolo egu | vos neque || tu’ out' dc\cusd\ri fid\ 'em. 

Nothing can be asserted positively as to the measure of Pers. V. i. 1 1. 
On the whole, as Lindemann observes, the whole doctrine of aulem, 

P * 

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with the first short, or pronounced 1 correptim,’ seems to rest upon 
Stich. I. iii. 60. The following are additional examples from the 
index of W. : Merc. I. ii. 9 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), a line which in the 
MSS. is corrupt; Men. V. ix. 31, where also the reading is uncer- 
tain, but without departing a hair-breadth from the MSS. we have — 

Qtiam hie tui est, tuque huius autem; posted eandem patriam 
ac patrem. 

R. has paste, but pasty a ean forms a Spondee. The last example 
quoted is from Rud. III. iv. 22, 

Hae autem Veneri complacuerunt — Habeat, si argentum dabit, 

on which W. has the note, “ Hae non elidendum, autem vero corri- 
piendum priori syllaba, quasi Hae alem.” It seems positively perverse 
to go out of the straight path in search, as it were, of a difficulty. 
Elide hae before autem, and the scansion is simple and obvious. 

Ergo is another of those words in which it is supposed that we 
may occasionally pronounce the first syllable short, or the whole 
word 1 correptim.’ Lind, says, “ De ergo correptim pronunciata non 
dubitatum est, quamquam rara sunt exempla, veluti Mil. IV. ii. 17." 
The following are quoted as examples: Mil. IV. ii. 17 (Troch. Tetr. 

Ego hanc continuo uxorem ducam — Quid ergo hanc dubitas 
conloqui f 

So the MSS., except that B has Quid ergo hae, which would make 
no difference in the scansion. The difficulty here however is not 
confined to ergo, but we must make either a Trochee or a Spondee 
out of Ego hanc con | tinuo. R. corrects — 

Ego continuo uxorem hanc ducam — Ergo hanc quid, dec. 
Again, quid ergo at the commencement of a Troch. Tetr. Cat., 
Men. II. iii. 79, occurs in a corrupt passage. Ergo is not found in 
any of the best MSS., and in any case the quid is probably the 
word curtailed in the pronunciation. So Trin. IV. ii. 81 (Troch. 
Tetr. Cat.), 

Ne male loquere apsenti amico — Quid ergo ille ignavissumus. 

So the MSS.; Reiz. and R., Quid ille ergo. Pers. I. i. 26 is called 
a Troch. Tetr. Cat., but it cannot be scanned as such without the 
omission of a word, and here again we have quid ergo. In Pers. II. 
ii. 3 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), we have again quid ergo. Stich. V. iv. 43 
(Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

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Age ergo, opserva / Si peccassis, multam hie retiiubo ilico. 

So the MSS.; R. omits age, but age ergo may be regarded as a 
short, sharp, colloquial expression, and, as such, liable to be curtailed 
when enunciated. Poen. IV. ii. 7 x (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Facile — Fac ergo id facile not cam, ut ille possit nos cere, 
where fac ergo id must form a Spondee, or, as W. seems to think, an 
Anapaest. It will be observed that quid ergo, age ergo, fac ergo, 
are expressions all belonging to the same class. 

With regard to quippe, Lind, says, “ Quippe duobus locis Plauti 
correptum reperitur, quare de eius correptione dubitatur." The 
passages to which he refers are probably — As. I. i. 51 (Senar.), 
Quippe qui mage amico utantur grato el benevolo, 

a line which Fleck, brackets as spurious; Epid. V. i. ia (Troch. 
Tetr. Cat.), 

Habe bonum animum — Quippe ego quoi libertas in mundo 
sita est, 

which is referred to in the index of W., but erroneously, for the line 
scans perfectly without altering the natural form of quippe; and Men. 
IV. ii. 17 (Senar.), 

Quippe qui pro Hit's loquan/ur, male quae fecerint. 

This is in a Canticum, where W. has picked out a couple of Senarians 
from the midst of a number of Bacchiacs and Cretics of varying 
dimensions. The distribution is most uncertain. 

III. We now come to the consideration of those words, the quantity 
of which, as used by Plautus, differs from that observed by later 
writers. Considering that quantity depends upon pronunciation, we 
might have expected to find a number of words, the pronunciation, 
and therefore the quantity, of which had undergone a change during 
the 150 years which elapsed from the period when Plautus flourished 
to the last days of the Republic. But these are in fact very few. 

Acheron, or, according to the earlier orthography, Acheruns, 
and its derivatives, have the first uniformly short in Lucretius and 
Virgil: Lucret I. 120, 

El si praelerea tamen esse Acherusia templa; 

HI. 37. 

El metus ille for as praeceps Acherunlis agundus; 

Virg. Aen. VII. 31*, 

Flee ter e si nequeo super os, Acheronla movebo; 

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while in Plautus they have the first syllable generally long, e. g. Most. 
II. ii. 67 (Senar.), 

Nam me Achcruntcm reciperc Orcus noluit ; 

Mil. III. i. 32 (Troch. Tctr. Cat.), 

Quid ais tui itane tibi ego video r oppido Acker unticus ? 

Trin. II. iv. 93 (Senar.), 

Cense tur censu ad Achcruntem mortuos. 

See also Amph. IV. ii. 9, V. i. 29, Capt. III. v. 31, V. iv. 1, 2, 
Cas. II. viii. 12, Bac. II. ii. 21, Merc. II. ii. 19, III. iv. 21, Trin. II. 
iv. 124, Poen. I. iii. 22, True. IV. ii. 40. 

We have said that the first syllable is generally long in Plautus, 
for two or three examples are quoted in which it is said to be short. 
But of these there is only one which will not bear examination. 
This is Most. II. ii. 76, 

Vivom me arcessunt ad Achcruntem mortui, 

where all the best MSS. have the ad, which however might very 
readily have been interpolated by a transcriber, and be omitted 
without injury to the construction, and it is singular that the poet 
should have made the first syllable of Achcruntem long in v. 67 
and short in v. 76. Three other examples are quoted from the 
Poenulus — Prol. 71 (Senar.), I. ii. 131 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), IV. ii. 9 
(Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

1. Ipse abiit ad Achcruntem sine viatico. 
a. Quo die Orcus ab Acherunte mortuos amiserit. 

3. Quodvis genus ibi hominum videos, quasi Achcruntem veneris. 

But in the first example, an Anapaest in the second place of the 
Senarian is perfectly admissible;* in the second, we may consider 
the and foot to be a Dactyl ; in the third, quasi, as elsewhere, may 
be pronounced as a monosyllable and totally elided. And yet the 
evidence afforded of the quantity of Acheruns in these three lines 
is considered by Weise sufficient to prove that the whole play is 
spurious 1 The evidence therefore for Acheruns in Plautus rests on 
the line of the Mostellaria alone, which, as we have pointed out 
above, is suspicious and easily corrected. 

* [Is an Anapaest admissible in the second place after a Dactyl ? Would 
it not be simpler to omit the ad, as suggested in reference to the passage 
quoted from Most. II. ii. 76 ? Spengci would read obit for abiit. — Ed.] 

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Tabernaculum. This word appears twice in the syncopated form, 
tabernaclo, in Amph. I. i. 270, 272 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

In tabtrnaclo, id quidem hodit numquam poterit dicere, 

and — 

Quid in tabernaclo fecisti ? Victus sum si dixeris. 

In the second of these lines quid in must be pronounced as one 
long syllable, but neither of them decide the quantity of the first 
syllable in tabernaculo, which does not, as far as I know, occur in 
any of the poets of the Augustan age. Taberna is found in several 
passages in Plautus, but not one of these decides the quantity of the 
first syllable, which is however unquestionably short in the Augustan 
poets. Terence affords no example. But in Trin. III. ii. too 
(Troch. Tetr. Cat.), we find — 

Cassidem in caput , dormibo placide in tabernaculo, 
and this is the reading of all the MSS. Now this line, as it stands, 
cannot be scanned unless upon the supposition that tdbernaculo has 
the first long. Hermann proposes to substitute contubernio, while 
R. changes placide into placidule, and thus scans in tabcrn\acul\o. 
We must therefore either adhere to the MSS. and suppose that 
tabernaculum has the first long; or, adopt contubernio, as proposed 
by Herm. ; or else adopt the conj. emend., placidule, and suppose 
that tabernaculo has the second short. Few will hesitate to conclude 
that whatever the difficulties of the case may be, the remedy proposed 
by R. is much more violent than the disease, and that therefore we 
have no evidence whatever of a violation of the Rule of Position in 
this case. 

Taberna occurs six times in Plautus. In five of these passages 
the first syllable may be long or short without affecting the verse. 
The sixth instance is Pseud. IV. vii. 14 (Cret Tetr. ?), 

Nam me in taberna usque adhuc several Surus. 

If the line is, as W. sets it down, a Cretic Tetrameter, taberna would 
seem to be required. I cannot however scan it comfortably as such, 
but both the text and the arrangement of lines are very uncertain. 
R. gives an unexceptionable Tetr., 

Nam in taberna usque adhuc siverat [me] Surus, 

but me is not found in the MSS. ; and even admitting this reading, 
the i st foot might be a Molossus. 

Somewhat analogous, at first sight, to the case of tabernaculum is 
tolentarius. Cure. II. iii. 16 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

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Ex unnquoque eorum excutiam crcpitum poletUarium, 
where the word must be scanned poletUarium, although polenta has 
the first short in Ovid and Persius. But here we may observe that 
polen/arius is a word apparently coined by Plautus himself, and found 
in this passage only, nor is it used by any other author until we 
come down to Apuleius, and there is no reason why we should not 
connect it with the kindred pollen. In so far as the unsavoury joke 
is concerned, the readers of Rabelais will at once perceive that it 
will lose nothing of its force if we derive the word directly from 
pollen, and not through the medium of polenta. 

Suspicio, the substantive, with the second long, is frequently quoted 
as an example of an anomalous quantity, because suspicio, the verb, 
has the second short. But suspicio, the noun, occurs frequently in 
Plautus and Terence, and has the second syllable uniformly long; 
it has the same syllable long in Martial and the later poets ; and, as 
far as I know, no example of this word, with the second short, can 
be quoted from any classical writer. 

So also Rubidus (from rfibeoi) occurs twice, Cas. I. v. a, Stich. I. iii. 
77 ; coquinatum (from eoqulnus), Aul. III. i. 3, Pseud. III. ii. 64; and 
coquitiare, v. 85 ; but these words occur in verse in Plautus only, 
and therefore we cannot compare his practice with that of other 
poets. Moreover, with regard to the first, the derivation of rubidus 
from rUbeo is by no means certain ; and with regard to the second, 
we might be led to believe, from a passage in Paul. Diac. (p. 61, 
ed. Mull.), that the form used by Plautus was coquitare, and not 

Protervus and its derivatives have the first syllable short in the 
Augustan writers, as in the Horatian Choriambic, 

Vrit grata prbtervitas, 
and the Ovidian pentameter, 

Damnaret nati facta pr/iterva pater, 
while in Plautus, Bac. IV. iii. 1 (Troch. Tetr. Acat.), 

Pe/u/ans prolervo iracundo animo, indomito, incogitato, 
and Amph. II. ii. 207 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Audacem esse, et confidenter pro se et prolerve loqui, 

prolervo and prolerve must have the first long. When however we 
remember the uncertainty and inconsistency which prevails in the best 
writers as to the quantity of the first syllable of words compounded 
with pro, we need feel no surprise with regard to protervus. 

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Rudcns has the first syllable short in Virgil — 

Exoritur clamor que virum stridor que rudentum; 

but in the following line of Plautus the first syllable must be long, 
Rud. IV. iii. 76 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Mi tie rudentem, sceleste 1 — Miltam, omillt vidulum. 

The word occurs again v. 1 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), and v. 92 (Troch. 
Tetr. Cat.), but these passages do not decide the quantity of the 
first syllable. 

Nebula, which has the first short in the Augustan writers, is said 
to have the first sometimes long and sometimes short in Plautus. 
It occurs four times: in Pseud. I. v. 48 (Senar.), where, according 
to the received reading, it has the first short; in Poen. I. ii. 62 
(Troch. Tetr. Cat.), where the reading is very doubtful, but that 
adopted by the best editors admits of nebulae having the first short ; 
in Cas. IV. iv. 21, where the distribution of the lines is entirely 
arbitrary and uncertain ; and lastly, in Capt. V. iv. 26, 

Nunc edepol demum in memoriam regredior, quom cogilo 
Quasi per nebulam, Hegionem palrem meum vocarier, 
where the speech of Tyndarus is slow and hesitating, as he strives 
to recall the impressions of his childhood. An actor therefore would 
probably make a considerable pause after Quasi per nebulam, which 
is itself a sort of parenthetic clause, and as even the most fastidious 
could scarcely insist upon the elision of the last syllable in nebulam, 
it may therefore be regarded as a Tribrach. 

Neutiquam. Neuter. Lindemann says that neutiquam is always a 
Tribrach, and neuter a pyrrich, by which he means, I presume, that 
neutiquam is always a quadrisyllable with the first three short, and 
neuter a trisyllable with the first two short. The examples which I 
find of these words are, Capt. III. iv. 54 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Filium tuum quod redimere se ail, id neutiquam mihi placet, 

where neutiquam, according to my scansion, is neutquam; Mil. III. 
i. 37 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Si albicapillus hie videtur neutiquam ab ingeniost senex. 

Here also neutiquam ab form a Trochee. B. has alius capi/lus, 
C. albi capillus, but this makes no difference. Merc. III. iv. 14 
(Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Nunc quid restat, hei, disperii, voltus neutiquam huius placet. 
Here, if we consider huius as a monosyllable, we might scan neutiquam, 


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but it is more simple to make ruutiquam hui a Spondee. The best 
MSS. have et ei instead of ha, but this does not affect the scansion. 
Poen. I. i. 71 (Senar.), 

Sine damno magno quae tlui ruutiquam potest, 
where neutiquam must be a dissyllable. These are the whole of the 
examples in the Delphin index, and the same are given in the index 
of W., preceded by the remark “ ruutiquam prima correpta.” I think 
I am justified in asserting that neutiquam is uniformly a dissyllable. 
Now for neuter. Merc. III. i. 40 (Iamb. Tetr. Cat.), 

Neuter strupri causa caput limaret — Di inmor tales / 
where neuter is a Spondee. Neuter is found also in Cas. V. iv. 32 
and Stich. V. iv. 51, but in both these passages the text is so 
uncertain that nothing can be founded on it. In Stich. I. ii. 84 
(Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Certumne est, neutram voslrarum persequi imperium pair is? 
neutram is a Spondee; so also in Mil. II. v. 18 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 
Et tu et hie — Non nos novisti? — Neutram — Metuo maxunu; 

Rud. III. vi. 16 (Senar.), 

Vlrum vis, op/a, dum licet l — Neutrum volo; 
and Frag. Vidular. 6 (apparently Iamb. Tetr. Acat.), 

Ego servabo, quasi seques/ro detis : neutri reddibo donicum. 

In Aul. II. ii. 56 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Neulrubi habeam stabile slabulum, si quid divorti fuat, 
ncutrub' is a Trochee, as also in Men. V. ii. 35 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Vt caveres neuter ad me iretis cum querimonia. 

In every case, therefore, in which neuter occurs, neuter may be 
naturally scanned as a dissyllable and Spondee. 

Amator. Weise quotes as examples of dmaior with the first long, 
Cas. III. iii. 2 (Senar.), 

Hominem amatorem ullum ad forum procedere, 

where surely it is quite as good to make the 1st foot a Tribrach as 
an Anapaest; again, Epid. II. ii. 30 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Obviam orna/ae occurrebant, sius quaeque amatoribus, 

where it is better to leave a hiatus after quaeque than to lengthen dm. 
(It will be observed that suis must be pronounced as a monosyllable.) 
So in Merc. Prol. 4 (Senar.), 

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Vidi facer e amalores, qui aut nocti aut die, * 

the and foot is a Tribrach. More difficult is Pseud. I. v. i (Senar.), 
Si de damnosis aut de amatoribus ; 

since this is the reading of the Palatine MSS., but here the Palimpsest 
comes to our rescue — 

Si de damnosis aut si de Amatoribus. 

All the other examples quoted by W. as instances of the lengthening 
of the first syllable of amo and its compounds, can be disposed of as 
easily as the above. He refers to other passages where the first 
syllable of amo, &c., suffers contraction; but of these only one is 
at all satisfactory — Cure. I. i. 38, 

Iuventute et pueris liber is ama quid lubet. 

The pronunciation and orthography of the word t'acio and its 
compounds deserve especial notice. Of the compounds of iacio 
the forms abicio, adicio, eicio, inicio, obicio, reicio, subicio, alone are 
in use, never abiicio, adiicio, &c. Men. III. iii. 31 (Senar.), 

Demam coronam, atque abiciam ad laevam manum; 

Merc. II. iv. 23 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Adicito vel mille numum plus quam posed- — lam face; 

Pers. I. ii. 18, 19 (Senar.), 

Vbi quadruplalor quoipiam iniexit manum, 

Tantidem ilk illi iniciat manum, 

where iniexit is a conj. of Camer. for the iniexit of the MSS.; Trin. 
V. i. 8 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Hae sonitu suo mihi moram obiciunt incommode; 

As. IV. ii. 5 (Senar.), 

Praeripias s cor turn amanti, atque argentum obicias; 

I. ii. 1 (Cret. Tetr. Acat.), 

Siccine hoc fit? foras aedibus me eici ; 

Mil. III. ii. 31 (Senar.), 

Poste sagina ego eiciar cellar ia; 

True. III. i. 14 (Senar.), 

Hoc ictu exponam atque omnes eiciam foras; 

eicis, As. I. iii. 9; eicite, Cas. Prol. 23; eiici, Pers. V. ii. 5; iiecil, 
Rud. I. ii. 80, 82; eicctae, v. 14; eiectam, iii. 4, metre uncertain; 

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tit etas (tris.), II. iii. 78, vii. 4; eiecti (tris.), Prol. 73, I. ii. 66. In 
Pers. II. v. 18, 19 (Iamb. Tetr. Cat.), 

Emm metuo ut passim in bubiltm reicere ne vagentur. 

Ego rticiam: habe animum bonum — Creditur, commodabo, 

the reading of the first line is doubtful, but it may be scanned by 
omitting the elision of possim; thus reicere and reiciam will both be 
quadrisyllables. Merc. V. ii. 69 (Troch. Tetr. Cat.), 

Sed quin ornatum hunc reiciof heus aliquis actutum for as. 

The MSS. have aliquis est, in which case we must drop heus in the 
scansion ; either way, reicio is a quadrisyllable. As. II. i. 6 (Troch. 
Tetr. Cat.), 

Quin tu aps te socordiam omnem reicis, segniliem amoves. 

The best MSS. seem to have reice, W. has reicis. If we read reice, 
the word may be either a Trochee or a Tribrach ; if reicis, either 
a Spondee or an Anapaest. 

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Manumisit emptos suos amores Philolachcs, 
Omncmque apsente rem suo apsumit patrc. 
Senem, ut revenit, ludificatur Tranio: 
Terrifica monstra elicit fieri in aedibus, 

Et inde primum cmigratum. Intervcnit 
Lucripeta faenus faencrator postulans, 
Ludusque rursum fit senex : nam mutuotn 
Acceptum dicit pignus emptis aedibus. 
Requirit, quae sint. Ait, vicini proxumi. 
Inspcctat illas; post se derisum dolet ; 

Ab sui sodale gnati exoratur tamen. 











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Exi e culina, sis, foras, mastigia, 

Qui mi inter patinas exhibes argutias. 

Egredere, herilis pemicics, ex aedibus. 

Ego pol te ruri, si vivam, ulciscar probe. 

Exi, inquam, nidor, e culina. Quid lates ? 5 

Tr. Quid tibi, malum, hie ante aedis clamatio cst ? 

An ruri censes te esse ? Apscede ab aedibus ! 

Abi rus ! abi dierecte ! apscede ab ianua ! 

En, hocine volebas ? Gr. Perii, cur me verberas ? 

Tr. Quia tu vis. Gr. Patiar. Sine modo adveniat 

senex: 10 

Sine modo venire salvom, quern apsentem comes. 

i. eolina R, following Nonius (p. 55), who quotes this and the following 
line, observing, COLINAM vetercs coquinam dixrrunt ; but he again quotes 
these lines (p. 239), retaining the ordinary orthography. 

а. exibes BD. ( 

3. berilis BFZ. btrilts C. beriles D, ran txtmplo addito b Ultra, 
says R. pernities B. permities CD and R, who quotes Koch Exerc. 
Crit. in prise, poet. Rom. In the former plays R left the n. pcrnicics 
FZ. edibus BCD. 

5. nidor e culina ; this reading was introduced by Pylades, “ e priscis 
codd.” nidore cupinam BCFZ. nidore copina D. R has remodelled 
the line upon conj., — 

Exi inquam, nidoricape, nam quid hie lates. 

б. aedis all the MSS. See v. 44. clamatio cst, so Camer., and this 
appears in reality to be the reading of the MSS. clamat iosi (a slight 
corruption of clamatiost ) BCD, with the letters l .as written over clamat 
in B by the first hand. clamitatio cst Acidal. Vulg. RW. cst clamatio 
Both., which will remove any difficulty as to the metre. 

7. abcede C. edibus BC. 

8. dierecte BaDF. directe BbC. R, on conj., has admitted abi bine 

dierecte. inua Ba. inua Be. 

9. En BDFZ. In C. Dousa introduced Hem and so Vulg. W. 
En is not included in the scansion of 9. hocine BD. boccine CFZ. 
qur B. cur the rest of the MSS. quor R. 

10. tu vis, so Camer. vivis BFZ. vivus C. tui vis D. tu vis is 
not satisfactory. 

11. salvom; Nonius (p. 81) has salvttm. The MSS. have cither salvus 
or salvos. 

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Tr. Nec veri simile loquere nec verum, frutex, 

Comesse quemquam ut quisquam apsentem possiet. 

Gr. Tu, urbanus vero scurra, deliciae popli, 

Rus mihi tu obiectas ? Sane credo, Tranio, 15 

Quod te in pistrinum scis actutum tradier. 

Cis, hercle, paucas tempestates, Tranio, 

Augebis ruri numcrum, genus ferratile. 

*Nunc dum tibi lubet licetque, pota, perde rem, 

Corrumpe herilem [filium], adulescentem optumum : 20 

Dies noctesque bibite, pergraecamini ; 

Arnicas emite, liberate : pascite 
Parasitos : opsonate pollucibiliter ! 

Haecine mandavit tibi, quom peregre hinc iit, senex ? 
Hocine modo hie rem curatam offendet suam ? 25 

Hocine boni esse officium servi existumas, 

Vt heri sui corrumpat et rem et filium ? 

Nam ego ilium corruptum duco, quom his factis studet ; 

12. frutex , so the MSS. Guyetus conj. rupex, and so R. 

13. possiet, so Pylad. posset BaC. posse,! Bb. possit DFZ. 

14. cura Ba. scura Bb. Jelitiae BD. popli B. The rest 

of the MSS. populi. * , . 

15. obieeta Ba, an obvious blunder. sane ere Jo B, with the erasure 


of two letters after b. sane ere Jo Bb. sane ere Jo the rest of the MSS. 

16. scis FZ. sis BCD, an obvious blunder. R most perversely 
reads hau scis. 

17. tempestates, so apparently all the MSS. 

18. numerum, so the MSS. Some edd., among whom is W, following 
Muretus and Lambinus, have, without any good reason, introduced numero. 
feratile Z. 

19. The MSS. have Nunc Jum tibi . . . , which cannot be scanned. 
Hence some editors omit nunc, and some tibi. 

20. herilem \ filium]. The MSS. have beri/em alone without filium, 
which was introduced by Pylades, and has been adopted by most editors. 
R has herilem nostrum, a conj. in every way inferior. aJo/eseenlem C. 


optinum B, the m over being by Bb. optimum FZ. optumum C. 

21. nodes, all the MSS. pergrecaminei BCD. ( pergrecamini BCD 
in line 6:). pergrecamini FZ. 

22. arnica Semite Ba. 

23. Pol lucibiliter B. 

24. Haecine BCD. iit, so the MSS. it Both. R. 

25. Hocine Ba. 

26. Hocine B. ojfitium D. 

27. rem et B. The rest of the MSS. have semet, an evident corruption. 

B 2 

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Quo nemo adaeque iuventute ex omni Attica 

Antehac est habitus parcus nec magis continens, 30 

Is nunc in aiiam partem palmam possidet. 

Virtute id factum tua et magisterio tuo. 

Tr. Quid tibi, malum, me, aut quid ego agam, curatio est ? 
An ruri, quaeso, non sunt, quos cures, bovis ? 

Lubet potare, amare, scorta ducere : 35 

Mei tergi facio haec, non tui, fiducia. 

Gr. Quam confidenter loquitur! fue ! Tr. At tc Iupiter 
Dique omnes perdant : oboluisti allium, 

Germana inluvies, rusticus, hircus, hara suis, 

Canes capra commixta ! Gr. Quid vis fieri ? 40 

Non omnes possunt olere unguenta exotica. 

Si tu oles ; neque superior quam herus accumbere, 

29. ad aequet Ba. ad aequae Bb. rqut F. 

jo. pacus Ba. pacus Bb. poreuj Da. contineas Ba. continccu Bb. 

31. posidet Da. 

32. tua el, so the MSS. R has introduced tuast (tua est). 

33. me aut, so Murct. The MSS. have mea ut , which serves to 
exemplify the kind of mistakes which constantly arise from an erroneous 
distribution of the letters copied from a MS. written continuously. 

34. qtteso BC. bovis, so the MSS. except Da, which has boves. 

36. fatio B. facto Da. Jidutia B. 

37. fut BD. fut C. FZ carry on the corruption still farther, by 

writing loquitur fur. R omits fue in this place, and inserts fu after 

perdant in the next line. 


38. alium Ba. atium Bb. allium CDF. allrum Z. obulusti Ba. 
obulusti Bb. 

39. inluvies B. rusticus, so the MSS. R proposes to substitute 

rus merum, regarding rusticus as a gloss. hara suis Z and the MSS. of 

Pylades. The rest of the MSS. have hara sui. 

40. canes capra commixta. This reading has been generally adopted, 

although unsupported by the MSS. canem capran commixta B. can? 

capra comixtam CDF. Scaliger conj. capro, and so Vulg. R. quid 

vis ; the Vulg. has quid tu vis, but tu is an addition by Pylad. 

41. totere B. The word was originally written tolere, but the t is 

erased, leaving only a faint trace : but by whom the erasure was made we 
cannot tell. R therefore is hardly justified in giving tolere as the reading 
of Ba without remark. This line is quoted by Nonius (p. 108), and 

twice by Priscian (pp. 838, 866). 

4 2. sit voles ( si tu oles) C. The words quam herus are found in B 

only ( quamerus ). The Vulg. omits them, thus leaving the line mutilated. 
R supposes that portions of two lines have been lost, and prints — 

Si tu oles 

. . . neque superior cum ero accumbere. 

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Neque tarn facctis, quam tu vivis, victibus. 

Tu tibi istos habeas turturcs, piscis, avis; 

Sine me alliato fungi fortunas meas. 4,5 

Tu fortunatusj ego miser. Patiunda sunt. 

Meum bonum me, te tuum maneat malum. 

Tr. Quasi invidere mihi hoc vidcrc, Grumio, 

Quia mihi bene est, et tibi male est. Dignissumum est. 

D ecct me amare, et te bubulcitarier ; 50 

Me victitare pulcre, te miseris modis. 

Gr. O carnuficium cribrum, quod credo fore : 

Ita te forabunt patibulatum per vias 
Stimulis, si hue reveniat [quam primum] sencx. 

Tr. Qui scis, an tibi istuc cveniat prius quam mihi ? 55 

Gr. Quia numquam merui : tu meruisti, et nunc meres. 
Tr. Orationis operam compendiface. 

Nisi te mala re magna mactari cupis. 

43. R supposes that a line has dropped out between 43 and 44. 

44. turtures all the MSS. apparently. piscis BC. pieces the rest of 
the MSS. aveis B, as originally written, corrected into avis. avis 
the rest. The first five words of this line are quoted by Serv. Virg., 
Ed. I. 59. 

45. me alliato F. me aleato BCD. me alleato Z. R has aliatum, a 
conj. of Saracenus, who, however, writes alliatum. 

46. fortunatus. R prints fortunatus. patiunda Da, also DbF, 
attributing the words to Tranio. paciunda C. patienda B. 

48. mibi hoe , so the MSS. hoe mihi R. 

49. bene est — male est, so the MSS. dignissimum est DFZ. 

dignis sumust B. dignis sumust Bb. dignissimumst C. 

50. Decet B and Non., p. 79. AH the rest of the MSS. licet, 
bubulcitarier BC. bubultitarier D. bubultuarier Z. bubuchuarier F. 

5 1 . pulcre Ba. pulehre Bb and the rest. 

5a. carnuficium, a conj. of Pylad. The MSS. and Vulg. have carni- 

54. The MSS. have 

Stimulis si hue reveniat senex 

(except that Ba has stimulus), thus presenting an imperfect line. Some 
of the earlier edd. have 

Stimulis si hue reveniat quam primum senex. 

R has printed 

Stimuleis [terebris] hue si reveniat senex. 

55. cveniat prius, so the MSS. prius cveniat Caincr., RW. evenat 
prius Both. 

58. magnam actari B ( magna mactari). 

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Gr. Ervom daturin’ estis, bubus quod feram ? 

Date aes si non estis. Agite, porro pergite, 60 

Quoniam occcpistis! bibite! pergraecamini ! 

Este ! effercite vos ! saginam caedite ! 

Tr. Tace atque abi rus : ego ire in Piraeum volo. 

In vesperum parare piscatum mihi. 

Ervom tibi aliquis eras faxo ad villam adferat. 65 

Quid cst ? quid tu me nunc optuere, furcifer ? 

Gr. Pol tibi istuc credo nomen actutum fore. 

Tr. Dum interea sic sit, istuc “actutum” sino. 

Gr. Ita est; sed unum hoc scito, nimio celerius 
Venire quod molestum est, quam illud quod *cupide petas. 70 
Tr. Molestus ne sis : nunc iam i rus, te amove. 

Ne tu erres, hercle, praeterhac mihi non facies moram. 

59. ervom B. ervum BbFZ. servom Ba. servum CT). daturin’, 

so Pylad. The MSS. have daturi. Bubus B. Bobus the rest. 

60. Date aes si non estis, so Vulg. The MSS. arc all corrupt here. 
Data es inonestis B, and so Bb with an h above the 0. Datae si non estis 
Be. Date es inboneste C. Dataesinbonestis D. Data aes inbonestis FZ. 
R has remodelled the line — 

Date, si non estis: [ceterum] agite pergite — 
where he considers estis as equivalent to editis. W has Date aes, si ne 
estis. We have retained the Vulgate, but the text must be regarded as 
quite uncertain. W. places a comma after agite, the Vulg. after porro. 

61. Quoniam B. qGo a contraction for quoniam in CD. Quomodo F. 
Vulg. Quo ZW. occefisti CD. bibite Be. bibi BaCD. 

ба. effercite, so Camer. The MSS. are very corrupt. ec ferite B. 

eeferute CDa. efferite Db. ac ferite FZ. R writes ecfcrcite. caedite 

B. cedite the rest of the MSS. The reading is not satisfactory. 

63. abi rus BC. abiturus (i.e. abi tu rus) D. rus abi Camer., Vulg. 

бб. quid tu CDZ. Vulg. W. quod tu BFR. optuere B. 

68. interea sic, so Muret. and Lamb. intereas sic BCD. 

69. Ita est, so the MSS. Ita ft R, without reason. 

70. The MSS. have 

Venire quod moleste quam illud quod cupide petas, 

(illuc quo Ba. iliac quod C.) Venire quod molestum est quam id quod cupide 
petas Pylad. Vulg. W. has 

Venire, quod molestum est, quam illud quod petas. 

R, as usual, makes more violent changes, — 

Venire quod tu nolis, quam illut quod petas. 

71. So the MSS. nunc iam rus te amove R. nunc iam i rus teque 
amove Camer. Vulg. W. 

7a. So the MSS., except that B has preierhac and faciaes. faciaes C. 
facias F. W leaves out hercle, which may be omitted in scanning. R has 
Ne tu erres, non mihi praeterhac facies moram. 

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GR. Satin’ abiit, neque, quod dixi, flocci existumat ? 

Proh di inmortales, opsecro vostram fidem, 

Facite, hue ut redeat noster quatn primum sencx, 75 

Triennium qui iam hinc abest, priusquam omnia 
Periere, et aedis et ager. Qui nisi hue redit, 

Paucorum mensum sunt relictae reliquiae. 

Nunc rus abibo: nam eccum herilem filium 

Video, corruptum ex adulescente optumo. 80 



Recordatus multum et diu cogitavi, 

Argumentaque in pectus multa institui 

Ego, atque in meo corde, si est quod mihi cor. 

Earn rem volutavi et diu disputavi, 

Hominem quoius rei, quando natus est, 5 

Similem esse arbitrarer simulacrumque habere. 

Id repperi iam excmplum. 

Novarum aedium esse arbitror similem ego hominem. 

74. inmortales C. 

77. edit (nom.) BCFZ. hue redit the MSS. nunc redit R. 
R supposes that a line has fallen out between 77 and 78. 

78. menium Lamb. mrnsuum BCD. mensium FZ. Vulg. relicte 

reliquie BaC. 

79. eccum CDFZ. equum B. hie quorn R. 

80. corruptum ex, so the MSS. corruptum hie ex Pylad. corruptum 

ita ex R. adulescente BZ. The rest adotescente, R supposes 

that a line has dropped out after 80. 

In distributing the following Scene into lines, we have adhered closely 
to the arrangement of B. Hermann, Ritschl, Weise, and others, have 
their own metrical views, upon which it is quite unnecessary to enlarge. 

1. multum sum et R, without any MS. authority. 

a. C omits in pectus. The MSS. have institui. Reizius, R, W, 
and others, have adopted institivi for the sake of the metre. 

3, 4. These two lines are bracketed by R as interpolations. 

4. W, following Hermann, has volutavi earn rem. 

5,6. So the MSS. R is dissatisfied, and thus remodels them — 
Hominem quoius rei similem esse arbitrarer [simulacrumque habere]. 

8. edium B. 

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Quando hie natus est. Ei rei argumenta dicam. 

Atque hoc haud videtur veri simile vobis? iq 

At ego id faciam esse ita ut credatis. 

Profecto, ita esse ut praedico vera, vincam : atque hoc 
vosmet ipsi, 

Scio, proinde uti nunc ego esse autumo, 

Quando dicta audietis mea, haud aliter id dicetis. 

Auscultate, argumenta dum dico ad hanc rem : 15 

Simul gnarures vos volo esse hanc rem mecum. 

Aedes quom extemplo sunt paratae, expolitae, 

Factae probe, examussim : 

Laudant fabrum atque aedes probant j sibi quisque indc 
exemplum expetunt. 

Sibi quisque simile, suo usque sumptu j operam non parcunt 

suam. 30 

Atque ubi illo inmigrat nequam homo indiligensque 

10-ia. R brackets these three lines. W brackets line 1 1 only. 

11. esse ita, so the MSS. In B ita appears erased either by the first 
hand or by b. Possibly, however, it is only the stroke of the t exaggerated. 
ita esse R, following Hermann. 

1 a. ita esse, so the MSS. esse ita, RW, following Hermann. predicts 
B. u era, so the MSS. vero, Vulg., following Pylad. 

1 a- 1 4. There can be no objection to arrange these lines as Hermann 
has done, — 

Profecto ita esse ut praedico vera vincam 
Atque hoc vosmet ipsi, scio, proinde uti nunc 
Ego esse autumo quando dicta audietis. 

14. mea . . . dicetis BC. dicentes Da. mea, aliter bau dicetis R. 

15,16. R brackets these lines. 

16. Simul gnarures vos, so Lamb, on conj. The MSS. are corrupt. 

Simul gna run suo B. Simul gnarurisuo CD. C omits banc . 

17. quom for cum BF. parate (paratae) B. 


18. examissim B, the u being a correction by c. 

19. aedes BZ. edes CDK (accusative). 

ao. R brackets this line, and so also W. simile suo usque sumptu , a 

conj. emend, due to Camer. The MSS. are corrupt. BCD have simile 
suo is sua sumptu, except that D has issua and CD sumptu, simile suit 
suo sumptu F. similis suis sumptu suo Z. simi/is volt suo sumptu R. 
operam non parcunt suam, so Hermann on conj. operam parcunt suam B. 
opera pascunt sua CDFZ ( sua C). operae ne parcunt suae, Camer. on conj., 
and so Vulg. \V. 

a 1. inmigrat C. indiligensque, so the MSS. Pylad. omits que, and 

is followed by RW. 

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Cum pigra familia, inmundus, instrenuus : 

Hie iam aedibus vitium additur, bonae quom curantur male. 
Atque illud saepe fit : tempestas venit, 

„ Confringit tegulas imbricesque: ibi 25 

Dominus indiligens reddere alias nevolt. 

Venit imber, lavit parietes: perpluont 
Tigna ; putrefacit aer operam fabri : 

Nequior factus iam est usus aedium ; 

Atque haud est fabri culpa. Sed magna pars 30 

Moram hanc induxerunt : si quid numo sarciri potest, 

Vsque mantant, neque id faciunt, donicum 
Parietes ruont : aedificantur aedes totae denuo. 

Haec argumenta ego aedificiis dixi ; nunc etiam volo 
Dicere, ut hominis aedium esse similis arbitremini. 35 
Primumdum parentes fabri liberum sunt 
Et fundamentum supstruont liberorum ; 

22. The following nine lines are written in B in a larger hand than 
the rest, but in the same character and with ink of the same colour; 
but the a in pigra and the f in familia are written in the black ink of c. 
inmuruluj BCD. instrenuus FZ. strenuus BCD. 

23. e dibus C. vicium BC. bone {bonae) C. 

24. sepe BC. tempestas . . . nevolt. These words are quoted by 

Nonius, p. 381. 

27. Penit, so the MSS. rental W, following Both. lavit, so the 
MSS. perlavit R. 

28. putrefacit, so the MSS. putefacit R. aer operam, a conj. of 
Camer. per operam B. poperii CDF, with a stroke through the tail of 
the first p. 

29. So the MSS. iam usus est W. edium B. 

30. Atque baud, so the MSS. Atque ea baud Hemi. R\V. 

31. Moram hanc, so the MSS., except Ba, which has hunt (with an a, 
however, written over by c), whence Lamb, and R read Morem bunc. 
nummos acciri Ba, corrected by last hand into sacciri. nummos arciri D. 

32. Hermann, to suit his views of the metre, supposes some words to 
have dropped out between id and faciunt, and so W. 

33. Parietes ruunt the MSS. Parietes ruont R. Ruont parietes W. 
aedificantur aedes totae, so the MSS. except that B has edificatur edes tote 

H * * 

denuo, corrected by c edificatur. R has turn aedificant aedis tolas. 

34. edificiis BC. 

35. Dicere, so the MSS. Docere W, following Herm. and Reiz. 
hominis BCDF (acc). R has homines. 

36. parentes, so all. 

37. Et, so the MSS. Ei R, following Gulielmus. 


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Extollunt, parant sedulo in firmitatem 
Et ut in usum boni et in spcciem 

Populo sint, sibique aut materiac ne parcunt, 40 

Nec sumptus ibi sumptui esse ducunt. 

Expoliunt, docent literas, iura, leges, suo sumptu et labore. 
Nituntur ut alii sibi esse illorum similis expctant. 

Ad legionem quom itum, adminiculum eis danunt 
Turn iam aliquem cognatum suum : 45 

Eatenus abcunt a fabris. Vbi unum emcritum est stipcn- 

Igitur turn specimen cernitur, quo eveniat aedificatio. 

Nam ego ad illud frugi usque et probus fui, in fabrorum 
Potestate dum fui. 

Posteaquam inmigravi in ingenium meum, 50 

Perdidi opcram fabrorum ilico oppido. 

Venit ignavia, ea mihi tempcstas fuit, 

Mi adventu suo grandinem, imbremque attulit ; 

Haec verecundiam mi et virtutis modum 

Deturbavit *texit detexitque a me ilico. 55 

39. Et ut in, so the MSS. R omits Et. W places Et at the end of 
the preceding line. W puts a comma after parnnt. usu B. boni 
et in speciem populo sint, so the MSS. boni sint et in speciem populo R\V. 
spetiem B. 

40. ne parcunt, a conj. of Camer. reparcunt BaCD. reparcunt Bb. 

41. ibi sumtui BCDZ. sibi sumtui h'R. 

42. leges (acc.) all apparently. This line is divided into two by 
RW, and bracketed by the former. W has sumtu suo. 

43. similis (acc.) ail apparently. 

44. quom itum Z (ru itum'), W. The MSS. are corrupt. comita B, 
the correction being by c. comita C. costa D. quom itur FR. 
quom itant Camer. Vulg. 

46. Eatenus, so the MSS. Protenus R. babcunt ( abcunt ) BaCD. 
Vbi unum, so the MSS. W omits Vbi. R omits unum. 

48. illud, so the MSS. id W. fabrorum, so the MSS. fabrum W. 

50. Posteaquam, so the MSS. Postea quom R following Guyetus. 

imigravi Ba. in ingenium, so the MSS. ingenium in R following 


51. opido BF. 

5t, 52. B includes these in a single line. 

53. Mi adventu, so the MSS. Ea mi Pylad. Vulg. W. Quae mi R. 
imbremque, so the MSS. Herm. Both. RW omit que. 

55. Deturbavit texit detexitque a me, so the MSS., where tacit is mani- 
festly corrupt. Deturbavit detexitque de me R. Deturbavit detexitque 
a med W. 

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Postilla optigere earn neglegens fui. 

Continuo pro imbre amor advenit in cor meum ; 

Is usque in pectus permanavit, pcrmadefecit cor meum. 

Nunc simul res, fides, fama, virtus, decusque 
Deseruerunt : ego sum in usu factus nimio nequior : 60 

Atque edepol (ita haec tigna humide putent) non videor 

Sarcire posse aedes meas, quin totae perpetuae ruant, 

Quin cum fundamento perierint, nec quisquam esse auxilio 

Cor dolet, quom scio, ut nunc sum, atque ut fui. 

Quo neque industrior de iuventute erat, 65 

Arte gumnastica, disco, hastis, pila, 

Cursu, armis, equo ; victitabam volupe ; 

Parsimonia et duritia discipulinae aliis eram : 

Optumi quique expetebant a me doctrinam sibi. 

Nunc postquam nihili sum, id vero meopte ingenio repperi. 70 

56. Postilla BCD. Post illam FZW. obtigere Camer. , opti- 
cere BCD. obtexere FZW. optigere R. B has on the margin optincre. 
W omits earn. 

57. advenit in cor meum BCDF. R has a blank after advenit, 

supposing that the words in cor meum crept in from the following line. 

59. virtus decusque, so the MSS. except C, which has virtusque decus. 
Herm. Both. RW have virtus decus. 

60. usu, so the MSS. usum Lamb. W. 

61. ita baec tigna bumide putent, so Camer. ita haec tigna umide 

putant D. putent is from a correction in Bb. ita haec . tingna umide 

putan Ba. ita bee ita tigna umida putant C. W has ita tigna haec b.p. 

R has ita tigna umide baec p. videor, so Camer. video BC. vidiou. 

ба. aedes (acc.) BZ. edes CDF. perpetue (perpetuae ) BDF. 

63. Quin cum the MSS. R omits Quin. W brackets cum. 

• 64. cum (quom) BCDZ. ut nunc sum, so the MSS. nunc ut sum W. 

бб. Arte gumnastica ; R brackets these words. pila ; BCDF have 
Jilia. pila appears in the margin of B and in Z. 

67. R believes that some words have dropped out after equo, and reads 

victitabat against all the MSS. volup BR. volupe BcCDFZ. 

68. Parsimonia et duricia F. Parsimoniae eduritia B. Parsimonia 

eduricia CD ; the latter has t for c. Per simonia et duricia Z. disci- 
pline aliis BbFZ. disc ip li-neali is B. discipuli nealieis Ba. discipuli 

nealiis CD. The Vulg. has disciplinae, and so W. 

69. R brackets this line. expetebant a me doctrinam Bb. expetebant 

tarn edoetrinam BaC. expetebant am edoctrinam D. expetebant earn 
doctrinam F. 

C 2 

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PH. Iampridem ecastor frigida non lavi magis lubenter ; 
Nec, quom me melius, mea Scapha, rear esse defaecatam. 

Sc. Evcntus rebus omnibus, velut homo messis magna 
Fuit. Ph. Quid ea messis attinet ad meam lavationem ? 
Sc. Nihilo plus, quam lavatio tua ad messim. Phil. O 
Venus venusta, 5 

Haec ilia est tempestas mea, mihi quae modestiam omnem 
Detexit, tectus qua fui, quam mihi Amor et Cupido 
In pectus perpluit meum j neque iam umquam optigere 

Madent iam in corde parietes: periere haec oppido aedes. 
Ph. Contempla, amabo, mea Scapha, satin’ haec me 
vestis deceat. 10 

Volo meo placere Philolachi, meo ocello, meo patrono. 

Sc. Quid tu te exornas, moribus lepidis quom lepida 
tute es ? 

Non vestem amatores amant mulieris sed vestis fartum. 

1. quom me the MSS. quod me R. rear esse defaecatam, so 

Camer. rea res . . de .feat am Ba. rear . esse de .fcatam Bb. defecate in 
marg. of B. reares edifeatam CD. reris edifeatam F. reres edificata Z. 
3. •velud C. 

3, 4. So the MSS. R has 

Sc. Eventus rebus omnibust, velut homo messis magnast. 

Ph. Quid ea nam messis attinet ad meam lavationem ? 

W, following Saracenus, has 

Se. Eventus rebus omnibus velut homa messis magna 
Fuat. Ph. Quid ea messis attinet ad meam lavationem ? 

7. tectus qua Z. tectusq CDF. tectus que B. quam mihi, so the 

MSS. quom mihi R. 

8. umquam, so B. unquam or iiqunrn the rest. usquam R, following 

Acidal. obtegere RW. optinqere B. obtingere CDF. obtigere Z 


9. haec Camer. bee B, so v. 41. Aar the rest of the MSS. Vulg. 

ti. meo flacere, so the MSS. me placere RW, following Both. 

Philolachi, so Camer. The MSS. have Philoladxti. 

13. amatores amant mulieris, so the MSS. amatores mulieris amant 

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Phil. Ita me di ament, Iepida est Scapha : sapit scelesta 

Vt lepide res omnes tenet, sententiasque amantum ! 15 

Ph. Quid nunc ? Sc. Quid est ? Ph. Quin me aspice 
et contempla, ut haec me deceat. 

Sc. Virtute fbrmae id evenit, te ut deceat, quidquid 

Phil. Ergo hoc ob verbum te, Scapha, donabo ego hodie 

Neque patiar, te istanc gratiis laudasse, quae placet mi. 

Ph. Nolo ego, te adsentari mihi. Sc. Nimis tu 
quidem stulta es mulier. 20 

Eho mavis vituperarier falso, quam vero extolli ? 

Equidem pol vel falso tamen laudari multo malo, 

Quam vero culpari aut meam speciem alios inridere. 

Ph. Ego verum amo j verum volo dici mihi, mendacem 

Sc. Ita tu me ames, ita Philolaches tuus te amet, ut 
venusta es. 25 

Phil. Quid ais, scelesta ? quomodo adiurasti ? “ ita ego 
istam amarem ?” 

Pylad. Vulg. R following Lachm. gives amantes mulicris amant. W, 
following Both., has amator mulieris amat. fartum is a conj. of the 
early edd. fartim BCD. partum FZ. 

14. dii FZ 35, 49. Iepida tit, so Gruter. The MSS. omit tit. 

15. rei omnei Gainer. omnti res the MSS. lepide ea omnis res R 
on conj. 

16. baec me decent, so Camer. haec me decet is the reading of the MSS. 
haec decet me W, following Both. 

17. forma Ba. 

18. Ergo hoe ob, so Camer. The MSS. have Ergo ob hoc. R has 

Hercle ego ob hoc. ego hodie aliqui, SO the MSS. ego hoc die aliqui 

Both. \V. ego profecto hodie aliqui Camer. Vulg. donabo hodie aliqui 
[merits] R. 

19. paciar C. iitanc B. hanc the rest of the MSS. gratiis 

. . . mi ; the MSS. have gratis . . . mihi. 

30 . adsentari B. 

a I. Eho mavis, so the MSS. Eho an mavis R, excluding eho from the 
scansion. vituperarier Both. RW. vituperari the MSS. 
a}, spetiem Codd. Pii. inridere BZ. irridcre the rest. 

34. dici mihi BCDZ. mihi dici FWR. 

35. me ames ita. These words are thus derived in B — men me sita. 

a6. amarem the MSS. amarim Guyet. RW. No correction required. 

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Quid ? “istaec me” id cur non additum’est ? Infecta dona 

Periisti : quod promiseram tibi dono, perdidisti. 

Sc. Equidem pol miror, tam catam, tarn doctam te et 
bene eductam. 

Non stultam stulte facere. Ph. Quin mone, quaeso, si 

quid erro. 30 

Sc. Tu ecastor erras, quae quidem ilium expectes unum, 
atque illi 

Morem praecipue sic geras, atque alios aspemeris. 

Matronae, non meretricium est, unum inservire amantem. 
Phil. Proh Iupiter, nam quod malum vorsatur meae 
domi illud ? 

Di deaeque omnes me pessumis exemplis interficiant, 35 

Nisi ego illam anum intcrfecero siti, fameque, atque 

37. The best MSS. exhibit this line under a corrupt form. Quid iita 

haec me cura B. Quid ista bee me id cura CD. Quid iita . . . ec me 
cur Bb. Quid is tec me id cura F. We have retained the Vulg. which 

approaches closely to Bb. R gives Quid “ ita haec me ” quor non additumst. 
\V has Quid “ ita haec me" id cur non additum ejt. 

38. So the MSS., except that B has Per . . . tti with an erasure, and 
CD have dona, while Ba has dona, the correction being from the first hand. 
R brackets the fine as an interpolation. W has 

Periit quod iam promiseram tibi, dona perdidisti, 
which is a conj. of Merula. 

29. catam is the correction of Pius. The MSS. have c apt am. tam 

doctam. tam docta Ba. te et bene eductam, so Camer. The MSS. 

have te et bene doctam. R gives doctam et bene te eductam. 

30. Non stultam. This reading is found in the margin of B, and was 

adopted by Camer. Non staitam B. nonstai Tam C. nonsta ita D. 

Nosti id tam F. Non scire te stulte Z. Nunc stultam stulte Both. R. 
Non scire stulte W. 

31. expectes BCDZ. exoptes is a conj. of Acidal., and has been 
adopted by R. 

32. precipue BC. aspemeris BbFZ. aspemeres BaCD. aspern- 

ere R. 

33. mat rone Bb. meretricium BaZ. meretritium Da. mere- 

cricium C. meretricum BbF. meretricis Guyet. R. 

34. versatur all the MSS. meae domi illud, so Camer. The MSS. 

have mea edomillu. 

35. omnes me, so the MSS., except Ba., which omits me. me omnes R. 
pessimis all the MSS. 

36. algu B. The rest of the MSS. have gelu. 

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Ph. Nolo ego mihi male te, Scapha, praecipere. 
Sc. Stulta es plane. 

Quae ilium tibi aeternum putes fore amicum et benevol- 

Moneo ego te : te illc deseret aetate et satietate. 

Ph. Non spero. Sc. Insperata accidunt magis saepe, 
quam, quae speres. 40 

Postremo, si dictis nequis perduci, ut vera haec credas, 

Mea dicta ex factis nosce; rem vidcs, quae sim et quae 
fui ante. 

Nihilo ego, quam nunc tu, sum amata atque uni modo 
gessi morem, 

Qui pol me, ubi aetate hoc caput colorem commutavit, 

Reliquit deseruitque me. Tibi idem futurum credo. 45 

PHIL. Vi x comprimor, quin involem illi in oculos stimul- 
ated . 

Ph. Solam illi me soli censeo esse oportere opse- 

Solam iile me soli sibi suo [argento] liberavit. 

Phil. Proh di immortales, mulierem lepidam et pudico 
ingenio ! 

Bene hercle factum, et gaudeo, mihi nihil esse huius 

causa. 50 

37. mihi Z. mei BaCDF. met Bb. mi R. te scapba, so the 
MSS. te mea Scapba R. precipere B. 

38. putes B. The rest of the MSS. have putas. 

39. deseret ille Pylad. Vulg. sacietate BC. 

40. sepe BC. que C. 

42. i>ides, so the MSS. vide \V. R thus remodels the line — 

Ex factis nosce rem: vide, ego quae sim et quae fui ante. 

43. So the MSS. amata sum W. R thus remodels the line — 

Nihilo ego sum amata setius, atque uni gessi morem. 

45. credo, so the MSS. erode Aeidai. Vulg. R. 

47. Solam illi me soli, so Camer. Vulg. W. Solam illi meo soli BD. 

Solam illi meo soli illi C. Solam me soli R. opsequentem B. 

48. R places 48 before 47. Not so the MSS. suo [argento] 

liberavit. The MSS. have simply suo liberavit. Some word, such as 
argento, sumptu, aere, is required to complete the line, and edd. have 
adopted one or other of these according to their fancy. 

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Sc. Inscita ecastor tu quidem es. Ph. Quapropter ? 
Sc. Quae istuc cures, 

Vt te ille amet. Ph. Cur, opsecro, non curem ? Sc. Libera 
es iam. 

Tu iam, quod quaerebas, habes : ille te nisi amabit ultro, 

Id, pro capite tuo quod dedit, perdiderit tantum argenti. 

Phil. Perii hercle, ni ego illam pessumis exemplis 
cnicasso. 55 

Ilia hanc corrumpit mulierem malesuada vitilena. 

Ph. Numquam ego illi possum gratiam referre, ut meritus 
est de me, 

Scapha: id tu mihi ne suadeas, ut ilium minoris pendam. 

Sc. At hoc unum facito cogites, si ilium inservibis 

Dum tibi nunc haec aetatula est, in senecta male querere. 60 

Phil. In anginam ego nunc me velim vorti, ut vene- 
ficae illi 

Fauces prehendam, atque enicem scelestam stimulatricem. 

Ph. Eundem animum oportet nunc mihi esse gratum, 
ut impetravi, 

Atque olim, priusquam id extudi, quom illi subblandiebar. 

51. Inscita traitor FZ. Incijtr traitor B. indite castor C. inciste- 
caitor D. The correction of these corrupt forms is easy and certain. 

51, 5a. . . . iitur cures = Vt te ille, so Pylad. cures is omitted in BCD. 

5}. querebas BaC. 

54. Id pro capite tuo, so the MSS. Id pro tuo capite W. R thus 
reconstructs the line — 

Pro capite tuo quantum dedit 

56. corrumpit, so the MSS. corrumpet R. malesuada vitilena. 

This is the exact reading of D. malesuadam vitilena B. malesuada 
Vttilena C. malesuada Fti Una F. R has malesuada invitam Una, 
which is more plausible than his conjectures usually are. vitii Una W, 
following Lamb. , 

59. inserviis Ba. inserviis Bb. 

60. aetatulest B. aetatula est the rest. 

61. aginam Ba. me velim, so the MSS. me is omitted in Vulg. 

vorti B. verti DFZ. benefetr Ba. , 

6a. fauces all the MSS. enicem Ba. enicem Bb. enecem the 


63. impetravi Z. impetravit BDF. imperavit C. 

64. extudi, so B. The rest of the MSS. have extuli. 

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Phil. Divi me faciant, quod volunt, ni ob istam 

orationem 65 « 

Te liberasso denuo, et ni Scapham enicasso. 

Sc. Si tibi sat acceptum esr, fore tibi victum semp- 

Atque ilium amatorem tibi proprium futurum in vita : 

Soli gerundum censeo morem, et capiundos crines. 

Ph. Vt fama est homini, exin solet pecuniam invenire; 70 
Ego si bonam famam mihi servasso, sat ero dives. 

Phil. Siquidem hercle vendundum est, pater venibit 
multo potius, 

Quam te, me vivo, umquam sinam egere aut mendicare. 

Sc. Quid illis futurum est ceteris, qui te amant ? 

Ph. Magis amabunt, 

Quom videbunt gratiam referri. 75 

Phil. Vtinam meus nunc mortuos pater ad me nuntietur : 

65. Divi Both. \V. The MSS. have Di. R has Di pol. volunt, 
so the MSS. volint R. 

66. ni Scapham F. nicaspam BCD. niii Scapham Camer. Vulg. 
enccasso Bb. 

67. sat , so B. The rest of the MSS. omit sat. accacptum C. 
tibi victum CD. tibi . . ctum with an erasure Ba. tibi vi ctum Bb. 
victum tibi Grater. Vulg. 

69. So the MSS., except that Ba has capiendas. R perversely insists 
upon reconstructing the line by the aid of an imperfect quotation in 
Nonius (p. 302) — 

Morem gerundum censeo tibi et capiundas crinis. 

70. exin solet B. CD have corruptly exin sole, whence ex insole F. 
ex in sole Z. 

72. vendundum est, so Camer. vendundum si BCDF, a slight cor- 
ruption of vcndundums t, whence vendundum sit Z. R has vendussdust 
pater, which destroys the force of the passage. 

75. quom BF. cum CDZ, and again v. 92. This line is imperfect 
in the MSS. B has 

Quom videbunt gratiam referr . . i, 

with an erasure, while CD have referenti instead of referri. Camerarius 
thus restores the line — 

Quando videbunt gratiam bene merenti referri. 

R has — 

Quom me videbunt gratiam referre bene merenti. 

W has— 

Quom me videbunt gratiam referentem rem ferenti. 

76. meus nunc B. The rest of the MSS, have nunc meus. mortuos 

the MSS. 


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Vt ego exheredem meis bonis me faciam, atque hacc sit 

Sc. Iam ista quidem apsumpta res erit : dies noctesque 
estur, bibitur, 

Neque quisquam parsimoniam adhibet; sagina plane est. 

Phil. In te hercle certum est principium, ut sim parcus, 
experiri j 80 

Nam neque edes quicquam, neque bibes apud me his decern 

PH. Si quid tu in ilium bene voles loqui, id loqui licebit ; 

Nec recte si illi dixeris, iam ecastor vapulabis. 

Phil. Edepol si summo Iovi vivo argento sacrufi- 

Pro illius capite quod dedi : numquam aeque id bene 

locassem. 85 

Vt videas earn medullitus me amare! Oh, probus homo 
sum : 

Quae pro me causam diceret, patronum liberavi. 

Sc. Video, te nihili pendere prae Philolache omnes 
homines : 

77. bonis me faciam Carrier. me bonis fatiam B. me bonis faciam D. 

me faciam bonis C. sit beres, so B. sit res CD. 

78. quidem absumta res Z. The MSS. erroneously repeat quidem after 
absumpta. dies noctesque all the MSS. (acc.) 

79. Camer. places bibitur at the commencement of this line, and so 

Vulg. Neque quisquam BCD. Nec quisquam W. 

80. certumst CD. certum est B and the rest. principium, so the 
MSS. principe Both. RW, which may be right. 

81. me bic decern, a conj. of Both., followed by RW. me isdec B. 
meis Da. me isdem CDb. me bisce Lamb. Vulg. 

84, 85, 86, 87, are arranged by R in the following order : — 86, 87, 84, 85. 
Ho, moreover, assigns the words ut -videos . . . amare to Philematium, and 
changes earn into eum against the MSS. 

84. si summo Iovi vivo argento BbDFZ. si summo iovi bo agent o ... . 

vivo r 

with an erasure Ba. si summo iovi . bo agent-o Bb. si summo iovi 

iovi argento C, which is manifestly corrupt. summo ego Iovi illoc argento 
Camer. W, while R has — 

Edepol si vcl summo Iovi eo argento sacruficassem. 

85. locassem is a conj. of Guyet, adopted by RW. The MSS. have 

87. Que ( qua ■) B and vv. 94, 124. 

88. omnes, so the MSS. Varro LL. ix. 54, p. 494, omncis. 

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Nunc, ne cius causa vapulem, tibi potius adsentabor, 

Si acceptum sat habes, tibi fore ilium amicum semp- 

iternum. 90 

PH. Cedo mihi speculum et cum ornamentis arculam 
actutum, Scapha, 

Ornata ut siem, quom hue veniat Philolaches, voluptas mea. 
Sc. Mulier, quae se suamque aetatem spemit, speculo ei 
usus est : 

Quid opus est speculo tibi, quae tute speculo speculum es 
maxumum ? 

Phil. Ob istuc verbum, nc nequiquam, Scapha, tarn 
lepide dixeris, 95 

Dabo aliquid hodie pcculi tibi, Philematium mea. 

Pa. Suo quique loco viden’ capillus satis compositus est 
commode ? 

Sc. Vbi tu commoda es, capillum commodum esse credito. 
Phil. Vah, quid ilia pote peius quicquam muliere 
memorarier ? 

Nunc adsentatrix scelesta est; dudum advorsatrix erat. 100 
Ph. Cedo cerussam. Sc. Quid cerussa opus nam ? 

PH. Qui malas oblinam. 

89. eaujsa Bb. caussam Ba. vapulaem D. pocius C. adsenta- 
bor, so the MSS. B has also adsentatrix in v. 100. assentibor Lamb. W. 

90. R and W bracket this line, regarding it as an interpolation derived 
from v. 67. Si Camer. Is the MSS. 

9a. siem, Both. W. sim the MSS. veniat, so the MSS. R has 
sim and adveniat. 

9j. ei turn est, so Camer. The MSS. have elusa l. 

94. quae tute, so the MSS. quom tute R. speculo speculum es, so 

the MSS. speculo’s specimen R. * 

96. peu/i tibi Ba. peuli tibi Bb. ferculi tibi CDa. And hence Db, 
carrying the corruption a step farther, has perculi tibi, and Z pertuli tibi. 

97. So the MSS. R, following Nonius (p. 198) and Acidal., entirely 
remodels this line — 

Suon quidque locost ? vide capillum, satin compositust commode ? 

98. commoda es, so Camer. The MSS. have commodes, which is in 
reality the same thing. 

99. pote Ba. poll Bb. The rest of the MSS. potest. quicquam 

the MSS. quiquam R. mulieri B. memorarier Dc. morarier 

BCDaFZ. , 

too. adversatrix the MSS. 

101. opus nam B. opust nam CDF. nam opust > Malas qui R. 

D 2 

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Sc. Vna opera ebur atramento candefacere postules. 

PHIL. Lepide dictum de atramento atque ebore ! Euge, 
plaudo Scaphae. 

Pn. Turn tu igitur cedo purpurissum. Sc. Non do : 
scita es tu quidem ; 

Nova pictura interpolare vis opus lepidissumum ? 105 

Non istanc aetatem oportet pigmentum ullum attingere, 

Neque cerussam, neque melinum, neque aliam ullam 

Cape igitur speculum. Phil. Hei mihi misero: savium 
speculo dedit. 

Nimis velim lapidem, qui ego illi speculo diminuam 

Sc. Linteum cape atque exterge tibi manus. Ph. Quid 
ita, opsecro? 110 

Sc. Vt speculum tenuisti, metuo, ne oleant argentum 
manus : 

Ne usquam argentum te accepisse suspicetur Philolaches. 

Phil. Non videor vidisse lcnam callidiorem ullam 

Vt lepide atque astute in mentem venit de speculo malae ! 

PH. Etiamne unguentis unguendam censes ? Sc. Min- 
ume feccris. 115 

Ph. Quapropter ? Sc. Quia ecastor mulier rectc olct, 
ubi nihil olet. 

103. R inserts htrcle after ebur against the MSS. 

104. tbure B. Euge plaudo, so the MSS. Euge adplaudo, Scapba. 

Both. R. 

105. leppidissimum C. lepidissimum the rest. 

107. neque melinum, so the MSS. melinumt'e R. ullam aliam 

Camer. Vulg. W. The MSS. have aliam ullam. offuciam Dc. 

offugiam BCDa. , 

1 09, speculo diminuam, so Camer. speculum dim minuat Ba. speculum 
dimminua Bb. speculo imminuat CDa. R retains the orthography 

ill. oleant, so the MSS. olant R. 

1 1 3. a/teras BaC. alleras D. 

114. speculo male B, which in CD is forrupted into speculo mane. 

x 1 5. mistime the MSS. 

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Nam istae veteres, quae se unguentis unctitant, intcrpoles, 
Vetulae, edentulae, quae vitia corporis fiico occulunt, 

Vbi sese sudor cum unguentis consociavit, ilico 

Itidem olent, quasi quom una multa iura confudit cocus: 120 

Quid oleant, nescias, nisi id unum, ut male olere intellcgas. 

Phil. Vt perdocte cuncta callet ! nihil hac docta doctius ! 
Verum illud esse maxuma adeo pars vostrorum intellcgit, 
Quibus anus domi sunt uxores, quae vos dote meruerunt. 

Ph. Agedum, contempla aurum et pallam, satin’ haec 
me deceat, Scapha. . 125 

Sc. Non me curare istuc oportet. Ph. Quern, opsecro, 
igitur? Sc. Eloquar. 

Philolachem : is ne quid emat nisi quod tibi placere 

Nam amator meretricis mores sibi emit aura et purpura : 
Quid opus est, quod suum esse nolit, ei ultra ostentarier ? 
Purpura aetas occultanda est; aurum turpe mulieri, 130 
Pulcra mulier nuda erit, quam purpurata, pulcrior : 

Postea nequiquam exornata est bene, si morata est male : 
Pulcrum ornatum turpes mores peius caeno conlinunt. 

1 17. istae. iste the MSS. — istaec Vulg. R, which is probably right. 

1 1 8. I'icia B. occulunt, so Camcr. oecultant the MSS. 

120. unam BaC. 

121. oleant, so Lamb. oleas the MSS. olant R. ut male, so 

Camer. The MSS. have ni male, which might, perhaps, be retained. 
male ut R. 

122. doctius, so the MSS. doctius! R. 

123. illud esse maxuma adeo, so Aul. Gcll., xx. 6. illud est BCDFZ. 

maxima adeo with a space after maxima B, and hence Camer. corrects 
maximaque. The rest of the MSS. have maximii adeo. maxumum F. 

•vestrorum B. 

125. me deceat, so Camer. The MSS. omit me. 

126. curare istuc, so the MSS. istuc curare R. 

127. R supposes a gap to exist after nisi, extending to the end of the 

line, and as far as quod in the line following. This imaginary blank he fills 
up from his own fancy. 

128. R brackets this line. , 

129. nolit ei, so Pylad. nollite B. nolit te CDFZ. nolit id ei R. 

130. aetas is found in the margin of B. The MSS. have aetate. 

turpe B. turpi CD. turpest R. 

1 3 1. pulcbra the MSS., and so in the following lines. 

132. 133. Are bracketed by R, who reads Paste instead of Postea. 
nequicquam the MSS. 

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Nam si pulcra est, nimis ornata est. Phil. Nimis diu 
apstineo manum. 

Quid hie vos duae agitis? Ph. Tibi me exorno ut 

piaceam. Phil. Ornata es satis. 135 

Abi tu hinc intro, atque ornamenta haec aufer Sed, 

voluptas mea, 

Mea Philematium, potare tecum conlubitum est mihi. 

Ph. Lubet et edepol mihi tecum : nam quod tibi lubet, 
idem mihi lubet, 

Mea voluptas. Phil. Hem, istuc verbum vile est viginti 

Ph. Cedo, amabo, decern: bene emptum tibi dare hoc 

verbum volo. 140 * 

Phil. Etiam nunc decern minae apud te sunt : vel 
rationem puta : 

Triginta minas pro capite tuo dedi .... Ph. Cur ex- 
probras ? 

Phil. Egone id exprobrem ? Qui mihimet cupio id 
opprobrarier ; 

Nec quicquam argenti locavi iam diu usquam aeque bene. 

133. ceno the MSS. coma Z. caeno R. conlinunt — BCD have 

continunt, an obvious corruption of conlinunt. Saraccnus first introduced 
col/inunt, and so Vulg. W. , 

1 34. Nam li, so Camer, Nam nisi Ba. Nam niii Bb. Nam ne si 
CDFZ. manum FZ. manu BCD. 

135. Quid, so the MSS. Nam quid R. vos duae, so Camer. 
vos due Bb. vos diu BaCDZ. vos dui F. duae is omitted by RW. 
exorno ut flaceam, so the MSS. R omits ut piaceam as a gloss. 

136. tu bine BCD. tu, omitting bine, FZ. bine tu, Camer. Vulg. W. 

1 37. eonlibitum BD. 

138. Libet et edepol BCDF. Libel is probably a gloss, and is omitted 
by RW. All the MSS. have libet twice. 

139. Hem istuc, so Camer. em istuc Bb. earn istuc BaCD. Ba 
and Db assign the words Mea voluptas to Philolaches. Hence R arranges 
the words thus — 

Phil. Hem, istuc verbum, mea voluptas, vilest viginti minis. 

140. decern bene, so Acidal. de cum bene BaD. decumbe ne BbCF. 

142. quor F. r 

143. qui mihimet, so the MSS. quin mihimet Vulg. W. oprobarier 

Ba. obprobarier F. opr. Bb. oprobarier CD. 

144. iam diu, so Camer. The MSS. have tarn diu. 

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2 3 

Ph. Certe ego, quod te amo, operam nusquam melius 
potui ponere. 145 

PHIL. Bene igitur ratio accepti atque expensi inter 
nos convenit : 

Tu me amas, ego te amo; merito id fieri uterque exist- 

Haec qui gaudent, gaudeant perpetuo suo semper bono; 

Qui invident, ne umquam eorum quisquam invideat prosus 

PH. Age, accumbe igitur. — Cedo aquam manibus, puer. 
Appone hie mensulam. 150 

Vide, tali ubi sint. — Vin’ unguenta? Phil. Quid opus 
est? Cum stacta accubo. 

Sed estne hie meus sodalis, qui hue incedit cum arnica 
sua ? 

Is est Caliidamates ; cum arnica, eccum, incedit. Euge, 
oculus meus, 

Conveniunt manuplares, eccos ; praedam participes petunt. 

145. certe; R has certo. operam nusquam BbZ, opera manus 
quam BaCDF. 

147, existimat all the MSS. 

149, 150. In the MSS. v. 150 is placed before 149. Acidal. first restored 
the true arrangement. 

149. ne unqiuim or neumqua the MSS. numquam R. pr or sus BbFZ. 

prosus BaCDR. 

150. puer, so the MSS. R following Priscian (p. 6i8) (< has puere. 
mensulam , so Priscian 1 . c. mensam BCFZ. meam Da. meant Db. 

1 51. Eide tali ubi sint, vin' unguenta. This is the reading of the best 
MSS., although the words are erroneously divided, thus in B— 

Vide tali ubi sintu in unguenta, 

and in C — 

Videt aliubis intu inunguenta, 

and in D — 

Videt aliubi sin tu in unguenta. 

153. The MSS. have — 

Is est Caliidamates cum arnica cum incedit euge oculus meus, 
but D omits est, and Bb corrects cum incedit into eccum incedit, and so Vulg., 
which we have retained. W has — 

Is est: est Gallidamates : eccum incedit: Euge oculus meus. 

R has — 

Is est [profecto] : Caliidamates eccumst : euge, oculus meus. 

manifularts J 

154. manuplares B. 

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Ca. Advorsum venire mihi ad Philolachem 
Volo temperi : audi : hem, tibi imperatum est. 

Nam illi, ubi fui, inde cffugi foras: 

Ita me ibi male convivii sermonisque tacsum est. 

Nunc commissatum ibo ad Philolachetem, 

Vbi nos hilari ingenio et lepide accipiet. 

Ecquid tibi videor, ma-ma-madere ? 

In the following Scene, more than the usual amount of confusion exists 
in the different MSS. and edd. in regard to the distribution of the dialogue 
among the characters. We have, for the most part, adhered to the 
Vulgate. Hermann, Ritschl, and Weise, differ as to the metrical consti- 
tution of the passage, and each introduces changes in order to suit his 
own views. We have closely followed the division into lines found in B, 
except in one instance, and have adhered to the text of that MS., except 
where it was obviously corrupt. 

1. -venire, so the MSS. venire RW and others. The i in venire a 
correction of c. The fourth letter corrected and blurred. 

2. temperi, SO the MSS. tempori Vulg. audi hem — audiem CD. 

In Ba very doubtful. The word is corrected and blurred in the fourth 
letter. audi em Bb. Apparently in B the em was placed at first too near 
to the audi and a mark was made by the first hand thus, audi.em, to shew 
they were distinct words. tibi imperatum est the MSS. tibist im- 

peratum R. 

3. UK, so the MSS. illie Camer. Vulg. W. fui, so Camer. fuit 
the MSS. 

4. me ibi mate CDFZ. ibi is omitted in B, being written above by c 

or a late hand. taesum est, so I’areus. taunt D. In B there is a 

sort of dash or stroke at the end of the word, so, Tesum] it is probably 
intended for Tesum. In iv. 1. 17 (873) the m is written in exactly the 
same way, where R reads sum — sunt seems better, te sunt C. cesunt FZ. 

5. Pbilolacbem R against the MSS. 

6. hilari, so the MSS. bilaro W. et lepide, so Camer. The line 
appears thus in B — 

t t d c 

Vbi nos ilari ingenio elepida accipia. 

The t in red ink. elepida CDa. R has et lepido [victu] accipiet. 

7. 8. In B these two form a single line. 

7. Ecquid FZ. Hecquid BD, so necquis, v. 26. Hce quid C. Ecquid 
Bb. In B the first letter is erased, probably N or H. ma-ma-madere, 

so Both. R. The MSS. have mammum adire. Scaliger introduced 
mamma madere, and so Vulg. W. 

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De. Semper istoc modo moratus, vita, debebas 

Ca. Visne ego te ac tu me amplectere? 

De. Si tibi cordi est facere, licet. Ca. Lepida es. 10 
Duce me, amabo. De. Cave ne cadas. Asta. 

Ca. Oh! oh! ocellus es meus; tuus sum alumnus, mel 

De. Cave modo, ne prius in via accumbas, 

Quam illi, ubi lectus est stratus, coimus. 

Ca. Sine sine cadere me. De. Si no. Ca. Sed et hoc, 

quod mihi in manu est. 15 

De. Si cades, non cades, quin cadam tecum, 
lacentis toilet postea nos ambos aliquis. 

Madet homo. Ca. Tun’ me ais ma-ma-madere ? 

8. So the MSS., except that they have vile, whence vivere debebas 
Camer. Vulg. W. R has — 

Semper istoc modo [tute] moratu’s 
* * * » vita, debebas. 

9. So the MSS. Camer. has tute instead of tu amplectare Pylad. tute 
me amplexare Vulg. R has — 

Visne ego te ac tu med amplectare. 

10. cordi Z. corde the MSS. facere cordi est Herm. R. 

11. Duce the MSS. B has no blank at the beginning as R gives, but 
Duce probably after an erasure of Del. inserted by mistake. Due Herm. R. 

13. This appears thus in B: — . ocellus, etc., the letter D written 
on an erasure, the second letter erased ; after an erasure with faint 
traces of an I or h. Two dots under the second u in suum, so, suum. 
Oh! ob! ocellus FZ. O bo bocelles C. Obobocelleus D. \V brackets 

mel meum. 

13. B has a red line over the u in accubas. 

14. illi CD. ills B. The c added by first hand. illic FZ Vulg. W. 
lectus est ; the MSS. have lectus es, unless there is a misprint in R, who does 
not notice the variation. stratus coimus BC. cotmus Da. stratus 
nos coimus Herm. on conj. R prints stratus [nos] coimus. 

15. Sine sine, so the MSS. \V omits the second sine. Sino sed 
et hoc, so Camer. B has sino, then a letter (probably s) obliterated, then 


set . Sinos <$• hoc C. Sin. j<$- hoc D. R has — 

Call. Sine sine cadere me. Del. Sino. Call. Set [ne sine] hoc 
quod mi in manust. 
manu FZ. manus BCD. 

16. non cades quin FZ. non clades quin B. non dades quun C. non 
clades que in D. 

17. So the MSS. jacentis (acc.) B and the rest. ambo Herm R. 
Toilet iacentes post W. 

1 8. Tun me ais, so Scaliger. Tun mea . is B. Tun mea vis Bb. The 


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Be. Cedo manum : nolo equidcm te adfligi. 

Ca. Hem, tone. Be. Age, i i simul. Ca. Quo ego 
earn, an scis ? 20 

Be. Scio. Ca. In mentem vcnit modo: nempe domum eo 
Commissatum. Be. Imo. Ca. Istuc quidem iam memini. 

Phil. Num non vis me obviam his ire, anime mi ? 

Illi ego ex omnibus optumc volo. 

lam revortar. Ph. Diu ct iam” id mihi. 25 

Ca. Ecquis hie est ? Ph. Adest. Ca. £u, Philolaches, 
Salve, amicissume mihi omnium hominum. 

Phil. Di te ament. Accuba, Callidamates. 

Vnde agis te? Ca. Vnde homo ebrius. 

Phil. Probe. Quin amabo accubas, Delphium mea ? 30 

Ca. Da illi, quod bibat ; dormiam ego iam. 

Phil. Num mirum aut novom quippiam facit ? 

first letter of vis written over an erasure, but apparently by first hand ; the 
correction adere also apparently by first hand. The line is evidently — 
Madet homo— tun meam vis mammam adire, 
and the meaning is obvious. Tun mea his CD. ma-ma-madere , so 
Both. R, see v. 7. mammam adere B. mammam adere C. mammdadere 
D. mammam adhere F. 

19. W supposes that a word has dropped out after te. adfligi B. 
ajfligi DFZ. 

20. Age i i simul. Age ii simul B. Ageu simul C. Age simul FZ. 

Age i simul Camer. Vulg. W. Quo ego earn an scis, so Both. Herm. 

RW. Quod ego Ba, with a dot in black ink under the d. Quod ego earn 
an scis CD. Quo earn an seis F Z. 

21. domumeoCDFi/Z. domu meo B. 

22. R has Immo \hiic], 

23. me obviam, so the MSS. obviam me Camer. Vulg. obviam med W. 
his ire Bb. his . . re Ba. bis ei re C. iseire Da. is ire Db. bisee ire 
FZ, Vulg., which is perhaps right. 

24. Illi ego, so Camer. Ilieo the MSS. optume, so the MSS. 

25. rnvrtar , so the MSS. .R has Diust iam [tuumj id mihi. 

26. Ecquis FZ. B has ecquis with an erasure before the e. Hecquis D. 

Her quis C. See v. 7. Adest, so the MSS. Is est Z\V. Eu, so 

the MSS. Huge R. 

27. amicissime the MSS. omnium hominum, so the MSS. hominum 

omnium Pylad. R. 

28. R has [mi] Callidamates. 

30. R connects probe with ebrius, and assigns it to Callid. 

31. Da, so the MSS. Date Camer. W. \V brackets iam. 

32. Num, so the MSS. Non Camer. RW. quippiam the MSS. 
R has quippiam [nune] facit. 

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Quid ego hoc faciam postea, mea? De. Sic sine eumpse. 
Phil. Age tu, interim da ab Delphio cito cantharum 




Tr. Iuppiter supremus summis opibus atquc industriis 
Me perisse et Philolachetem cupit, herilem filium. 

Occidit spes nostra : nusquam stabulum est confidentiae, 

Nec Salus nobis saluti iam esse, si cupiat, potest : 

Ita mali maeroris montem maxumum ad portum modo 5 
Conspicatus sum: herus advenit peregre : pcriit Tranio. 
Ecquis homo est, qui facere argenti cupiat aliquantum lucri, 
Qui hodie sese cxcruciari meam viccm possit pati ? 

Vbi sunt isti plagipatidae, ferritribaces viri, 

Vei isti, qui *hastis trium numorum causa subeunt sub 

falas, 10 

Vbi aliqui quindenis hastis corpus transfigi solent ? 

Ego dabo ei talentum, primus qui in crucem excucurrerit ; 

33. fatiam B. faciam CDFZ. eumpse, so Gruter. cum ipse 

the MSS. 

34. ab Delphio cito , so the MSS. cito ab Delphio Herm. RW. 

1. Iuppiter seems to be the reading of the MSS., and in v. 51. Iupiter 
FZ in Both. 

2. herilem FZ. 

5. Ita mali meroris Bb. It am aliam erroris BaC. Itaaliderroris D. 
Ita alium erroris FZ. Ita altum erroris Pylad. maximum BC. 

8. meam 'vicem, so Pylad. me a mu i BaD. mea vice Bb. me ammo C. 

9. plagi pati dne BC. 

10. qui hastis trium. The MSS. all have hastis , but it looks like a gloss, 
and destroys the metre. It is omitted in most edd., but retained in Vulg. 
falas a very ingenious conj. of Camer. falsa BCDF. basta Z. 

11. Vbi aliqui quindenis , so Camer. Vel aliqui quiq ' denis Ba. Vbi 
aliqui quiq * denis BbCDZ. Vbi aliqui quinque denis F. Vel ubiquomque 
denis R. solent BbFZ. solet BaCDR. 

E 2 

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Sed ea lege, ut offigantur bis pedes, bis brachia. 

Vbi id erit factum, a me argentum pet i to' praesentarium. 

Sed ego sumne ille infelix, qui non curro curriculo 

domum ? 15 

Phil. Adest opsonium : eccum, Tranio a portu redit. 

Tr. Philolaches ! Phil. Quid est ? Tr. [Et] ego et 
tu . . . Phil. Quid “ et ego et tu” ? Tr. Perimus ! 

Phil. Quid ita? Tr. Pater adest. Phil. Quid ego 
ex ted audio ? Tr. Apsumpti sumus. 

Pater, inquam, tuus venit. Ph. Vbi is est, opsecro [te ?] 
Tr. Adest. Phil. [Adest?] 

Quis id ait ? quis vidit ? Tr. Egomet, inquam, vidi. 

Phil. Vae mi hi ! 20 

Quid ego ago ? Tr. Nam quid tu, malum, me rogitas, 
quid agas ? Accubas. 

Phil. Tun’ vidisti ? Tr. Egomet, inquam. Phil. Certe ? 
Tr. [Certe], inquam. Phil. Occidi, 

Si tu vera memoras. Tr. Quid mihi sit boni, si men- 
tiar ? 

1 3. offigantur BCDZ. obfringantur F . nffigantur Camer. Vu!g. 

14. presentarium B. 

15. sumne ille infelix, so the MSS. Most cdd., following Pylad., omit 
ille. It is retained in Vulg. 

16. A dr st . . . Tranio, so the MSS. Adest adest Grutcr. Tandem adest 

Herm. En adest R. Adest . . . Tranionem W. redit Bb, aedit 

BaC. edit D. adit FZ. venit codd. Pylad. 

17. Quid est l et ego et tu, so Dousa. The MSS. omit et before ego. 
perimus, so all the MSS., which creates a difficulty in the metre, periimus 
RW. See v. 28. 

18. adest BbFZ. adatest Ba. ndat est C. adatt Da. a . ate Db. 
ex ted, so Both. ete BCD. ex te FZ. 

19. Vbi is est obseero. Adest, so the MSS. Vbi est is obsecro te. 
Tr. Adest Gainer. Vulg. Vbi is est obsecro te. T R. Adest. PHIL. Adest f 
W. Vbi is est obsecro. T R. [/» portu iam] adest R. 

20. Ve BC. 

21. ago, so Dousa. agam BCDFZ. Nam quid. so Dousa. Num 

quid BCDFZ. rogitas B. rogitet CD. Accubas, so Camer. 

Aecubans BCD. 

22. Tun vidisti Dc Camer. Tu nuidisti B, which is in reality the 

same. The rest of the MSS. arc more wide of the mark. Tui inuisti C. 
Tuun vidisti D. Tu en vidisti FZ. Certe certe. The MSS. omit the 

second certe, which was supplied by Camer., and has been generally received. 

23. mentiar, so Pylad. The MSS. have mentirer. 

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Phil. Quid ego nunc faciam ? Tr. lube haec hinc 
omnia amolirier. 

Quis istic dormit ? Phil. Callidamates. Tr. Suscita 

istum, Delphium. 25 

De. Callidamates, Callidamates, vigila! Ca. Vigilo: 
cedo ut bibam. 

De. Vigila : pater advenit peregre Philolachae. Ca. Val- 
eat pater. 

PHIL. Valet ille quidem ; atque [ego] disperi. Ca. Dis- 
peristi ? qui potest ? 

Phil. Quaeso edepol, exsurge: pater advenit. Ca. Tuus 
venit pater ? 

lube abire rursum. Quid illi reditio hue etiam fuit ? 30 

Phil. Quid ego agam ? Pater iam hie me offendet 
miserum adveniens ebrium, 

Aedis plcnas convivarum et mulierum. Miserum est opus, 
Igitur demum fodere puteum, ubi sitis fauces tenet ; 

Sicut ego adventu patris nunc quaero, quid faciam miser. 

Tr. Ecce autem, hie deposivit caput, et dormit. 

Suscita. 33 

Phil. Etiam vigilas? Pater, inquam, aderit iam hie 
meus. CA. Ain’ tu? pater? 

34. bee C. 

25. Quid B. Quis FZ. Quid CD. istum, so the MSS. is- 
tunc W. 

36. cedo ut, so the MSS. R omits ut. 

38. W has illic, a conj. of Both., and at (for atque'), a conj. of Dousa. 

coo was inserted by Pylad., but is not found in the MSS. disperi 
BaCD. Disperisti FZ. Bis peristi B. Bisperisti CD. 

39. Quaeso edepol exsurge, so the MSS., except that B has Queso. 
Quaeso edepol te exsurge R. 

30. lube abire, so the MSS. lube eum abire R. redicio D. 

hue etiam, so Camcr. etiam hue BFZ. etiam butte I). et etiam hue C. 

31. Pater iam hie me offendet miserum, so the MSS., except that BCD 
have offendit, which is corrected in FZ. W omits me, and, following 
Both., nas misere. R has nam iam hie offendet miserum. 

33. This line is found in B, but omitted in CDFZ. 

34. quero BC. fa(iam B. 

35. deposii'it, so Camer. deposuit the MSS. Eccere autem hie depos- 
ivit R. Suscita BbFZ. Suseitat BaCD. 

36. aderit BbFZ. adberit BaCD. 

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3 ° 


Ccdo solcas mihi, ut arma capiam ! iam pol ego occidam 

Phil. Perdis rem : tace. Amabo, abripite hunc intro 
actutum inter manus. 

CA. Iam hercle ego vos pro matula habebo, nisi mihi 
matulam datis. 

Phil. Perii ! Tr. Habe bonum animum : ego istum 
lepide medicabo metum. 40 

Phil. Nullus sum ! Tr. Taceas : ego, qui istaec sedem, 
meditabor, tibi. 

Satin’ habes, si ego advenientem ita patrem faciam 

Non modo ne intro eat, verum ctiam ut fugiat longe ab 
aedibus ? 

Vos modo hinc abite intro atque haec hinc propere amoli- 

Phil. Vbi ego ero ? Tr. Vbi maxume esse vis : cum 
hac, cum istac eris. 45 

De. Quid est igitur ? abeamus hinc nos ? Tr. Non hoc 
longe, Delphium. 

Nam intus potate haud tantillo hac quidem causa 

37. Cedo so Iras mihi til arma, so the MSS. So/ras cedo mi ut arma R. 

39. nisi mihi B. The rest of the MSS. omit mihi. 

40. medicaho Dill' / R. meditabor B. meditabo C. medic abor Db. 

Pylad. Vulg. VV. 

41. Nil! I us BbFZ. Nullum BaCD. is la bee BCD and v. 48. 

42. There is some confusion here in the MSS., arising, probably, from 
a portion of the two following lines having been copied twice over. 

43. intro at BaCD. intro at Bb. introeat FZ. 

44. habile D. be c C. bine propere , so the MSS. propere 

bine R. 

45. So the MSS. maxime the MSS. vis esse Both. R. cum 
hac: tu cum istac eris \V. W believes this line and all which follow 
to the end of the scene to be spurious. He brackets, however, only 
[ 45 - 55 ]- 

46. Quid est igitur, so the MSS. Quid si igitur Both. Quid igitur si 

R. Quid igitur W. hab ramus BCD. 

47. Nd intus B. Namrntus C. N ament us D. Nam metuis pot are Z. 

Num metuis potare F. Namque intus Vulg. W. hautantillo BaD. 

hautantillo Bb. haud tantillo F. haut ancillo C. 

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3 1 

Phil. Ei mihi, quam, istaec blanda dicta quo eveniant, 
madco metu ! 

Tr. Porin', animo ut sies quieto et facias, quod iubco ? 
Phil. Potest. 

Tr. Omnium primum Philematium, intro abi, et tu, 
Delphium. 50 

Be. Morigerae tibi erimus ambac. Tr. Ita illc faxit 
Iuppiter ! 

Animum advorte nunc tu iam, quae voltj accurarier. 

Omnium primumdum aedes iam face occlusae sicnt. 

Intus cave muttire quemquam siveris. Phil. Curabitur. 

Tr. Tamquam si intus natus nemo in aedibus habitct. 
Phil. Licet. 55 

Tr. Neu quisquam responset, quando hasce aedis pul- 
tabit senex. 

Phil. Numquid aliud ? Tr. Clavem mi harunce acdium 

Iam iube efferri intus : hasce ego aedis occludam hinc 

Phil. In tuam custodiam meque et spes meas trado, 

48. Ei BCD. Hei FZ. quant istaec , so Gamer. quom ista bee 

BaD. quom ista . ec Bb. quomista baec C. commixta F. commista 
bee Z. ei'eniant , so the MSS. covenant Both. R. 

49. animo ut sies 7 so Gamer. The MSS. have animo ut sis — ut animo sis 
Both. Herm. R. fatias B, v. 80. fatiam Ba. 

50. babi D. 

51. Monger a et ibi BaCD. 

52. advorte, so the MSS. ad'vortito W. tu iam BFZ. tulam 

CD. iam tu Both. R. que C, and in v. 65 BC. adcurarier Z. 

53. R inserts baec before aedes . B appears to have had face — the 

rest fac . 

54. mutire the MSS. 

55. si intus Vulg. stint us BaCD. natus nemo , so apparently 

all the MSS. nemo natus Vulg. edibus B, and edium v. 57 in 


56. putabit BaD, an obvious blunder. 

57. harunce aedium , so Camer. harumcedium Ba. barunccdium D. 

bar a cediii C. barunc aedium R. laconicam B. iaconicam CD. 

nunc iam Z. 

59. custodiam meque et spes meas , so the MSS. custodiam me et meas 
spes Pylad. W. custodelam meque et spes meas Both. R. 

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Tr. Pluma haud interest, patronus an cluens proprior 
siet 60 

Homini, quoi nulla in pcctore est audacia. 

Nam quoivis homini, vel optumo vel pessumo, 

Quamvis desubito facile est facere ncquiter ; 

Verum id videndum est, id viri docti est opus, 

Quae dcsignata sint et facta nequitia, 65 

Ni quid patiatur, quamobrem pigeat vivere : 

Tranquille cuncta ft ut proveniant sine malo : 

Sicut ego efficiam, quae facta hie turbabimus, 

Profecto ut liqueant omnia et tranquilla sint, 

Nec quicquam nobis pariant ex se incommodi. 70 

Sed quid tu egrederis ? Perii ! o, iamiam optume 
Praeceptis paruisti ! Pv. [Herus] iussit maxumo 

60. an dims BbDFZ. ac cliem Ba. addiens C. proprior BaCDK. 

propior BbZW. probior Sciopp. Vulg. probrior R. siet BbF. 

sciet BaCD. R supposes that a line has fallen out after v. 6o, and 
says that space for a line appears in BCD. 

61. cui all the MSS. in pectore est, so Pylad. est in pectore the 
MSS. audatia BC. 

62. This verse is bracketed by R. curvis BbDcFZ. cuius BaCDa. 

isomine BaC. bominis Da. pessimo BCD. 

63. After this line we find in tne MSS. and Vulg. the verse which occurs 
again below, apparently in its proper place as v. 77 — Clavim cedo, &c. 

64. docti est BbFZ. docte est BaCD. 

65. designata Z. dissignata BaF. dissignita BbCD. nequitia, 

so the MSS. nequiter Dousa R. 

66, 67. These lines follow each other thus in the MSS. Acidal. places 
67 before 66, and is followed by RW. 

66. Ni BaDR. Ne BbCFZW. patiatur Bb. potiatur BaCD. 

ponatur FZ. 

67. et ut proveniant, so the MSS. ut provenant et R. sine malo, 

there can be no doubt that this is the true reading, but the words are 


curiously blundered in the MSS. sinemo malo Ba. sine mo malo Bb. 
sine momolo C. sine monolo D. sine modo FZ. 

68. turbabimus , so the MSS. turbabimus Lamb. R. 

69. liqueant , so Vulg. BCDa have linqueant. 

70. ex se incommodi , so Gainer. exeisincommodi B. exei incommodi C. 
ex ei incommodi D. ex eo incommodi F (exeo Z). 

71. egrederis: perii, 0 SO Gruter. egrederes perio BaCD. egrederes 

perio Bb. eg rede re perii e/so R. 

7 2. So Gamer, preceptis BG. The MSS. omit Herus. R has — 

Praeceptis pares. Pv, Erus tc iussit maxumo. 
maxima or maxima the MSS. 

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Opere orare, ut patrem aliquo apsterreres modo, 

Ne introiret aedis. Tr. Quin etiam illi hoc dicito, 
Facturum, ut ne etiam aspicere aedis audeat, 

Capite obvoluto ut fugiat, cum summo metu. 

Clavim cedo atque abi hinc intro, atque occlude ostium, 

Et ego hinc occludam. — lube venire nunc iam ! 

Ludos ego hodie vivo praesenti hie seni 
Faciam, quod credo mortuo numquam fore. 

Concedam a foribus hue ; hinc speculabor [ffocul, 

Vnde advenienti sarcinam inponam seni. 



Th. Habeo, Neptune, gratiam magnam tibi, 

Quom me amisisti a te vix vivom modo ! 

Verum si posthac me pedem latum modo 
Scies inposisse in undam : haud causa ilico est. 

Quod nunc voluisti facere, quin facias mihi. 5 



73. opere DcFZ. opete BCDa. 

74. [Fleck., and R (in his later volumes), Lor., and others, write intro 

ire in two words. Ed.] aedis Camer. adest BCD. 

75. hasee aedis R, against the MSS. audiat Ba. 

76. cum summo, so the MSS. summo cum ZW. 

77. So the MSS. abi bine intro: occlude R. W omits bine. 

78. nuntiam C, for nunc iam, and again v. 43 in BaCD. 

79. presenti BC. bic, so the MSS. buic R, following Bentley and 
others. seni Bb. sene BaCD. 

80. quod credo B after correction, FZ. quo do edo C. quodoedo D. 

82. inponam , so B. 

2. Quom me, so the MSS. Quoniam Gruter. R. amisisti me R. 
a te •vix, so Vulg. ad te n fix BCD. •vix a te Pylad. W. •vivom, so B. 

3. Verum , so Vulg. Virum BCD. 

4. Scies DcFZ. Sics BaCD. Sines Bb. inposisse or imposts se 

BCDZ. imposuisse FW. bau for baud BaCDa. illico est the 

MSS. est ilico R. est illico W. 

5. fatias Ba. 


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Apage, apage te a me nunc iam post hunc diem ; 

Quod crediturus tibi fui, omne credidi. 

Tr. Edepol, Neptune, pcccavisti largiter, 

Qui occasionem hanc amisisti tarn bonam. 

Th. Triennio post Aegupto advenio domum. io 

Credo, exspectatus vcniam familiaribus. 

Tr. Nimio edepol ille potuit exspectatior 
Venire, qui te nuntiaret mortuom. 

Th. Sed quid Tioc ? Occlusa ianua est interdius ? 

Pultabo. Heus, ecquis istas aperit mihi fores? 15 

Tr. Quis homo est, qui nostras aedes accessit prope ? 

Th. Meus servos hie quidem est Tranio. Tr. O Theu- 

Here, salve : salvom te advenisse gaudeo. 

Vsque invaluisti ? Th. Vsque, ut vides. Tr. Factum 

Th. Quid vos ? insanin’ est ? Tr. Quidum ? Th. Sic : quia 20 
Foris ambulatis; natus nemo in aedibus 
Servat, neque qui recludat, neque qui respondeat. 

Pultando pedibus pene confregi hasce ambas.* 

6. apage ae age CDa, an obvious blunder, and so omni in v. 7. 

8. largiter BC. lagiter D. iugiter FZ. 

9. boccasionem D. 

13. mortuum the MSS. 

15. euj becquis BaCD. istcu aperit BbDcFZ. istaperit BaCDa. 
mibi, so Camer. in BCDa. The word is omitted in DcFZ. fores 
(acc.) the MSS. 

16. aedes or edes BCD. 

17. servus B. 

18. Here salve, so the MSS. of Pylad. Eregatve BaCDa. salvom 
B. salvum DbFZ. satvem CDa. 

19. Vsque invaluisti, so the MSS. Vsqurne va/uisti Camer. Vsquen 

valuisti W. Vsquin va/uisti R. optime BCD. 

21. edibus C. 

11. neque qui respondeat FZW. ' neque quis respondeat BCD. Both, 
omits quis, and is followed by R, who, however, endeavours to rewrite 
the line. 

23. Such is the reading of B, with which the rest of the MSS. agree 
closely. The line is evidently imperfect. R has — 

Pultando paene confregi hasce ambas foris ; 
which is very reasonable, and not unlikely to be true. W has — 

Pultando pedibus pene confregi assulas. 

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Tr. Eho an tu tetigisti has aedis ? Th. Cur non 
tangerem ? 

Quin pultando, inquam, pene confregi foris. 35 

Tr. Tetigistin’ ? Th. Tetigi, inquam, et pultavi. 

Tr. Vah ! Th. Quid est ? 

Tr. Male hercle factum ! Th. Quid est negoti ? Tr. Non 

Dici, quam indignum facinus fecisti et malum. 

Th. Quid iam? Tr. Fuge, opsecro, atque apscede ab 

Fuge hue, fuge ad me propius! Tetigistin’ fores? 30 

Th. Quomodo pultare potui, si non tangerem ? 

Tr. Occidisti hercle. Th. Quern mortalem ? Tr. Omnis 

Th. Di te deaeque omnis faxint cum isto omine. 

Tr. Metuo, te atque istos expiare ut possies. 

Th. Quamobrem, aut quam subito rem mihi adportas 
novam ? 35 

Tr. Et, heus, iube illos illinc, amabo, apscederc. 

Th. Apscedite. Tr. Aedes ne attigatis ! Tangite 
Vos quoque terram ! Th. Opsecro hercle, quin eloquere 

24. Eho F. The rest have Eo. an tu FZ. ante te BaC. an tu 
te BbD. edes DFZ. quor F. 

25. confregi Ba. corfrigi CDa. 

26. R here changes the order of the ten following lines, and arranges 
them thus:— 26, 31, 27, 28, 35, 32, 33, 34, 29, 30, 36. 

30. ‘Tetigistin fores , so the MSS. R considers this to be a repetition of 
v. 26, and therefore prints — 

Fuge hue, fuge ad me propius [tene terram manu]. 

32. onis C. oms B. omnes DFZ. 

33. omnis (nom. plur.) BCDZ. omnes FR. faxint B. axint 

CDa. axint Db, and hence perduassint F. perduaxint Z. perduint W. 
isto omine BbF. isto homine BaC. is tor omine ZR. 

36. illinc, so the MSS. illim Both. R. 

37. adit (acc.) Diomedcs, p. 378. a ties the MSS. attigatis, so 
Diomedes ib. atigate BaCD. attingite BbFZ. 

38. quin eloquere iam Pylad. W. quin eloquere the MSS. R conj. 
quin [intro imus hue), supposing eloquere to have been derived from 
v. 41. 

F 2 

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3 ^ 


Tr. Quia septem menses sunt, quom in hasce aedis 

Nemo intro tetulit, semel ut emigravimus. 40 

Th. Eloquere, quid ita ? Tr. Circumspicedum, num 
quis est, 

Sermonem nostrum qui aucupet. Th. Tutum probe cst. 

Tr. Circumspice ctiam. Th. Nemo est : loquere nunc 

Tr. Capitalis caedis facta est. Th. *Quid est ? non 

Tr. Scelus, inquam, factum est iamdiu, antiquom et 
vetus. 45 

Antiquom. Id adeo nos nunc factum invenimus. 

Th. Quid istuc esr, * sceleste, aut quis id fecit? cedo. 

Tr. Hospes necavit hospitem captum manu ; 

Iste, ut ego opinor, qui has tibi aedis vendidit. 

Th. Necavit? Tr. Aurumque ei ademit hospiti, 50 
Eumque hie defodit hospitem ibidem in aedibus. 

Th. Quapropter id vos factum suspicamini ? 

Tr. Ego dicam : ausculta. Vt foris cenaverat 
Tuus gnatus, postquam redit a ccna domum : 

39. menus (nom. plur.) D. aedis, so apparently BCD (acc. plur.) 
tides FZ. 

43. Sermonum BaCDa, an obvious blunder. probest BCDF. 

43. nunc iam, so Vulg. nuntiam BaCDa, an obvious blunder. 

44. Capitalis caedis facta est. This is the true reading of the MSS., 


thus — Capital's s cedis BaC. Capital's sccdis Bb. capitalis cedis DF. 
Capitalis aedis ZW. Caputale f ac turns t R. Quid est } so the MSS. 

Gamer, omits the words, and so W. Quid id est Both. R. 

45. antiquum the MSS. 

46. Antiquom , so the MSS. R conj. [Capuiale], FW give the word 
Antiquom to Thcuropides. 

47. est sceleste , so the MSS. scelus est R, Scaliger having previously 
proposed est scelus. sceleste est \V. 

48. necavit, so Vulg. negavit BaCDa. 

49. Isas tibi BbDcFZ. as fib . . with erasure B. bastibus CDa. 
aedis BC. aedes DFZ. 

50. ei ademit, an early correction. et ademit BCDF. eidem ademit R. 
eii ademit Vulg. ipsi ademit Pylad. 

54. gnatus the MSS. here and v. 58. redit the MSS. rediit 


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Abimus omnes cubitum, condormivimus. 55 

Lucemam. forte oblitus fueram extinguere : 

Atque ille exclamat dercpente maxumum. 

Th. Quis homo ? an gnatus meus ? Tr. St tace ; 
ausculta modo. 

Ait, venisse ilium in somnis ad se mortuom. 

Th. Nempe ergo in somnis? Tr. Ita. Scd ausculta 
modo. ‘ 60 

Ait ilium hoc pacto sibi dixisse mortuom .... 

Th. In somnis? Tr. Mirum, quin vigilanti diceret, 

Qui abhinc sexaginta annis occisus foret. 

Interdum inepte stultus es. Th. Taceo. Tr. Sed ecce, 
quae ille inquit : 

“Ego transmarinus hospes sum Diapontius ; 65 

Hie habito; haec mihi dedita est habitatio: 

Nam me Acheruntem recipere Orcus noluit, 

Quia praemature vita careo. Per fidem 
Deceptus sum : hospes me hie necavit, isque me 

55. Abimus , so the MSS. Abiimus W, which is unnecessary. 
gubitum the MSS. 

57. maximum the MSS. 

58. gnatus meus the MSS. meus gnatus Both. R. St' tace, so 

Camer. Sitace Ba. Si tace CD. Sed tace Bb. Si taces Dc. jic 
tace FZ. 

59. 61. mortuum the MSS. in both. 

ба. quin Pylad. qui the MSS., which may be defended. dicerit 
CDa. dixerit Dc. 

64. This verse, unless we suppose an interruption in the versification, 
is obviously corrupt. B divides it into two lines — 

Interdum inepte stultus cs 

Th. Taceo. Tr. Scd ecce quae ille inquit. 

CD include the whole in a single line, and have Interdum inepte stultus es 
taceo sed ecce que ilium ( ineptae C. hecce D.) W thus rewrites it— 
Interdum inepte stuitus’s. Sed ecce quae ille ait, 
while R, with some ingenuity, restores two complete lines — 

Interdum inepte stultus es, [Theuropides]. 

Tb. Taceo. Tr. Set ecce quae illi ille inquit [mortuos]. 

бб. haec mihi dedita est, so the MSS. dedita haec mihi est Both. R. 
babitacio Da. 

67. Nam me BDa. Nam ine C. Nam me in DbFZ. orchus 

BCD. horcus Z. 

69. me hie R\V. hie me the MSS. 

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3 « 


Defodit insepultum clam *ibidem in hisce aedibus, 70 . 

Scelestus, auri causa. Nunc tu hinc emigra : 

Scelcstae hac sunt aedes, impia est habitatio.” 

Quae hie monstra fiunt, anno vix possum eloqui. 

St, st ! Th. Quid,' opsecro, hercle, factum est ? Tr. Con- 
crepuit foris. 

Hicine percussit ? Th. Guttam haud habeo sanguinis. 75 
Vivom me arcessunt ad Acheruntem mortui. 

Tr. Perii ! illiscc hodie hanc conturbabunt fabulam. 

Nimis quam formido, ne manufesto hie me opprimat. 

Th. Quid tute tecum loquere ? Tr. Apscede ab ianua. 

Fuge, opsecro hercle ! Th. Quo fugiam ? Etiam tu fugis. 80 

Tr. Nil ego formido: pax mihi est cum mortuis 

Th. Heus, Tranio! Tr. Non me appellabis, si sapis: 

Nihil ego commerui, neque istas percussi fores. 

*Th. Quaeso, quid aegre est ? quae res te agitat, Tranio ? 

70. ibidem is found in the MSS., but is probably a gloss, omitted by R 
and bracketed by \V. 

72. hae sunt aedes impia est Ba. hae sunt aede j impia est C. bede 
simp/a est Da. Pius first made the obvious correction impia. Scelesta 
baec aedis W. Sce/estae haec aedes R. 

73. que C. monstra, so Vulg. monitra BaCDa, an obvious 


74. St st, so Gruter. Sedet BCD. Secede FZ. hercle; W 

brackets this word without necessity. fores B. fores C. foraes D. 
foris FZ. 

75. Hiccine percussit, so the MSS. Haecine percussast R. 

76. vivom BC. accersunt C, which is, perhaps, the true ortho- 
graphy. ad is found in all the MSS. ( adeberuntem CDa), but is 
omitted for the sake of the metre by Herm., R, and others. 

77. Perii illiscc, so Camer. Per illisce BCDa. Peri ill'u ce Dc. 
iUice W, following Dousa, which may be right. 

78. manifesto the MSS. opprimant CDFZ. 

79. Quid tute tecum Vulg. Quit te tu cum BaCDa ( Quitte D. tucum 

CD). Quid tu tecum BbDcF. 

80. Quo , so. the MSS. Quor Both. R. fugis, so Carrier. fugies 
B. fuges the rest of the MSS. fuge \V. 

83. commerui Vulg. quom merui B. quommerui CDa. fores, SO 
the MSS. (acc.) and again v. 87. 

84. This line as it stands in the text is a conj. of Camer., being made 
up from the fragments of two lines, of which the traces, as found in BCD, 
are these — 

Qucso Quid segreges 

este agitat Tranio 

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Quicum istacc loquerc ? Tr. An, quaeso, tu appella- 
veras ? 8 

Ita me di amabunt, mortuom ilium credidi 
Expostulare, quia percussisses fores. 

Sed tu etiamne astas, nec, quae dico, optemperas ? 

77/. Quid faciam ? Tr. Cave respexis, fuge, operi 
*atque caput ! 

Th. Cur non fugis tu ? Tr. Pax mihi est cum 


mortuis. 90 

77/. Scio. Quid ? modo igitur cur tanto opere ex- 
timueras ? 

Tr. Nil me curassis, inquam : ego mihi providcro; 

Tu, ut occepisti, tantum quantum quis, fuge; 

Atque Herculem invocabis. 77/. Hercules, te invoco ! 

Tr. Et ego, tibi hodie ut det, senex, magnum malum. 95 
Proh di immortales, opsecro vostram fidem. 

Quid ego hodie negoti confeci, malum ! 

(Quaeso and egreges in D). In FZ we find the single line — 

Tb. Quaeso. Tr. Quid e grege es ? Tb. Quis te agitat, Tranio. 

The two lines are restored by R, but this is merely a work of fancy. 

85. ista bee BaCDF. queso BC. 

86 . amabunt Vulg. amabant BCDa. r 

87. percussisses BDcFZ. percussesses Da. pet us isses C. percussissem 

Acidal. R. fores the MSS. forts R. 

88. astas, so ZR. astias B. as tens CD. adstas F. optemperas 

BCD. quae dico BCD. quod dico FZW. 

89. fat'iam B. fuge operi atque, so the MSS. fuge atque operi Vulg. 
Most edd. omit atque. 

90. 91. So BCD. R, without any plausible reason, rewrites these 

9a. provideo C. 

93. fuge FZ. fugis B. fid CD. fugies Camer. Vulg. 

94. invocabis BbFZ. invocabi BaCDa. invoca R. 

95. tibi hodie ut FZ. ut ibi bodie ut BaCD. ut ibi hodie ut Bb. 

96. Dii BC. Di D. vestram the MSS. 

97. \V, following Pareus, prints hodie [j6/V]. negat'd BD. negoti C. 
negocii FZ. malum, so the MSS. malus Acidal. ma/i Guyet. R. 

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Da. Scclcstiorem ego annum argcnto faenori 
Numquam ullum vidi, quam hie mihi annus optigit. 

A mane ad noctem usque in foro dego diem ; 

Locare argenti nemini numum queo. 

Tr. Nunc pol ego perii plane in perpetuom modum : 5 

Danista adest qui dedit [argentum faenori] 

Qui arnica est empta, quoque [opus in sumptus fuit] 
Manufcsta res est, nisi quod occurro prius, 

Ne hoc [nunc] senex resciscat. Ibo huic obviam. 

Sed quidnam hie sese tarn cito recipit domum ? 10 

Metuo, ne de hac re quidpiam indaudiverit. 

Accedam atque adpellabo. Hei, quam timeo miser ! 

Nihil est miscrius, quam animus hominis conscius, 

Sicut me habet. Verum utut res sese habet, 

1. faenori BC, but both have fenus w. 30 and 49. We may notice a 
disposition in these MSS. to sink diphthongs. A has uniformly faenus 
wherever the word can be read. A has, however, Taelerrume for 
teterrume , and lartriorem for letriorem v. 74. 

2. optigit BCDa. 

3. mane , so the MSS. mani R. See III. ii. 80. 

5. perpetuum all. 

6, 7. B has preserved here the fragments only of two lines — 

Danista adest qui dedit 

Qui arnica est empta quoque 

which the rest of the MSS. present as a single verse. Z omits quoque. 
The words within brackets are ingenious conjectures by Camer., adopted 
in the Vulg. W has concocted the following — 

Danista adest, qui arnica est emta, qui dedit. 

8. manifeita the MSS. quod , so the MSS. quid an early correc- 

tion adopted by RW. 

9. Ne hoc j mine]. The MSS. omit nunc, which was added on conj. 
by Gamer., and has been adopted by RW. resciscat Vulg. rescissat 

11. indaudiverit a conj. of Both., adopted by RW. The MSS. have 

12. Hei, so Taubman. et BCDF. ei R. at Pylad. W. 

14. me, so the MSS. mi Both. R. utut ret sese, so Dc Camer. 
utut res esse se BaCDa. utut res . sse se Bb. ut res haec sese FZ. utut 
res sese baec W. ututi sese res R. 

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Pergam turbare porro: ita haec res postulat. 15 

Vnde is? Th. Conveni ilium, unde hasce aedis emeram. 
Tr. Numquid dixisti de illo, quod dixi tibi ? 

Th. Dixi hercle vero [illi] omnia. Tr. Vae misero 
mihi ! 

Metuo, ne technae meae perpetuo perierint ! 

Th. Quid tute tecum ? Tr. Nihil enim. Sed die 
mihi : 20 

Dixtine, quaeso? Th. Dixi, inquam, ordine omnia. 

Tr. Etiam fatetur de hospite ? Th. Imo pernegat. 

Tr. Negat? [ Th. Negat, inquam. Tr. Perii oppido] 
quom cogito. 

[Non confitetur]. Th. Dicam si confcssus sit. 

Quid nunc faciundum censes? Tr. Egon’ quid censeam? 25 
Cape, opsecro hercle [te], cum eo una iudicem; 

Sed cum videto ut capias, qui credat mihi : 

Tam facile vinces, quam pirum volpes comest. 

15. bee C. 

16. Pnde is? so Vulg. Vnde bis or Vndehis the MSS. aedis B and 
most of the MSS. (acc.) 

17. dixi, so Vulg. dixit BaCDa, an evident blunder. 

18. erele CD and in v. 52. vero \illi] omnia. The MSS. omit illi, 

which was added on conj. by Pylad. atque omnia Camer. ei omnia R. 

Vae, so Vulg. rSf Ba. VSf Bb. et CDa. ei DcR. bei FZ. 
Here follow in the MSS. the four lines which occur again below, w, 22, 
25, 26, 27. Acidal. detected and corrected the repetition. 

19. teebnae DZ. teebinae BCR. tegnae F. 
ao. tute F. tu te Z. tu BCD. 

at. Dixtine, so R. Dixtin the MSS., except C, which has Dixit in. 
Dixistin W. queso BC and v. 47. 

aj, 24. These two lines appear under a very mutilated form in BCD — 

Tr. Negat quom cogita 

dicam si confessus sit. 

Where CD have Neeat, and dicam is wanting in B : in FZ the fragments 
are combined into a single line. The words within brackets in the text 
are conjectural additions by Camer., adopted in the Vulg. W, following 
Pius and others, concocts the following — 

Tr. Negat ? Th. Etiam rogitas ? Dicam si confessus sit. 

R follows Camer., except that he has Perii rem, instead of Perii oppido. 

25. Egon, so the MSS. Ego Both. R. 

26. te was added on conj. by Pylad., but is omitted in the MSS. 
eum eo una BCDFZ. una cum eo Both. R. 

28. vincis CD. 


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4 * 

Da. Scd Philolachetis servom cccum Traniumj 
Qui mihi neque faenus neque sortem argenti danunt. 30 
Th. Quo te agis? Tr. Ncc quoquam abeo. Nam ego 
sum miser, 

Scelestus, natus dis inimicis omnibus. 

Iam illo praesente adibit. Nae ego homo sum miser: 

Ita et hinc et illinc mi exhibent negotium. 

Sed occupabo adire. Da. Hie ad me it: salvos sum: 33 

Spes est de argento. Tr. Hilarus est. Frustra cst homo. 
Salverc iubco te, Misargurides, bene. 

Da. Salve et tu. Quid de argento est? Tr. Abi, sis, 
belua ! 

Continuo adveniens pilum iniecisti mihi. 

Da. Hie homo est inanis. Tr. Hie homo certe est 
hariolus. 40 

Da. Quin tu istas mittis tricas? Tr. Quin, quid vis, cedo. 
Da. Vbi Philolaches est? Tr. Numquam potuisti mihi 
Magis opportunus adven[ire, quam] advenis. 

29. ercum servom Pylad. sevom eeeum BbDc. servom eeum BaDa. 
servo meeum C. 

30. neque . . . neque, so the MSS. nee .... nee Both. R. 

31. Nee quoquam, BbDF. Nee quoquom BaC. Nequoquam RZ. 

32. dis , so Vulg. debts the MSS. 

33. f resente BC. ego homo, so the MSS. homo is omitted by 
Herm. R. 

34. exibent BaCDa. 

35. me it FZ. me is CDb. meis or mens B. mebis Da. saluus 
BbFZ. stilus BaCD. 

36. W and others give Hilarus est to the Danista. 

37. Misargurides. This is derived from Donat, in Tcrent. Adelph. 1 . i. 
The MSS. exhibit a variety of forms all, apparently, corrupt. mi sareiretes 
B. misartirites C. mi sartiretes DF. mi saturiles Z. mi Saturides is 
a conj. of Gainer., adopted by \V. 

38. Salve et tu, so the MSS. Salveto Lachm. R. Quid, so Vulg. 

Qui BaCD. argento est — argent . ost, with the erasure of one letter, B. 

argent os CD. argento FZ Vulg. W. 

39. Continuo, so Vulg. Eontinuo Ba., an evident blunder. Continu CDa. 

40. est issanis Pylad. Vulg. R\V. inanis est the MSS. eerie est 

R\V. est eerte the MSS. Vulg. 

41. mittis B. mittistis CD. mutiscis FZ. 

43. Magis FZ. Magius B. Maius or Mauis CD. oportunus 

BCD. adven[ire quam]. There is a blank after adven in BCD. 

adventure quam nune advenis F. advenire quam nunc advenis Z. The 
reading in the text was introduced by Camer., and adoptcit in Vulg. RW. 

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Da. Quid est ? Tr. Concede hue. [Da. Quin mihi 
argentum redjditur ? 

Tr. Scio te bona esse voce: [ne clama nimis], 45 

Da. Ego hercle vero clamo. Tr. Ah, gere morem mihi. 

Da. Quid tibi ego morem vis geram ? Tr. Abi, quaeso, 
hinc domum. 

Da. Abeam? Tr. Redito hue circiter meridiem. 

Da. Reddeturne igitur faenus? Tr. Reddetur. *Nunc 

Da. Quid ego hue recursem, aut operam sumam aut 
conteram ? 50 

Quid si hie manebo potius ad meridiem ? 

Tr. *lmo abi domum. Verum hercle dico. Abi *modo 
domum ! 

Da. Quin vos mihi faenus date. Quid hie nugamini ? 

Tr. Eu hercle! — Nac tu abi modo • ausculta mihi. 

Da. Iam hercle ego illunc nominabo. Tr. Euge 
strenue ! 55 

Beatus vero es nunc, quom clamas. Da. Meum peto. 

44. [D.\. Quin mibi argentum red]ditur ; the words within brackets are 
blank in BCD. The text as it stands is the reading of FZ, and has been 
generally adopted. R changes argentum into faenus ; W mibi into mi. 

45. ne [clama nimis]. There is a blank after ne in BCD. ne clama 
FZ. ne clama nimis Camer., and this, according to Schwartzmann, is the 
reading of A, which now becomes available for this play. 

46. clamo B. The rest of the MSS. have clamabo. gere morem 
mibi BbF. gerem morem mibi Ba. cberem morem mibi CD. A is said 
to have mihimorem. 

47. ceram for geram BaCD. bine, so Vulg. burn BaCDa, an 
evident blunder. 

48. meridiem FZRW, meridie BCD, but the letter M is visible at the 
end of the line in A. 

49. Nunc abi, so the MSS. W omits nunc. R has Reddetur tibi. 

50. summam for sumam BcDZ, an obvious blunder. conteram ; A 

appears to have 

52. Mi modo domum. A is said to have adimododomum. The rest of 
the MSS. omit domum, and so Vulg. W. There are said to be traces 
of a line in A, wanting in all other MSS., between 5a and 53. 

54. Eu BCD. ■ Tu FZ. Heu R, following Schneid. Nae, so 

Vulg. Ne the MSS. Nunc R. abi. It is said that A has ADI. 
modo, so the MSS. modo domum R. 

55. illunc BCD. ilium RZ, and according to some, ILI.CM is the 

reading in A. R supposes that a line has dropped out after v. 55. 

56. Meum peto B. Meum puto CD. 

G 2 

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Multos me hoc pacto iam dies frustramini. 

Molestus si sum, redditc argentum : abiero, 

Responsiones omnes hoc verbo eripis. 

Tr. Sortem accipe. Da. Imo faenus : id primum volo. 60 
Tr. Quid ais tu ? omnium hominum teterrume, 

Venisti hue te extentatum ? Agas, quod in manu cst. 

Non dat : non debet. Da. Non debet? Tr. Ne ypv 

Ferre hoc potes? an [mavis ut ali] quo abeat fbras 
Vrbem exul [linquat factus] hie causa tui ? 65 

Quoi sortem [vix dare] licebit ? Da. Quin non peto. 

Mihi faenus *reddunt, faenus actutum mihi. 

Molestus ne sis; nemo dat; age, quod lubet. 

Tu solus, credo, faenore argentum datas ? 

59. omnes (acc.) all the MSS. omnis R. VEKBOERIPIS A. verbo 

eripit BaCDFZ. verbo eripite Bb Camer. verbum eripit Rost. W. 

61. Ql'IDAISTt'OM. NIIM HOMIN' t'MTAETERR ... so A. Quid tu bominem 
omnium BaCD, where Bb has hominum. teterrime BCDb. terrime Da. 
deterrime FZ. Quid ais tut tun *, hominum omnium taeterrume R. Quid t 
tu, ted, homo hominum omnium teterrume W. 

62. te extentatum BCD. tu extentatum F. te omitted by ZW. 

63. Ne gru quidem, an ingenious conj. of Acidal. The MSS. have Nee 
erit quidem. 

64. 65, 66. So BCD, excluding the words and letters within brackets, 
which are blank in the MSS., and were supplied on conj. by Camer. 
Moreover, in v. 64 all have babeat, and in v. 65, B has his, and not hie, as 
in CD. It is to be observed, that some scholars affirm that they have 
succeeded in decyphering v. 65 in A, and that it stands thus — 


It is quite unnecessary to enumerate the conj. of different scholars, as 
they are mere works of imagination. 

67. This line is altogether wanting in BCDFZ. Traces of it are 
certainly to be found in A, and some scholars have professed to dccypher 
it as follows, although the commencement, at all events, is very doubtful — 

where reddfnt is evidently corrupt, but may be easily corrected 
reddant, or, as R proposes, rf.ddat. Instead of this line we find from 
the time of Camerarius the verse — 

Eia, mastigia, ad me redi ! Tr. Iam istic ero, 
which is placed more properly at v. 32 of the next scene. 

68. quod lubet Ba. quid lubet the rest of the MSS. W. 

68, 69. Both., who is followed by W, would place these lines after 
v. 77. 

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Da. Cedo faenus! rcdde facnus ! faenus redditc ! 70 

Daturin’ estis faenus actutum mihi ? 

Date mihi faenus ! Tr. Faenus illic, faenus hie ! 

Nescit quidem nisi faenus fabularier 
Veterator ; neque ego tetriorem bcluam 

Vidisse me umquam quemquam, quam te, ccnseo. 75 

Da. Non edepol nunc me tu istis verbis territas. 

Calidum hoc est ; etsi procul abest, urit male. 

Th. Quod illuc est faenus, opsccro, quod illic petit ? 

Tr. Pater eccum advenit peregre non multo prius 
Illius ; is tibi et faenus et sortem dabit : 80 

Ne inconciliare quid nos porro postules. 

Vide, num moratur ? Da. Quin feram, si quid datur. 

Til. Quid ais tu ? Tr. Quid vis? 77 /. Quis illic est? 
quid illic petit ? 

Quid Philolachetem gnatum compcllat [meum] 

Sic, et praesenti tibi facit convicium 85 

Quid illi debetur? Tr. Opsecro hercle iube 

71. Daturin’ estis, so Vulg. Datur inestiis B. 

71. Date mibi fenus BC. According to some, A has Daturin- 
FAENUSUIHI, according to others, Datur SMIHI. Daturne faenus R. 

74. Veterator neque; this is a conj. of Camerarius, ingenious, but not 
certain. Vetro tene que B. Vetro te neque C. Vetrote neque D. In A 
we read Uno . . neque, or, according to others, Vetoteneque, neither of 
which is intelligible. beluam BbF. belum BaCDb. bellum DaZ. 

75. me umquam quemquam quam te B. MEUMQUAMgUEMQUAMTE A. 
CD are in confusion. 

76. me tu istis CDF. me tu tuis B. MEISTIS A. tu me istis R. 

77. abest urit male, so Pius. babes turitama/e B. babes turita male 
CD. This line is found in this place in all the MSS., including A, but R, 
following Acidai., places it after v. 13 a, and brackets it. W inserts after 
v. 77 the two lines given above as 68, 69. 

78. ILLUC A. The rest of the MSS. Mud. quod illic petit AB. 
et sortem ( sorte D) dabit CD. . 

79. \V brackets [79 . . . 85]. 

80. tibi et, so the MSS. R omits et. 

81. quod B. 

84. [meum.] This word is not found in the MSS., and was supplied by 
Camer. Other edd. propose ferox, and so W. 

85. present i B. convitium BbCDF, contium Ba. 

86. ercle CD. 

86, 87. The MSS. here arc corrupt. BCD have — 

. . . hercle iubi || Obi argentum, 

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Obici argentum ob os impurae beluae. 

Til. Iubeam? Tr. lube homini argento os verberarier. 

Da. Perfacile ego ictus perpetior argenteos. 

Th. Quod illud argentum est ? Tr. Est — huic debet 
Philolaches 90 

Paulum. Th. Quantillum? Tr. Quasi quadraginta minas. 

Da. Ne sane id multum censeas; paulum id quidem est. 

Tr. Audin ? videtur, opsecro hercle, idoneus, 

Danista qui sit, genus quod improbissumum est ? 

Th. Non ego [nunc] istuc euro, qui sit, unde sit : 95 

Id volo mihi dici, id me scire expeto: 

Adeo etiam argenti faenus creditum audio. 

for which we find in F — 

. . . hercle iube || Obiici argentum, 
and so Vulg. W has — 

. . . iube obiici U Argentum, 

R has — 

. . . hercle, te obici || lube huic argentum. 

Camer. conj. — 

. . . hercle te iube || Obici argentum huic. 

87. ob os impurae beluae — obosim purae beluae B. oh os impura ebelue CD. 

huic ob os Camer. Vulg. 

88. Iubeam ! Tr. lube homini, so Pylad. from his MSS. Vulg. \V. 

Iubeam. Tr. lube in bomine Ba ( iuben homini Bb). Iubeam ? lube in 
homini CDa. R has Quid iubeam f Tr. Huic homini argento os 'verbe- 
rarier. argento os, so Pius. argentoos B. argenteos the rest of 

the MSS. 

go. R changes the ordinary arrangement of the lines after 89, and 
places them as follows:— 95, 94, 95, 96, 90, 91, 93, 97, 98, u8, 119, 99. 
argentum est. T R. Est huic BCD. The Vulg. omits the second est, and 

so RW, the former writing buice, the latter huiic. 

91. Paululum B. 

93. paulum id quidem est. BCD give this to Tranio. Camer. Vulg. W 
assign the whole verse to the Danista. R has — 

Th. Paulum id quidem est? Tr. Ne sane id multum censeas. 

93. Audin videtur BCDFZ ( Audi invidetur C). Audin videturne 
Camer. Vulg. RW. 

94. qui sit FZ. quid sit BCD. improbissumum B. improbissimum 
the rest. 

95 - r S° [tunc], so R. nunc is omitted in the MSS. nunc ego 
Both. W. 

96. Id volo mihi dici the MSS. and Vulg., except that C omits 

mihi. W has Illud volo dici mihi. R rewrites the line, Id volo mi 

actutum dici, 

97. Adeo seems to be the reading of BCD. Ab eo FZW. argenti 
foenus creditum FZ. argenti fenus credit BCD, with a small space after 
credit in B. faenus creditum argenti R. 

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Tr. Quatuor quadraginta illi debentur minae. 

Die te daturum, ut abeat. Til. Ego dicam dare? 

Tr. Die. Th. Egone? Tr. Tu ipsus. Die modo! 
ausculta mihi! 100 

Promitte ! age, inquam : ego iubco. Th. Responde 

mihi : 

Quid co est argento factum? Tr. Salvom est. Th. Sol- 

Vosmet igitur, si salvom est. Tr. Aedes filius 
Tuus emit. Th. Aedis? Tr. Aedis. 77 /. Euge, 

Patrissat! iam homo in mcrcatura vortitur. 105 

Ain’ tu ? aedis ? Tr. Aedis, inquam. Sed scin’, quoius- 
modi ? 

Th. Qui scire possim ? Tr. Vah ! Th. Quid est ? 

7 R. Ne me roga. 

Th. Nam quid ita ? Tr. Specula claras, clarorem 

Th. Bene herclc factum ! Quid ? eas quanti destinat ? 

Tr. Talentis magnis totidem, quot ego et tu 
sumus. 110 

Sed arraboni has dedit quadraginta minas. 

98. quattuor AC. quatuor BD and the rest. 

102. 103. Salvom all apparently. 

103. antes (acc.) all the MSS. 

104. aedis (acc.) twice in all the MSS. 

105. Patrissat iam Dc. Patrisat iam Da. Patrisatiam Ba. Patri- 

satim Bb. Patris etiii C. in mcrcatura vortitur, so Camer., this being 

in reality the reading of the MSS. inmercatur avortitur B, and so CD 
employing contractions. 

106. An tu Ba. aedis (acc.) twice in all. So aedis (nom.) v. 113, 

and (acc.) v. 114. In v. 14 1 we have aedis and fores. Sed sein Bb. 

Sed sint Ba. Sed in CD. quoiusmodi the MSS. 

107. possum, so the MSS. possim Camer. Vulg. W. 

ro8. So the MSS., except that they have canorem, which Camer. . 
changed into clarorem. R supposes that the line is made up of the 
mutilated fragments of two lines. 

110. magnis Bb. amagnis BaCD. a magnis FZ. quot BbZ. 

quod BaCDK. 

in. Sed BC. Si DFZ. arraboni, so the MSS., without the b. 

R supposes that a line has fallen out after v. it 1. 

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4 * 


Hinc sumpsit, quas ei dcdimus. Satin’ intellegis? 

Nam postquam hacce aedis ita crant, ut dixi tibi, 

Continuo est alias aedis mercatus sibi. 

Th. Bene hercle factum ! Da. Heus, iam adpetit 
meridies. 115 

Tr. Apsolve hunc, quaeso, vomitum ; ne hie nos 

Quatuor quadraginta illi debentur minae, 

Et sors et faenus. Da. Tantum est; nihilo plus peto. 

Tr. Velim quidem hercle, ut uno numo plus petas. 

Th. Adulescens, mecum rem habe. Da. Nempe aps 
te petam ? 120 

Th. Petito eras. Da . Abeo : sat habco, si eras fero. 

Tr. Malum — quod isti di deaeque omnes duint : 

Ita mea consilia perturbat penissume. 

Nullum edepol hodie genus est hominum tetrius 
Nee minus bono cum iure, quam danisticum. 125 

Th. Qua in regione istas aedis emit filius ? 

Tr. Ecce autem perii ! Th. Dicisne hoc, quod te 
rogo ? 

Tr. Dicam; sed nomcn domini quaero quid siet. 

Th. Age, comminiscere ergo. Tr. Quid ego nunc 

in. Hinc, so Pylad. Hie the MSS. quas ei B. quasi the rest 

of the MSS. 

113. baec cedis B. kaec cedis C. baeccedis D. hie aedis FZ. 


ita erant Camcr. iterant BC. iterant D. -viderat FZ. 

1 15. adpetit BaCD. meridies, so Saracen. meridie the MSS. 

1 16. quest) BC. womitism, so the MSS. qliaeso : vomitu ne Both. R. 
enecet all the MSS.: comp, intel/ego. 

130. babe B. babet CDFZ. 

131 . abeo sat Bb. habeo sat BaCD. 

133 . di deaeque lib. de deaq . . Ba. de deaque CDa. dii deaeque FZ. 

133. penissume, so Priscian, pp. 608, 1008. p/entssime BCI)F. plan - 
issime Z. Priscian, in quoting this line, has pervortit foe perturbat. 

134. bodie genus est. A is said to have GENUSKST HODIE. tetrius 

the MSS. 

1 36. aedis or edis (acc.) the MSS., and so v. 1 31. 

138. quid the MSS. quod ZW. siet Vulg. sciet BaCZ. sciaet 

I), evident blunders. 

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Nisi ut in vicinum hunc proxumum mendacium? 130 

Eas emisse acdis huius dicam filium. 

Calidum hcrcle audivi esse optumum mendacium ; 

[Calidum hoc est : etsi procui abest, urit male.] 

Quidquid dei dicunt, id rectum est dicere. 

Th. Quid igitur ? iam commentus ? Tr. Di istum 
pcrduint! 135 

— Imo istunc potius! — De vicino hoc proxumo 
Tuus emit aedis filius. Th. Bonan’ fide? 

Tr. Si quidem es argentum redditurus, turn bona; 

Si redditurus non es, non emit bona. 

Th. Non in loco emit perbono. Tr. Imo in 
optumo. 140 

Th. Cupio hercle inspicere haSCe aedis : pultadum fores 
Atque evoca aliquem intus ad te, Tranio. 

Tr. Ecce autem iterum nunc, quid dicam, nescio. 

Iterum iam ad unum saxum me fluctus ferunt. 

Quid nunc? Non hercle, quid nunc faciam, reperio; 145 

1 jo. Nisi ut BC. ut is omitted in DFZ, and so W. proximum 
BCDZ. So proximo Be, v. 136. mendacium , so the MSS., except B, 

which has mendatium. proxumum [rem conferam] R. 

1 31. Eas the MSS. Eius R. 

133. See above, v. 77 of this scene. 

134. id rectum est B. id decretum est CDW. R partly following 
Acidal. thus rewrites the line — 

Quicquid dehinc dicam, nunc id certum est dicere. 

135. commentus, so the MSS., but this is probably a contraction for 

commentu's, and so R prints it. Di istum D. diis tuum B. Deistum 

C. perdunt D. perdiunt FZ. 

136. istunc FZ. istuc BCD. pocius C. 

140. Perbono Immoin A. in is omitted in BCDFZ. perbono bas. 
Immo Vulg. W. 

141. basce aedis the MSS., including A. has aedes Vulg. \V. fores 
all the MSS. 

14a. evoca, so the MSS., including A. evocata Pylad. Vulg. W. 
aliquem intus, so the MSS., including A. aliquem hue intus R. 
adtetranio A. at te terno BaCDF. Pius arrived at the true reading 
by conj. 

143. autem iterum nunc quid dicam, so the MSS. quid ego Camcr. 
Vulg. R has perii instead of iterum. AUTEM .... NUNCQUID A. 

144. unum, so the MSS., including A. ferunt ABC. eferunt Da. 
efferunt FZ. 

145. REPERIO A. recerio BCD. Gamer, arrived at the true reading 
by conj. 


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5 ° 


Manufcsto tcncor. Til. Evocadum aliquem ocius : 

Roga, circumducat. Tr. Heus tu ! At hie sunt mulicres : 
Vidcndum est primum, utrum eae velintne, an non vclint. 

Th. Bonum aequomquc oras : percontare et roga. 

Ego hie tantisper, dum exis, te opperiar foris. 150 

Tr. Di te deaeque omnis funditus perdant, senex : 

Ita mea consilia undique oppugnas male. 

Euge, optume, eccum, aedium dominus foras 
Simo progreditur ipsus. Hue concessero, 

Dum mihi senatum consilii in cor convoco : \ 

Igitur turn accedam hunc, quando quid agam invenero. 



Si. Melius anno hoc mihi non fuit domi. 

Nee quod una esca me iuverit magis. 

146. manifesto ABCD. OCIUS, so A. foras the rest of the MSS. 
and edd., except R. 

147. At bit ABF. At bine CDZ. 

148. VIDENDUMST A. velintne an non BCDFZ. According to 
some, A has velintautnon, according to others, VELINTNEAUTNON. 

149. aequom B. oras, so the MSS., but according to some, A has 

Rogas. percontare, so the MSS. (PF.RCUNCTARK A). percontare dum 

Both. W. i percontare R. 

1 51. DlTE AD. Dice B. De te C. Dii te FZ. omnis (nom. 
plur.) BCD. 

152. consilia undique, so the MSS., including A. consilia tu undique R. 
MALE A. main the rest of the MSS. 

153. EugaeA. huge the rest of the MSS. Gamer, conjectured Euge. 

obtttme CD. eccum aedium, so the MSS. eccum hue aedium R. 

155. mihi A. mi the rest of the MSS. consilii, so the MSS. 
consili R\V. 

156. Igitur AB. Itur CD. turn, so the MSS., including A. 

dum Vuig. hunc B. hue the rest of the MSS., including A. 

invenero, so Vulg. envenero BaDb. en venero C. envero Da. 

In the Canticum which follows, we have adhered to the distribution of 
lines presented in AB. 

a. Necquodunaescameiiiuerit A, it being doubtful whether we 

should read me iuverit or meruerit. Nequodest cauna meruerit B. Ne 
quod est caunam eruerit C. A W quod est cauna meruerit D. Nec quando 

una esca meruerit magis Vulg. W, but the latter has me before meruerit. 

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Prandium uxor milii perbonum dedit ; 

Nunc dorrtiitum iubct me ire. Minume ! 

Non mihi forte visum ilico fuit, 3 

Melius quom prandium, quam solet, dedit : 

Voluit in cubiculum abducere me anus. 

Non bonum est somnium de prandio ; apage ! 

Clanculum ex aedibus me edidi foras. 

Tota turget mihi uxor scio [nunc], domi. 10 

Tr. Res parata est mala in vesperum huic seni : 

Nam et cenandum ei et cubandum est male. 

Si. Qu(>m magis cogito cum meo animo : 

Si quis dotatam uxorem atque anum habct 

5. Prandium AFZ. Peranium BC, but with prandium written above 
in B by an old hand. Perannium D. 

4. MEIRE A. mieire BaCDa. me ire BbDbFZ. ire me \V. 
minime the MSS. 

5. ilico ABDc. iloca Da. in loco CFZ. 

6. QU AM PRAN DIU.MQL'AMSOLRT A. quam prandium quam solum BaCD. 
( quom solum Bb.) quom prandium quam solitum Vulg. We have exhibited 
in the text the reading of A, with the slight change of quam into quom, 
and so R. 

7. abducere me anus, so A and B. abducerem eamus CD, whence 
abducere: eamus F"Z. 

8. bonumstsomnium A, or, according to others, bonumf.stomnum. 

bonus somnus est BCD Vulg. bonds t somnus R. bonus somnus de prandio 

est W. 

9. me edidi, so the MSS., including A. me dedi R. 

10. scio [nunc], A omits nunc, which is found in the rest of the MSS. 
nunc scio Camer. Vulg. XV. 

11. parata est A and the rest of the MSS. mala the MSS., except 
A, which has male. 

1 a. cenandum ABCD. cenandumf.ietcuda.ndumstmale, so A, 

except that there is some doubt with regard to the letters that make up ei 
et, for one critic decyphers CENANDUMSTETCUBANDUMESTMALE. cenandum 
et cubandumst ni trabis male BD ( nitrabis D). cenandum et cubandum 
sunt nitra bis male C, whence coenandum et cubandum est intus male 
Camer. Vulg. W. ( intus est W). R has cenandum et cubandumst ei 

ij. turn A. quom the rest. cogito, so the MSS., including A. 
cogito ego Pylad. Camer. Vulg. 

14. UXOR KM ATQUF.ANVMH ABET, this is said to be the reading of A. 
In BCD there is a blank between uxorem and habct. F'Z and the Vulg. 
have uxorem habet without making any blank. uxorem atque anum Isomo 
Isabel R. W presents the line thus — 

Si quis dotatam habct, ncinincm sopor || Sollicitat. 

H 2 

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52 , 


Ncmincm sollicitat sopor: ibi omnibus 15 

Ire dormitum odio est, velut nunc mihi. 

Exsequi certa res est, ut abeam 
Potius hinc ad forum, quam domi cubem. 

Atque pol nescio ut moribus sient 

Vostrae : haec, sat scio, quam me habeat male ; 20 

Pcius posthac fore, quam fuit, mihi. 

Tr. [Si] abitus tuus tibi, senex, fecerit male. 

Nihil erit, quod deorum ullum accusites; 

Te ipse iure optumo merito incuses licet. 

Tempus nunc est senem hunc adloqui mihi. 25 

Hoc habet ! repperi, qui senem ducerem. 

Quo dolo a me dolorem procul pellerem. 

Accedam. Di te ament plurumum, Simo. 

Si. Salvos sis, Tranio. Tr. Vt vales ? Si. Non male. 
Quid agis? Tr. Hominem optumum teneo. Si. Amice 

facis, 30 

15. Neminem, so the MSS., including A. Eum bominem R, which 

destroys the sense. SOPORIBIOMNIBUS is said to be the reading 

of A. The rest of the MSS. have sopo or sopor, omitting ibi omnibus, 
and so Vulg. W. 

16. odioest velut vuncmi hi is said to be the reading of A. The 

rest of the MSS. omit the words -velut nunc mibi. odio est-ve BaD (est ve 
C). odio est -vero Bb. ire dormitum mibi odio est W. -ve/uti R. 

17. abeam Vulg. habeam BaCD. ut ego abeam \V. 

ao. Vostrae : haec , so the MSS., including A. Vostrae: at baec R. 
me babeat, so the MSS. (B omits me). habet Herm. W (quae Herm.) 

21. Pei us ABbDbFZ. Pelius BaCDa. Peiusque Camer. Vulg. 

22. [Si] abitus. The MSS. omit Si. It was suggested by Camer., and 
has been admitted by most edd. 

23. ulium AKZ. nullum B. nullum CD. 

24. Te ipse. A is said to have Teipsl’M. optima BCDZ. v. 28 

plurimum all; V. 63 maxima all; v. 86 maximas all; and v. 138 injimo 
all. merito incuses BbKZ. merito incusis BaCD. incusites omitting 

merito R. 

25. alloqui mihi Camer. A is said to have adloquimihi. adloqui - 
mini BCD. alloqui me FZ. 

26. repperi ABCD. senem B. Both here and in the preceding 
line CDa have semen, an evident blunder. 

27. Quo Vulg. Quod BaCD, an evident blunder. 

28. R has accedam hue, but hue is not found in the MSS. 

29. salvos, so B, but corrupted. 

30. teneo amice FZ. te neon-amice Ba. teneo va mice C. teneo 
vamiee BbDa. teneo vah amice Dc. 

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Quom me laudas. Tr. Decet certe. Si. Hcrclc, *te 
habeo hau 

Bonum teneo servom. 

77/. Heia, mastigia, ad me redi ! Tr. Iam istic ero. 

Si. Quid nunc ? quam mox ? Tr. Quid est ? Si. Quod 
solet fieri. 

Tr. Die [igitur, quod solet fieri], quid id est ? 35 

[A - /. Quid facitis vos ? Sed ut verum, Tranio], loquar. 

Sic decet, [ut homines sunt], ita morem geras. 

Vita quam sit brevis, simul cogita . . . Quid ? 

Tr. Ehem, vix tandem percepi, super his rebus nostris 
te loqui. 

Si. Musice hercle agitis aetatem ita, ut vos decet : 40 

31, 33. We have printed these two lines in the corrupt and mutilated 
form in which they appear in BCD. In B there are several corrections 
by a late hand. In v. 31 C has met audis for me laudas, and D has dice! 
for decet, while the words Haubonumteneoservom are said to be legible in A. 
Camer. thus remodels the lines — 

Quom me laudas. Tr. Decet certe. Si. Certe hercle ; at ego te 
Haud bonum teneo servom. Tr. Quid ita vero, Sinio 

It is unnecessary' to enumerate the conjectures of other scholars, all being 
alike mere flights of imagination. 

33. This line appears in a corrupt form in the MSS. A is said to have, the three letters below which we have 

• • • . sr 

placed dots being very doubtful. B has Eia mastigia ad me redieram 
istic ero C has Etiam astigia admere die amisticero. D has Eia mastigia 
ad me redie. am istieero, with a space. Combining these we form the 
Vulg. which is given in the text, anil probably approximates to the true 
reading. It has been adopted by R\V, who, however, have isti instead 
of istic. In the Vulg. the line is placed at v. 71 of the preceding scene. 
R places it at v. 52 of this scene. 

34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40. Here again the MSS. are sadly mutilated. 
The words which appear in the text within brackets arc the conjectures 
by which Camer. endeavoured to fill up the blanks. In v. 34 A is said to 
exhibit Quodsolet fieri hic, and another line appears which has been 
thus decyphered — 


BCDF agree, except that in v. 35 Die is found in Bb only. B has Lie. 
CDF have Hie, and in v. 38 CD have brrvi, and CDF simul, while simul is 
added as a correction in B. Camer. Vulg. W. print v. 40 as two lines — 
Tr. Quid ? ehem uix tandem 
Pcrcepi super his rebus nostris te loqui. 

The last line is quoted by Festus (p. 305, ed. Mull.), where we read 
percipio and loqui te, omitting his. 

40. elatem BaC. 

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Vino ct victu, piscatu probo, electili, 

Vitam colitis. 7 'r. Imo vita antchac crat ; 

Nunc nobis omnia haec cxciderunt. 

Si. Quidum ? Tr. Ita oppido occidinius omncs, Siino. 

Si. Non taccs ? Prospere vobis cuncta usque adhuc 
processerunt. 45 

Tr. Ita ut dicis, facta haud nego : nos 
Profecto probe, ut voluimus, viximus ; 

Sed, Simo, ita nunc ventus navem 

Deseruit. Si. Quid est ? Quo modo ? Tr. Pessumo. 

Si. Quaene subducta erat tuto in terra ? 50 

Tr. Hei ! Si. Quid est ? Tr. Me miscrum ! occidi ! 
Si. Qui ? Tr. Quia 

Venit navis, nostrae navi quae frangat ratem. 

Si. Velim, ut tu velles, Tranio. Sed quid est negoti ? 
Tr. Eloquar. 

Herus peregre venit. Si. Tunc [tibi actutum] chor [da] 

4 1. lino ct victu. so the MSS. VV' omits ct. 

42. hmno vita FZ. Immovit BaCDa. Immo ut BbDb. Immo ita 
ca quid cm W. 

43. nobis omnia , so Pylad. Gamer. nobis communia the MSS. nobis 
simitu omnia Herm. R. nobis omnia hacc cxciderunt simul W. 

44. bic oppido Herm R, but hie is not in the MSS. 

45. 46, 47. We have arranged these lines exactly as they appear in B. 
Camer. places processerunt at the commencement of v. 47, and nos at the 
commencement of v. 48, and is followed by Vulg. RW. 

48, 49, 50, 51, 52. Here again we have followed the arrangement of B. 
W places navem at the beginning of v. 50. R departs much more widely 
from the distribution of B. 

48. ventus navem, so the MSS. ventus navem nostrum R. 

50. Quaene, so Pylad. Vulg. RW. Quae nec BCD. 

51. ei BCD. Me miscrum, so the MSS. lieu me miscrum R. 

52. nostre C. 

53. Velim, so the MSS. Vcl/em Both. R. ut tu velles, so the 


MSS. tu omitted in Vulg. W. Tranio sed quid est KZ. Trannios est 

Ba. Trannios est with a space CD. neqocii BFZ. uegoci CD. 

Eloquar BbCDFZ. Eloquere Ba. R has Ego eloquar. 

54. 55. These lines appear in a mutilated form in BCD; in B they 
stand thus — 

Erus venit peregre venit. Si. Tunc Cor tenditur 

lode fcrritcriuin postca enua obsccro, 

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Indc ferriterium; postca — [ 7 >?. Pol per tua tc g]enua 
opsccro 55 

Ne indicium hero facias meo. Si. E me, nc quid metuas, 
nil sciet. 

Tr. Patronc, salve. Si. Nil moror mi istiusmodi 

Tr. Nunc hoc, quod ad te noster me misit senex .... 

Si. Hoc mihi respondc primum, quod ego te rogo : 
lam de istis rebus voster quid sensit senex ? 60 

Tr. Nihil quicquam. Si. Numquid increpavit filium ? 

Tr. Tam liquidus esr, quam liquida esse tempestas 

Nunc te hoc orare iussit opere maxumo, 

Vt sibi licerct inspicere has aedis tuas. 

Si. Non sunt venales. Tr. Scio cquidem istuc \ sed 
senex 6 5 

Gunaeceum aedificare volt hie in suis, 

Et balincas et ambulacrum et porticum. 

Si. Quid [ille] consomniavit ? Tr. Ego dicam tibi. 

Dare volt uxorem filio, quantum potest : 

Ad earn rem facere volt novom gunaeceum. 70 

and so CD, except that they omit the first venit, and D has rnnua. In FZ 
they are thus corrected — 

Herus peregre venit. Si. Tuus ne. Tr. Cor tenditur 
Inde ferit iterum . postca hem obsecro. 

The supplements given in the text are those of Kitschl, and are less 
violent than those suggested by Camcr., and those adopted in the Vulg. 
and W. 

56. inditium CDF. sciet BbF. sciat BaCD. siet Z. 

57. clientis (acc.) all except Ba, which has clientes. 

58. me misit, so Vulg. meme misit BCD. R believes that 

something has fallen out after v. 59. 

61. Nihil quicquam . Numquid FZ. Nihil quicquam unum quid BD. 
unum quid C, omitting nibil quicquam here, and inserting it at the end 
of the following line. 

62. liquidus est, so Camer. Iiquidum est the MSS. quam nihil 
quicquam C at the end of the line. 

64. has B. ha see CDFZ. edis (acc.) BD. 

66. Cineceum Ba. Gjneceum Bb and the rest of the MSS. edi- 

ficare CZ. 

68. Quid [ille], so Camcr. The MSS. omit ille. Hem quid R. 

70. novum gjneceum the MSS. gynaeceum novom Both. W. 

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5 « 


Nam sibi laudasse hasce ait architectonem 
Ncscio quem, esse aedificatas has sane bene : 

Nunc hinc exemplum capere volt, nisi tu nevis .... 

*Nam ille eo malum hinc opere exemplum petit. 

*Quia est auditum esse aestate ibidem victum perbonum ; 75 
*Te sub sole (diu ?) col [ere] usque perpetuom diem. 

Si. I mo edepol vero, quom usquequaque umbra est, 

Sol semper hie est usque a mani ad vesperum; 

Quasi flagitator astat usque ad ostium; 

Ncc mihi umbra usquam est, nisi si in puteo quaepiam 

est. 80 

71. laudavisse R. hasce H. The rest of the MSS. omit the word. 

architectonem B.i. architectorem BbDFZ. arcbitectectorem C. 

7 2. esse aedificatas B. A is said to have AEDIFICATASESSE. The rest 
of the MSS. omit esse. 

74. 75. 76. The MSS. here are miserably mutilated. The reading in 
A, as far as it can be decyphered, is the following, dots being placed under 
those letters which are doubtful : — 

Namilleeomalumhincopere .... 



B has — 

Nam ille eo mal . no . . . opere exte exemplum petit 

Quia hie ee estate perbonain 

Subdiu col perpetuum diem. 

In v. 74 CD eo malo distinctly, and omit exte. In v. 75 esse estate perbonam 
CD ( aestate C). In v. 76 C has col perpetuum diem , without any mark of 

a blank. FZ contract the three lines into two, as follows : — 

Nam ille malo quidem ab opere exemplum petit 
Quia hie esse estate perbonam subdiu sol perpetuu diem. 

F, however, omits quidem. R has — 

Si. Ne ille ex malo malum hinc opere exemplum petit. 

Tr. Quin acstu audivit esse ibi victum perbonum 
Subdiu colere te usque perpetuom diem. 

W has— 

Si. Nae illic malo quidem ab opere sibi exemplum petit. 

Tr. Quia hie audivit esse aestatem perbonam 
Subdiu coli has solere perpetuum diem, 
which approaches closely to the Vulg. 

78. mani, so Serv. ad. Virg. A£n. I. 19. mane BCDFZ. 

79. bostium CDFZ, and v. 106 DFZ. astat, so the MSS., 

except FZ. 

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Tr. Quid ? Sarsinatis ecqua cst, si Vmbram non 
habes ? 

Si. Molestus ne sis. Haec sunt sicut praedico. 

Tr. Attamen inspicere volt. Si. Inspiciat, si lubet. 

Si quid erit, quod illi placeat, de exemplo meo 

Ipse aedificato. Tr. Eon’ ? voco hue hominem ? Si. [I } ] 

voca. 85 

7 'r. Alexandrum magnum atque Agathoclcm aiunt 

Duo res gessisse: quid mihi fiet tertio, 

Qui solus facio facinora inmortalia? 

Vehit hie clitellas, vehit hie autem alter senex. 

Novitium mihi quaestum institui non malum : 90 

Nam muliones mulos clitellarios 
Habent ; ego habeo homines clitellarios. 

Magni sunt oneris; quidquid inponas, vehunt. 

Nunc hunc haud scio an conloquar. Congrediar. 

Heus, Theuropides ! Th. Hem, quis hie nominat me ? 95 

Tr. Hero servos multum suo fidelis. 

80. mihi umbra usquam est BCD. MIHIUMBRA . . USQl’AMST A, 

whence R nec mi umbra ibi usquamst, but As EST USQUAM. nisi si 

ABCDF. si is omitted in Z Vulg. 

81. QuiDARSINATIS A. ecqua est FZ. ecquam est B. et 

qua CD. 

8 a. predico Be. 

85. I voca, so Acidal. The MSS. omit /, which may have been 
swallowed up in the last letter of S/., the name of the speaker. 

87. tercio C. 

88. fatio Ba. inmortalia , so BD. 


89. Vehit clitellas Bb. Ba and the rest of the MSS. omit bic. 

90. ncrvicium C. questum all. 

93. habeo homines, so the MSS., including A. homines habeo Pylad. 
homines (acc.) all. 

93. boneris BA. 

94. bauscio in B. baudscio in A. conloquar AB. 

94. 95- These two lines arc somewhat confused in BCD, but are 
distinctly legible in A, as given in the text. Congredibor RW. quis 

me nominat \V. quis nominat me, omitting bic, Vulg. 

96. servos B. servus A and the rest. multum suo Jidelis, so B. 

There is a space in CD after suo, and Jidelis is omitted. A appears 
to have — 



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Quo me miseras, adfero omne impetratum. 

Th. Quid illic, opsecro, tam diu restitisti ? 

Tr. Seni non erat otium: id sum oppcritus. 

Th. Antiquom optines hoc tuum, tardus ut sis. ioo 

Tr. Heus tu, si voles verbum hoc cogitare, 

Simul flare sorbercque haud factu facile est : 

Ego hie esse et illi simul haud potui. 

Th. Quid nunc ? Tr. Vise, spccta, tuo usque arbitratu. 

Th. Age, due me. Tr. Num moror? Th. Supse- 
quor te. 105 

Tr. Senex ipsus te ante ostium, eccum, opperitur. 

Sed [is] maestus est, sc hascc vendidisse. 

Th. Quid tandem ? Tr. Orat, ut suadeam Philolacheti, 

Vt istas remittat sibi. Th. Haud opinor. 

whence R — 

Tr. Ero servos multimodis suo fidus. Th. Vnde is? 

W has— 

Hero servos multum fidelis suo. 

97. Quod Ba. Quod Bb. Quo the rest of the MSS. misseras 

A, and so R. miseras the rest of the MSS. adfero AB. affero 

the rest. impetratum , so BD. 

98. destitute, so all MSS., including A. restitisti has been adopted by 
almost all edd. since Lambinus. 

99. ERATOTll'M A. The rest of the MSS. have otium erat, and so 

100. ohtinej hoe the MSS. hoc ohtines Camer. Vulg. SIES A. 

101. -verbum hoe, so the MSS., including A. hoc -verbum R. 

102. haudfactufacilest A, and so with facile est CDFZ. aut factu 
facile est Ba ( aut Bb). haud facile est Camer. Vulg., omitting factu 
and est. 

103. illi simul haul potui B. illic simul et haud potui CDFZ. illi 
simitu hau potivi R . 

104. Quid nunc -vise specta BCD. QUIDNUNVIS VISAS A. TUO- 
usq* arbitratu A. usque is omitted in all other MSS., and in all edd. 
before R. 

105. Age due me, so the MSS., including A. Age , i, duce me RW. 
Num Bb. Nunc BaCD. 

106. ipsus A. ipse the rest of the MSS. and the edd. before R. 

te ante B. The rest of the MSS. omit te. eccum, so the 

MSS., except A, which has illud. operitur CDF. opperibitur B. 

opperitur AZ. 

107. Sed [«] maestus est. The word is is not found in the MSS., but 

in A we read se . . . biaf.stusest, with space for three letters, hence R 
supplies ut. W proposes is. mestus BD. mustus C. se basce, so 

all the MSS., including A. hasce se RW. 

109. Haul Ba. Haud opinor, so the MSS. Haud hercle opinor R. 

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Sibi quisque ruri metit. Si male emptae 

Forent, nobis has redhibere haud liceret. 

Lucri quidquid est, id domum trahere oportet. 

Misericordias [iam habere haud] hominem oportet. 

Tr. Morare hercle [quom verba] facis j supsequere. 

Th. Fiat. 

Tr. Do tibi ego operam. Senex illic est. — Hem, tibi 
adduxi hominem. 115 

Si. Salvom te advenisse peregre gaudeo, Theuropides. 

Th. Di te ament. Si. Inspicere hie aedis te has velle 
aiebat mihi. 

Th. Nisi tibi incommodum est. Si. Imo commodum. 

I intro atque inspice. 

Tr. At enim mulieres. Si. Cave tu ullam floccifaxis 

Qualibet perambula aedis oppido tamquam tuas. 120 

Th. Tamquam ? Tr. Ah, cave tu illi obiectes nunc in 

Te has emisse. Non tu vides hunc, voltu ut tristi est 
senex ? 

Th. Video. Tr. Ergo inridere ne videare et gestire 

i 10 

IIO. ruri metit B. ruri metuit CD. iure metiar K. iure metuit Z. 

in. liceret B. placeret the rest of the MSS. 

113, 114. These lines appear in a mutilated form in the MSS., the 
words within brackets being supplied on conj. by Gamer. BCD agree, 
except that fiat is wanting in B. 

1 1 5. Do tibi ego. Ba has Do tibi senex. illic est hem B. illi 
ceste C. illic est cm D. illc eccumst , en R. tibi adduxi bominem , 

so the MSS. adduxi tibi Isominem Gamer. W. adduxi hominem tibi Aid. 
Both. R. bominem adduxi tibi Guyet. 

1 1 7. Inspicere bic aedis te, so Camer. Inspicere te . aedis te B, with 
an erasure. Inspicerent aedis te CD. -velle, so Vulg. belle BD. 
belle C. 


1 1 8. incommodum est , so the MSS. est incommodum Both. RW, 
I intro CDFZ. I is omitted in B. 

12 1. tu illi BCD. tu id illi R. egritudine BC. 

122. tu vides, so the MSS. vides tu Guyet. R. ut tristi est , so 
the MSS. uti tristist R. 

123. B omits et. inridere BbD. irridere Ba and the rest. 

1 2 

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Noli facere mentionem, te [has] emisse. Th. Intellego, 

Et bene monitum duco atque te existumo humano ingenio. 1 25 
Quid nunc? Si. Quin tu is intro? atque otiose perspecta, 
ut lubet. 

Tit. Bene benigneque arbitror te facere. Si. Factum 
edepol volo. 

Vin’ qui perductet ? Tn. Apage istum perductorem. 
Non placet. 

Si. Quid ? [quid] est ? Th. Errabo potius, quam per- 
ductet quispiam. 

Tr. Viden’, vestibulum ante acdis hoc, et ambulacrum, 
quoiusmodi ? 130 

Th. Luculentum edepol profecto ! Tr. Age specta, 
postes quoiusmodi. 

Quanta firmitate facti, et quanta crassitudine ! 

Th. Non videor vidisse postis pulcriores. Si. Pol mihi 
Eo pretio empti fuerant olim. Tr. Audin’ “ Fuerant” 
dicere ? 

Vix videtur continere lacrumas. Th. Quanti hosce 

emeras ? 135 

Si. Tris minas pro istis duobus praeter vecturam dedi. 

114. te [Am] emisse Guyct. The MSS. omit has. R has te 
emisse has. ,, 

125. atque se existumo hurnani ingenio B, the corrections being in the 
original hand. atque se existumo bumani ingenio CD. et te esse bumano 
ingenio existumo R. atque esse existumo bumani ingeni W. 

126. is intro atque otiose perspecta ut, so the MSS. » intro otiose perspecta 
aedis ut R. 

127. benigneque, SO Camer. bentque BaCDK. denique Bb. bonique Z. 

128. 129. These lines are bracketed by W, and omitted by R, since 
they occur again, with some changes, after v. 161. In v. 129 Camer. has 
Quid, quid est I but the second quid is not in the MSS. 

130. Tiden -vestibulum ante aedis hoc, so the MSS., except that B has 

aedes. Hden bac ante aedis -vestibulum R. ambulacrum BbFZ 

amplacrum BaCD. 

1 31. cuiusmodi the MSS. 

132. Quanta CDFZ. Quam Ba. Qua Bb. Qua sint Camer. W. 

133. pulcbriores the MSS. „ 

1 34' precio C. Audio fuerant F. Autenfuerat Ba. Audenfuerat 

Bb. Autin fuerat D. aut infuerat C. 

136. tris all. duobus Z. diebus the MSS., an evident blunder. 

prefer BC. 

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Ta. Hercle quin multum inprobiores sunt, quam a 
primo credidi. 

Tr. Quapropter? Th. Quia edepol ambo ab infumo 
tarmes secat. 

Tr. Intempestivos excisos credo j id eis vitium nocet. 

Atque etiam nunc satis boni sunt, si sunc inducti 

pice. 140 

Non enim haec pultiphagus opifex opera fecit barbarus. 

Viden’ coagmenta in foribus? Ta. Video. Tr. Specta, 
quam arte dormiunt. 

Th. Dormiunt? Tr. IUud quidem, ut conivent, volui 

Satin’ habes? Th. Vt quicquid magis contemplor, tanto 
magis placet. 

Tr. Viden’ pictum, ubi ludificatur cornix una volturios 
duos? 145 

Th. Non edepol video. Tr. At ego video earn inter 
volturios duos 

Cornix astat ; ea volturios duos vicissim vellicat. 

Quaeso, hue ad me specta, comicem ut conspicere 

137. quin Pylad. qui the MSS. multum BCD. multa Lamb. R. 

138. tarmes secat, a happy conj. of Scalig. tramisecat B. trami secat 
CD. terram secant FZ. frames secat Camer. 

139. vicium D. 

140. si sunt, so the MSS., including A. si sint Camer. 

14 1. So the MSS. Vulg. R. W omits haec, and has ofieram. A is 
said to have Pultufagis. 

143. arte ABCDR. dormiunt, so Vulg. dormant BaCD, an 
evident blunder. 

145. u hi ludificatur cornix una •volturios, such is the reading of the MSS., 
including, perhaps, A. ut ludi/icat una comix volturios R. ubi ludi/icat 
comix una volturios W, duos Dc and, perhaps, A. The rest have duo. 

146. This line is altogether wanting in BCDFZ, and was discovered 
in A. The eight or nine letters between video and volturios are, however, 
altogether uncertain. Schwarz mann at first believed that he could read 
cornicemet, and then, upon closer inspection, thought that he made out 
TUMIKIER. R inserts earn inter on conj. 

147. DUOS ADc. The rest of the MSS. duo, and so W. vellicat 
Bb. vellitat BaCDZ. velitat F. 

148. queso BC. possies A, and so Camer. The rest of the 
MSS. fossis. 

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lam vides ? Th. Profecto nullam equidem illic cornicem 

Tr. At tu isto ad vos optucre, quondam cornicem 
nequis 150 

Conspicari, si volturios forte possis contui. 

Iam vides ? Tu. Non cdepol video. Tr. At ego volturios 

Th. Omnino, ut te apsolvam, nullam pictam conspicio 
hie avem. 

Tr. Age, iam mitto. Ignosco : aetate non quis optu- 

Th. Haec, quae possum, ea mihi profecto cuncta vehe- 
menter placent. 155 

Si. Latius demum est operae pietium ivisse. Th. Recte 
edepol mones. 

Si. Eho, istum, puer, circumduce has aedis et con- 

Nam egomet ductarem, nisi mi esset ad forum negotium. 

Th. Apage istum [a] me [perductorem] : nihil moror 

Quidquid est, [errabo potius, quam] perductet quispiam. 160 

149. cornicem intuor Z. CORMCCMINTUOR A. cornicem intueor BF. 
cornicem intues D. 

150. isto ABCD. iitac FZW. iitoc R (B has isti, which may 
indicate iitoc). 

15a. This line is omitted by R. See note of W. 

153. compitio B. 

154. optuericr BC, and so in reality D. 

155. Hec que C. placent BZ. iacent CDF. 

156. est opere tretium Ba ( pretium Bb). est operae pretium D. est 
opere precium GFZ. operae est pretium Both. RW. 

157. puer, so the MSS. pucre Both. R. HAS A. basce the rest 

of the MSS. and most edd. 

159, 160, 161. These lines appear in a very mutilated form in BCD, 
and apparently in A also. We have given in the text the reading of B, 
the words within brackets being the conjectures by which Gamer, filled 
up the blanks. BCD agree closely. All have adis dico, but CD place 
these words at the end of v. 1 59 (Bb has adit, i. e. adi). All, including A, 
have igitur after intro eo. Gamer, supplies a before me, but there is no 
blank here in the MSS., and in v. 159 he reads Quid, quid estt which is in 
no way better than Quidquid est, as in BCD. These is a blank in B after 
Adis dico, but none in CD. In Ca perducet. 

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Si. Aedis dico. Th. Ergo intro eo *igitur sine per- 
ductore? Si. I, licet. 

Th. Ibo intro igitur. Tr. Mane, sis: videam, ne 
canis .... Tn. Agedum, vide. 

Tr. Est. Abi. Canis est. Abi dierecta ! St ! Abin' 
bine, in malam crucem ? 

At etiam restas? St! abi istinc! Si. Nihil pericli est. 

Tam placida est, quam est aqua, vise : ire intro audacter 

licet. 1 65 

Eo ego hinc ad forum. Th. Fccisti commode. Bene 

Tranio, age, canem istam a foribus [aliquis] abducat face, 

Etsi non metuenda est. Tr. Quin tu illam aspice, ut 
placide accubat ! 

Nisi molestum vis videri tc atquc ignavom .... Th. lam, 
ut lubet. 

Tr. Sequere hac me igitur. Th. Equidem haud usquam 
a pedibus apscedam tuis. 170 

162. igitur est BCD, but Bb has est. Mane sis ut videam C. 

•vide Z. The MSS. have unde. 

165. Est abi canis est abi BaCDF, but variously divided as to the 
speakers. Est ubi Bb. Hence, Tr. Est. Th. Vbi canis est f Tr. Abi 
Camer. Vulg. Tr. Est. Th. Vbi est? Tr. Abi RW, t dierecta . st! 
abin Gruter., and so Vulg. dierecta est abin Ba. dierecta est abin Bb. 
dierecte est abin CD. bine dierecte abin R. dierecta abin W. in BZ. 
The word is omitted in CDF. 

164. restas abi istinc Bb Camer. restat est abistinc Ba. restas est abi 
istinc CD. restas? st! abi istinc Gruter. W, and this we have adopted. 
age modo R, without any authority. 

165. quam est aqua: vise: ire, so Camer. The true reading is very 

doubtful. quam . . a qua . vis . ire, with erasures Ba. q> e aqua vise ire 
Bb. quam feta qua vis eire C. quam feta quaviscire D. quam feta: 
qua vis ire F. quam foeta qua visere Z. quam placidast aqua: vise: 
ire R. quam foeta : quavis ire W. 

166. Eo ego hinc ad B. Ec ego bine ad CD, an evident slip. Ego eo 
bine R. A is said to have Egoad. 

167. foribus abducat face BCDFZ. foribus abducas face Camer. 
foribus aliquis abducat face R. foribus [intus] abducat face W. 

170. a pedibus B. ab edibus CDFZ. apscedam B. 

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Servi qui quom culpa carint tamen malum metuont 
Hi solent esse hcris utibiles. 

Nam illi qui nihil metuont postquam sunt malum meriti 
Stulta sibi expetunt consilia. 

Exercent sese ad cursuram: fugiunt. Sed hi si reprehensi 

sunt 5 

Faciunt a malo peculium quod nequeunt [a bono]. 

Augcnt ex pauxillo [thesaurum in] de parant. 

Mihi in pectore consilii [quod est, lubet cavere] malam 
rem prius 

The following scene appears under a very mutilated form in the MSS. 
In order to elicit any sense, a few additions and changes must be made 
upon conjecture, but these are, with one or two exceptions, not very 
serious. Hermann, Ritchl, and some other modern editors, following the 
ignis fatuus of metrical systems, have made alterations which are altogether 
unjustifiable, and do not deserve to be noticed, except as ingenious flights 
of imagination. We have taken the text as it appears in B as the ground- 
work ; this has been occasionally improved by comparing it with CD, but 
in several instances the corruptions affect all alike. The words within 
brackets are supplements introduced by various scholars to supply the 
blanks which occur in the MSS. 

The names of persons prefixed to this scene in B are — T ranio, 
Thevropides, Simo, Danista. 

I. quom CF. quo B. 

а. There is a blank in B after solent, as if one or two words had 
dropped out, but this does not appear in CDFZ, and the sense seems 
to be complete without any addition. eris all the MSS. era vv. 18 
and at. erus w. aa and 35. 

3. metuunt CDFZ. metunt B. The correction apparently by the 
first hand. 

5. reprehensi CDF. reprehensin B, with a dot under the s in black ink. 

б. fatiunt B. faciunt CDFZ. v. 38 fatiam all, at least B. pecu- 

lium is a conj. of Pylades. The MSS. have peeulio, but the transition 
from peculiG (i. e. pecuHom) to peeulio is so slight and so common, that the 
correction may be regarded as certain. [a bono], so W. This seems 

to be more simple than the Vulg. nequeunt [facere de suo], which was 
introduced by Acidalius. 

7. [ thesaurum in], the blank was thus filled by Camerarius, and so the 
Vulg. WR. 

8. consilii B. consili CD. [ quod est, tube! cavere], this also is a 

guess of Camerarius, adopted in the Vulg. 

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65 * 

Quam ut meum [tergum doleat] 

Vt adhuc fuit mihi corium esse oportet, to 

Sincerum, atque ut votem verberari. 

Si huic imperabo probe tectum habebo. 

Malum quom inpluit ceteros ne inpluat mihi. 

Nam ut servi volunt esse herum ita solet. 

Boni cum probis sunt, [improbi qui] malus fuit: 15 

Nam nunc domi nostrae tot pessumi vivont, 

Peculi sui prodigi, plagigcruli : ubi advorsum ut eant 
Vocantur hero — Non eo, molestus ne sis, 

Scio quo properas, gestis aliquo iam hercle ire, vis, mula, 
foras pastum. 

Bene merens hoc pretium inde apstuli : abii foras : 20 

Solus nunc eo advorsum hero ex plurimis servis. 

Hoc die crastini quom herus resciverit, 

Mane castigabit eos bubulis exuviis. 

Postremo minoris pendo tergum illorum quam meum, 

Illi erunt bucaedae multo potius quam ego sim restio. 25 

9. [tergum doleat ], this seems to have been first suggested by Hermann. 
The VuJg. has tergum exsinceratum fiat, which is due to Camer., but the 
word exsinceratus does not occur elsewhere. 

11. Smeerum C.DF Z. Sicerum B ; the n a correction by c. votem 

BCD. vetem FZ, verberari, so Pylad. verberare the MSS. 

1 a. tectum CDFZ. tecum B ; the t not by first hand. imperabo BD. 
13. impluit C. impluat DFZ. inpluit B. 

15. This line is very corrupt in the MSS., and no satisfactory emenda- 
tion has been proposed. We have given the Vulg., which is due to Camer. 
Bonis turn improbis sunt mahu fuit B, though the true reading may possibly 
be Bonis sunt. Boni sum improbi sunt malus fuit CDFZ. W gives Bonus 
cum probis 'st. || Malus cum malis. 

16. vivont the MSS. 

17. adversum B, so v. ai, and adversus v. 37. 


18. Vocantur CDFZ. vocatur B, the n being an old correction. 

19. quo Z. quod the MSS. pastum foras Pylad. R. 

ao. precium B. inde abstuli: abii, so Camer., who, however, has ita 

abii — unde abstultabi BD. unde abstult abi C. 

as. die crastini , so Pylad., but this is in reality the reading in B, which 

t a 

has di crastini ; the e in black ink, the a older. di crastini CDF. 

33. exuviis CDFZ. extuviis B, with a dot below the s; written 

34. There is a sfiace in B after pendo, but the sense is complete. The 
two last letters of pendo and the t of tergum are in black ink. 

35. B assigns this line to the Danista, and line 26 to Tranio, but 


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Se. Mane tu atque adsiste ilico, 

Phanisce, etiam respice. Ph. Mihi molestus ne sis. 

Se. Vide ut fastidit simia. Ph. Mihi sum : lubet esse : 
quid id curas? 

Se. Manesne ilico, inpure parasite ? 

Ph. Qui parasitus sum ? Se. Ego enim dicam, cibo 
pcrduci poteris quovisj 30 

Ferocem fads quia te herns tarn amat. Ph. Vah, 

Oculi dolent. Se. Ph. Cur ? Ph. Quia fumus molestus. 
Se. Tace, sis, faber qui cudere soles plumbeos numos. 

Ph. Non potes tu cogere me ut tibi maledicam, 

Novit herus me. Se. Suam quidem pol culcitullam 

oportet. 35 

Ph. Si sobrius sis male non dicas. Se. Tibi optem- 
perem quom tu mihi nequeas ! 

Ph. At tu mecum, pessume, i advorsus. Se. Quaeso 
hercle apstine 

lam sermonem de istis rebus. Ph. Faciam, et pultabo fores. 

these marks are omitted in CD. B has no farther indications of a division 
in the dialogue throughout the remainder of the scene, nor are there any 
blanks left for the insertion of names; the text runs on continuously. In 
FZ, however, we find the whole dialogue distributed between Tranio and 
the Danista. 

26. ilico B and v. 39. , 

38. Mibi FZ. MiUs B, corrected by an old hafid. Mills CD. 

30. potcr'u, so Camer. potcres BCD. potires F. 

31. quia tc herus tarn amat . l r ab, so Camer. The MSS. are very 
corrupt. quia tc cratusamatuha B. The writing appears to have been in 
the first instance eratus atuha ; the letters am are inserted in a different but 
old hand, and a perpendicular line after the t was probably inserted at the 

same time. eratus CDF. amatu ba C. amant i’a D. 

33. qur C. 

33. Tace sis CDFZ. Tace si B. nummos DFZ. mummos C. 

numbosnos B, with a line after plumbeos as if to mark a stop, so — . So in 
the next line, after tibi. All these in ink darker than the original. 

36. Si sobrius CDFZ. B has an erasure of a letter after Si . — a sort 
of stop (;) after sis, by a late hand in black ink, and another in same ink, 
thus, I after mibi. nequeas FZ. neq eas B. 

37. pessume i, so Camer. pessimi tu BCD. pcs Dime FZ. queso 

the MSS. 

38. fores (acc.) all. 

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Heus ! ecquis hie est maxumam qui his iniuriam 
Foribus defendat ? ecquis, ecquis hue exit atque aperit ? 40 

Nemo hinc quidem foras exit : ut esse addecet nequam 
homines ita sunt : 

Sed eo magis cauto est opus, ne hue exeat qui male me 



Tr. Quid tibi visum est mercimonii ? Til. Totus 


Tr. Num nimio emptae tibi videntur? Th. Numquam 
edepol ego me scio 

Vidisse umquam abiectas aedes, nisi modo hasce. Tr. Ec- 
quid placent ? 

Th. Ecquid placeant, me rogas? I mo hercle vero 

Tr. Quoiusmodi gunaeceum! quid porticum ? 77 /. I n- 

sanum*bonam. 5 

Non cquidem ullam in publico esse maiorem hac exis- 

39. ecquis, ecquis FZ. hecquis, ecquis B. hecquis hecquis D. baec 
quis baec quis C. maximum the MSS. 

40. hecquis ecquis B, certainly. 

43. Some of the MSS. have mulcet, others mullet. 

1. est mercimonii, so the MSS. est hoc mercimoni Pylad. Vulg. W. 
■visumst mercimoni [ hoc esse] R. 

a. empte C. edepol ego CDFZ. B omits ego, and so Vulg. 

scio, so Pius. scito the MSS. 

3. . umquam the MSS. Most edd., following Dousa, have usquam. 
abiectas Dc. abiectas BbCDZ, and so Scaliger. ablactas Ba. aedes 
(acc.) the MSS. Ecquid. The MSS. present a series of corrupt 
forms. Hacquid Ba. Acquid Bb. Haec quid C, but D has Hecquid. 

4 . Ecquid placeant, so Camer. The MSS. have placent. 

5. gjneceum B, 

K 2 

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Tr. Quin ego ipse et Phiiolaches in publico omnis 

Sumus commensi. 77/. Quid igitur ? Tr. Longe omnium 
longissuma est. 

Th. Di immortales, mercimonii lepidi ! [Si] hercle nunc 

Sex talenta magna argenti pro istis praesentaria, jo 

Numquam accipiam. Tr. Si hercle accipere cupias, ego 
numquam sinam. 

Th. Bene res nostra conlocata est istoc mercimonio. 

Tr. Me suasore atque inpulsore id factum audacter 

Qui subegi, faenore argentum ab danista ut sumeret, 

Quod isti dedimus arraboni. Th. Servavisti omnem 

ratem. 1 5 

Nempe octoginta debentur huic minae ? Tr. Haud numo 

Th. Hodie accipiat. Tr. Ica enimvero, ne qua causa 

Vel mihi denumerato; ego illi porro denumeravero. 

Th. At enim ne quid captioni mihi sit,’ si dcderim tibi. 

Tr. Egone te ioculo modo ausim dicto aut facto 
fallcre ? 20 

Th. Egon’ aps te ausim non cavere, ne quid committam 
tibi ? 

8. Summits BaCDa, an evident blunder. 

9. Si hercle, so Cainer. The MSS. omit Si, and it is, perhaps, not 

necessary. mercimonii, so the MSS. 

11. accipiam, so Camer. BCDF have accipiem, which may be an 
ancient form. Again, cupias Camer. copies the MSS. Si hercle, so 

the MSS. of Pylad. The best MSS. are corrupt. Sierete B. Si erete C. 
Si erecle D. 

1 a. conlocata BD. 

13. inpulsare BC. inpulsore D. 

1 6. mine C. bau nummo CD. haunummo Ba. 

19. sit, so B is corrected by an old hand. set! BCDF. 

20. te ioculo Bb and the MSS. of Pylad. te Ioculo BaDFZ. ce/o 
culo C. 

ai. cavere ne F and the MSS. of Pylad. cavere ni BCD, and 
so R. 

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TR. Quia tibi umquam quicquam, postquam tuus sum, 
verborum dedi ? 

Th. Ego enim cavi recte. Tr. Earn [mihi] debes gra- 
tiam, atque animo meo. 

Th. Sat sapio, si aps tc modo uno caveo. Tr. Tecum 

Th. Nunc abi rus: die, me advenisse, filio. Tr. Faciam, 
ut voles. 25 

Th. Curriculo iube in urbem veniat iam simul tecum. 
Tr. Licet. 

Nunc ego me iliac per posticum ad congerrones conferam : 
Dicam, ut hie res sint quietae atque ut hunc hinc 



Hie quidem neque convivarum sonitus itidem ut antehac 

Neque tibicinam cantantem, neque alium quemquam audio. 

12. Quia tibi umquam , so BCDZ, except that in B we have ' umquam. 
and hence Quia tibi nunquam F. Quian' tibi unquam W. Quid ! tibia' 
umquam R. 

23. Earn [1 mibi ] debts. We have printed this line as it appears in B, 
with the addition of mibi, which is a conj. of Camer. debes, in B, was 
originally written debts, but corrected. recte earn debis CD. W, follow- 
ing Acidalius and the Vulg., gives the whole line to Theuropides, and reads 
Earn mibi debeo. R supposes that we have here the fragments of two 
lines combined into one in B, but at the same time admits that there is 
no trace of more than one line in A. There is a space in B between rete 
and earn. 

25. Nunc Bb. Non Ba. abiri'S, so A and FZ. abi i rus BCD 

(babi C). 

26. CURRICULOIUBE, so A. Curriculo . ibi, with an erasure, B. 
Curriculo ubi iube CFZ. Curriculo tibi iube D. Curriculo i iube W. 

27. illac, so A. ilia the rest of the MSS. Vulg. W. at con- 
gerrones BaC. 

28. ut hunc bine, so the MSS. hunc ut bine Guyet RW. 

1 . itidem, so the MSS. item Both. WR. 

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Th. Quae illaec res est ? quid illic homines quaerunt 
apud aedis meas ? 

Quid volunt ? quid introspectant ? Ph. Pergam pultare 

Heus, reclude, heus, Tranio! Etiamne aperis ? Tr. Quae 

haec est fabula? 5 

Ph. Etiamne aperis ? Callidamati nostro advorsum ve- 

Th. Heus vos, pueri, quid istic agitis ? quid istas aedis 
frangitis ? 

Ph. Hcrus hie noster potat. Th. Hems hie voster 
potat ? Ph. Ita loquor. 

Th. Puere, nimium delicatus es. Ph. Ei advorsum 

Th. Quoi homini ? Ph. Hero nostro. Quaeso, quoties 
dicundum est tibi ? 10 

Th. Puere, nemo hie habitat : nam te esse arbitror 
puerum probum. 

Ph. Non hie Philolaches adulescens habitat hisce in 
aedibus ? 

3. illic homines BFZ. i/lis cbomines CD. illice homines W. illiscc 

homines R. querunt BC. v. 10 queso BC. v. 21 pergrecari BC. 

v. 4 a predicas BC. V. 45 questum BaCD. 

4. pultare B. pultari CDZ. hostium DFZ. 

5. Etiamne, so, apparently, A. eciam C and v. 39. eciamne C v. 6. 
Etiam the rest of the MSS. and Vulg. que bee C. 

7. edis C. After v. 7 there follow in A six lines which do not 

appear in other MSS., but the traces of the original writing in the 
Palimpsest are so faint, that not above four words in all can be de- 
cyphered. A fac simile of this portion of A is given by Ritschl. in his 
Parerg.. p. 447 - 

8. henss twice BCD ( “ prorsus praeter morem" R). 

9. Puere, so A. Puer the rest of the MSS. adelicatus BCD. 

FZ have delicatus, which is, perhaps, equivalent to delicatus, and so 
Pylad. R. es delicatus Camer. Vulg. W. 

10. cut the MSS. dicendum the MSS. 

11. Puere R, but not the MSS. NEMOHIC, so A. hie nemo the 

rest of the MSS. 

13. Nam hie B. adulescens B. HISCINAEDIBUS B. The rest 

of the MSS. omit in. hisce in aedibus Pylad. Camer. edibus nearly all. 
There are in A the remains of a line after v. 1a not found in other MSS., 
but the traces arc very indistinct, except at the close, where we read 
HISCEAEUIBUS. See Ritschl. Parerg., p. 448. 

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Se. Hie senex cerebrosus est certe. Ph. Erras pervorse, 
pater : 

Nam nisi hinc hodie emigravit aut heri, certo scio 
Hie habitare. Th. Quin sex menses iam hie nemo habitat. 

Se. Somnias. 15 

Th. Egone ? Se. Tu. Th. Tu ne molestus. Sine me 
cum puero loqui. 

Ph. Nemo habitat ? Hem ! Th. Ita. Pu. Profecto : 
nam heri et nudiustertius, 

Quartus, quintus, sextus usque, postquam hinc peregre 
eius pater 

Abiit, numquam hie triduom unum desitum est potaricr. 

Th. Quid ais? Ph. Triduom unum est haud inter- 
missum hie esse et bibi, 20 

Scorta duci, pergraecari, fidicinas, tibicinas 
Ducere. Th. Quis istaec faciebat ? Ph. Philolachcs. 
Th. Qui Philolachcs? 

Ph. Quoi patrem Theuropidem esse opinor. Th. Hei, 
hei, occidi, 

13. cerebrosus est BbCDFZ. cerebro . us Ba. Some critics have 
asserted that the reading in A is elleborosusestcerte. W has certe 
est, but gives no authority. per-vorse BaCD. 

14. HINC, so A and Camer. h'sc the rest of the MSS. 

15. menses, so the MSS. 

16. Egone tu tu ne BCD. R has Egone l Ph. Tu ne. Th. Ne molestus. 

17. Nemo habitat. PlI. Hem ita B. Nemo habitat baec tat CD. 
Nemo habitat. Da. Habitat FZ. The arrangement, as given in the 
text, is due to Camer. R has Nemo habitat. Ph. Habitat profecto. 
nam ; A is said to have IAM. eri B, but not R. 

18. hinc peregre eius, so the MSS., except A, which has PEREGREILLIUS. 
peregre hinc eius R. 

19. triduum unum BbDFZ, and also, it is said, A. triduum munum 

BaC, which, perhaps, indicates triduum in unum. See next line. DE- 

SITUMESTPOTARIER A. desitumst R. desitum esse et bibi est CDF. 
desitum est esse et bibi Bb, and so Vulg. W. Ba is somewhat mutilated 
and corrupt here, but the same reading as in CD is clearly indicated. 

20. Quid ais, so Bb and the MSS. of Pylad. The rest have Quid agis. 

R has Quid ais tandem, but tandem is not found in the MSS. Ba has 

Triduum in unum. R has haul esse intermissum hie bibi, but the reading 

of the MSS. is that given in the text. W has haud intermissum est. 

22. Ducere, so the MSS. Conduct R. ista bee BaD. ista baec C. 

fatiebat B. Qui Philolachcs, so B. The rest of the MSS. Quid P. 

23. A is said to have CUIUS. Hei, bei, so Gruter. opinor . occidi, 

with an erasure, B. opinor et occidi CD. Hei mibi Camer. R. 

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7 * 


Si haec hie vera memorat. Pergam porro percontaricr. 

Ain’ tu, istic potare solitum Philolachem istum, quisquis 

est, 25 

Cum hero vostro? Ph. Hie, inquam. Th. Puere, praeter 
speciem stultus es; 

Vide, sis, ne forte ad merendam quopiam devorteris, 

Atque ibi melius quam satis fuit, biberis. Ph. Quid est ? 
Th. Ita dico : nc ad alias aedis perperam deveneris. 

Ph. Scio,qua me ire oportet, et, quo venerim, novi locum. 30 
Philolaches hie habitat, quoius est pater Theuropides, 

Qui, postquam pater ad mercatum abiit hinc, tibicinam 
Liberavit. Th. Philolachesne ergo ? Ph. Ita : Philem- 
atium quidem. 

Th. Quant i ? Se. Triginta talentis. Ph. Ma tov 
' Att 6 \Ko>, sed minis. 

Th. Ain’, minis triginta amicam destinasse Philo- 
lachem ? 35 

24. bee B. 

25. istic, so the Vulg. and most edd. istuc BCD. istac Gamer. 

potare Vulg. portare BaCD, an obvious blunder. 

26. •vostro Bb. vostro BaCD, an obvious blunder. Hie BbFZ. 

Hec Ba. Haec CD. v ,j e 

27. Udesis — Fnsis Ba. Fnsis Bb. quopiam Vulg. copiam BCD. 

28. IBI . . . ELIl'SQfAM A. ibi melius quam FZ. ibi melius cuiquam 
BaC. ibi melius cuiquam Bb. ibi melius culiquam Da, whence meliuscule 

quam Camcr. Vulg. W. ibi ne plus quam satis R. Quid est? so the 
MSS. Quid [ita nam ? quid] est t R. 

29. ad alias edis BbDcFZ. abalias sedis Ba. ab alia sedis C. ab 

alias edis Da. deveneris , so Gainer. neveneris B. ne veneris CFZ. 

ni veneris D. 

30. me ire BbFZ. me eire is probably the reading of BaCD. meetre 

BaCD. et is omitted in B. LOCUM, so A. loqui BDFZ. Vulg. 

loquiqur C. loci Gulielm. W. 

32. abiit BbFZ. habit Ba. obit CD. A is said to have OBIIT. 
bine BCDF. hie ZW. 

33. Philolachesne, so A. ne omitted by the rest of the MSS. 

34. A has MATONAPOLLOSED, and so FZ. BCD have sex instead of 

sed. Some critics have imagined that they can decypher a new line 

here in A to the following effect — 

Th. Liberavit. Ph. Liberavit illamce triginta minis, 
but it seems very doubtful. 

35. destinasse Philolachem , a plausible conj. of R. destinatum Pbilo- 
Jachem the MSS. destinatam Philolachi Gulielm. Vulg. W; but A has 
distinctly Philolachem. 

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Ph. Aio. Th. Atque earn manu emisisse ? Ph. Aio. 
Th. Et postquam eius hinc pater 
Sit profectus peregre, perpotasse adsiduo 
Tuo cum domino ? Ph. Aio. Th. Quid ? is aedes emit 
hie proxumas ? 

Ph. Non aio. Th. Quadraginta etiam dedit huic, quae 
essent pignori ? 

Ph. Neque istud aio. Th. Hei, perdis ! Ph. Imo 
suum patrem illic perdidit. 40 

Th. Vera cantas ! Vana vellem ! Ph. Patris amicus 

Th. Heu, edepol patrem eum miserum praedicas! 
Ph. Nihil hoc quidem est, 

Triginta minae, prae quam alios dapsiles sumptus facit. 
Perdidit patrem. Vnus istic servos est sacerrumus, 

Tranioj is vel Herculi conterere quaestum possiet. 45 

Edepol nae me eius patris misere miseret; qui quom 
istaec sciet 

36. emisisse BbCDbZ. emisse BaF. mijitje Da. 

37. So the MSS., except that Ba has atsiduo. R, following some 
obscure traces in A, gives — 

Sit profectus peregre, turn perpotasse assiduo hie simul, 
while W has — 

Sit profectus peregre, perpotasse hie assiduo tuo 

Cum domino ? 

38. eiio, so Vulg. jHio BaCD, an obvious blunder. Quid 1 is aedes 

emit bic, so B. edit C. A is said to have HAS for bie. Quid f is has 

aedis emit R. Quid ? aedes emit bic is W. proximo s BC. 

39. aio ; agio BaD, an obvious blunder. HUICQUAEESSENT A, and 

so Camer. conj. hue quae eit BaCD. 

40. istud CDFZ. illud B. 

43. patrem meum BD. eum merito miserum, throwing Heu out of the 
verse, R. 

43. prae quam Lamb, praeterquam the MSS. dapsiles FZ. The 
word appears under a corrupt shape in BCD, but there is no doubt as to 
the correction. 

44. R assigns the words Perdidit patrem to Theuropides. SERWS A. 
EST SACERRIMUS, SO A and F. si aeerrimus BCD. 

45. erculi C. conterere BbF. conferee Ba. conterre CD. 

possiet Camer. potest the MSS. 

46. NEMEEiusrATRlSMiSEREStiSERET, so distinctly A. The rest of 

the MSS. omit misere, and so the Vulg. W adopts the reading of our 
text, omitting nae. R adds nunc before misere. cum BCDZ. 


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Facta ita, amburet misero ei corculum carbunculus. 

Th. Si quidem istaec vera sunt. PH. Quid mercar, 
quamobrcm mentiar? 

Heus vos ? ecquis aperit has ? Se. Quid istas pultas, ubi 
nemo intus est ? 

PH. Alio credo comissatum abisse : abeamus nunc iam. 50 

Th. Puere, iamne abis? Libertas paenula est tergo tuo. 

Pa. Mibi, nisi ut herum metuam et curem, nihil est, 
qui tergum tegam. 



Th. Perii hercle ! quid opus est verbis ? Vt verba audio. 
Non equidem in Aeguptum hinc modo vectus fui, 

Sed etiam in terras solas orasque ultumas 
Sum circumvectus : ita, ubi nunc sim, nescio. 

Verum iam scibo : nam eccum, unde aedis filius 5 

Meus emit. Quid agis tu ? Si. A foro incedo domum. 

47. misero ei the MSS. ei misero WR. 

49. APERITHAS A. basce aperit BCDW. R omits has. ISTAS, 

so A and Camer. istac B and Vulg. ista CD. ita FZW. 

50. COMISATUM A. cumissatum BaC. cvmessatum Bb. cSmes- 

sati i D. abeamus FZ. abemus BaCD, an obvious blunder. nun- 

tiam BaCD for mats iam. After this verse, traces of a line appear in A, not 
found in BCD, but unfortunately only two detached words are legible — 


51. 52. These two lines are regarded as spurious by W. 

52. nisiut herum is apparently the reading in A. The rest have nisi 
herum ut. 

1. Perii Bb. Peri BaFZ. . eri C. Heri D. •verba, so Camer. 

verbera B. verbaera C. verberit D. 

3. boras B. v. 7 ostie Da for bodie. 

4. circumvectus Z. circumventus BCDF. 

5. aedis (acc.) all. 

6. agis, so Aid. ais the MSS. 

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Th. Num quid processit ad forum [tibi] hodie novi ? 

Si. Etiam. 77/. Quid tandem ? Si. Vidi efrerri mort- 
uom. Th. Hem, 

Novom ! Si. Vnum vidi mortuom efferri foras. 

Modo eum vixisse aiebant. Th. Vae capiti tuo! io 

Si. Quid tu otiosus res novas requiritas? 

Th. Quia hodie adveni peregre. Si. Promisi foras 
Ad cenam, ne me te vocare censeas. 

Th. Haud postulo edepol. Si. Verum eras, nisi [quis] 

Vocaverit me, vel apud te cenavero. 15 

Th. Ne istuc quidem edepol postulo. Nisi quid 

Es occupatus, operam mihi da. Si. Maxume. 

Th. Minas quadraginta accepisti, quas sciam, 

A Philolachete. Si. Numquam numum, quod sciam. 

Th. Quid? a Tranionc servo? Si. Multo [hercle] id 
minus. 20 

Th. Quas arraboni tibi dedit ? Si. Quid somnias ? 

7. forum [//Ail bodie, so Camer. The MSS. omit tibi. Gulielm. 
suggests ibi. R nas bic. 

8. eciam C. v. n ociojuj all. mortuum BbFZ. mortum BaCD, 

an evident blunder. 

9. 10. These lines appear thus in B. R supposes that one line has 
been here expanded by interpolation into two, and reads — 

Novom. Si. Modo vixisse aibant. Th. Vae capiti tuo. 

10. modo rum B. modo eni C. modo 1'ixijjr rum DFZ. Far 

capiti tuo, so BbF. Tuae capiti tuo BC (tut D). 

11. Quid tu otiostu ZRW. Quid tu ut olios us the MSS., and so the 

13. nr me te vocare, so Camer. ne me tue vocare BCD. ne me tu 
evocare F. 

14. nisi quis prim Camer. The MSS. omit quis. 

16. istuc BbFZ. iste BaCD. 

17. mascime the MSS. v. 3 ultumas most of the MSS. 

18. quadraginta, so Pylad. triginta the MSS. quas sciam B. 

quasciam CD. quod sciam Guyet. RW. 

10. So the line appears in BCDFZ, with a blank in BD, where 
bercle is inserted, according to the conj. of R, who, however, prints 
the line — 

Quid, ain tu a Tranione? Si. Multo hercle id minus. 
servo meo. Si. Multo id minus Camer. W. F has nimis for minus. 

L 2 

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Th. Egonc ? At quidem tu, qui istoc te speras modo 
Potesse dissimulando infectum hoc reddere. 

Si. Quid autem ? Th. Quod me apsente [tecum] hie 

Negoti gessit. Si. Mecum ut ille hie gesserit, 25 

Dum tu hinc abes, negoti ? quidnam, aut quo die ? 

Th. Minas tibi octoginta argenti debeo. 

Si. Non mihi quidem herclej verum, si debes, cedo. 

Fides servanda cst. Ne ire infitias postules. 

Th. Profecto non negabo debere, et dabo. 30 

Tu cave, quadraginta accepisse hinc ne neges. 

Si. Quaeso edepol, hue me aspecta et responde mihi. 

Te velle uxorem aiebat tuo gnato dare : 

Ideo aedificare hoc velle aiebat in tuis. 

Th. Hie aedificare volui ? Si. Sic dixit mihi. 35 

Th. Hei mihi, disperii ! vocis non habeo satis! 

Vicini, perii, interii ! Si. Numquid Tranio 
Turbavit ? Th. Imo exturbavit omnia. 

Te ludificatus est et me hodie indignis modis. 

Si. Quid tu ais ? Til. Haec res sic est, ut narro 
tibi : 40 

23. Poles sedis simulando C. 

14. [tecum] hie; Camcr. supplied tecum, which is not found in the MSS. 

16. So the MSS. R imagines that there ought to be three lines here, 
which he has reconstructed according to his own fancy. 

31. ne neges, so the MSS. te neges Lamb. R. 

3 a. queso CD. quoso B. buc me aspecta BCDZ. ad me hue 

speeta R. R supposes that there is a great gap after v. 3 a, and has 
written a 3 lines to supply the deficiency. 

33. aiebat Vulg. R\V. agebat BaCD, an obvious blunder. 

34. edifeare, and again v. 35 BC. hoc the MSS., and so Vulg. 
bic Gamer. W. 

35. voluit B. 

37. Vicini the MSS. Vicine Acidal. R. 

38. BaC have turbabit, an obvious blunder. immo mi Both. R, but mi 
is not in the MSS. 

39. Te ludificatus est et me hodie indignis modis. This seems to be the 
reading of B, and is adopted by Camer. and Vulg. CD are corrupt here. 
R and \V have — 

Deludificatus est me hodie indignis modis. 

40. bee B (nom. sing.) bee (acc. plur.) C, v. 45. ais Z. agis 

the MSS. 

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Deludificatus est me hodie in perpetuom modum. 

Nunc te opsecro, ut me bene iuves, operamque des. 

Si. Quid vis ? Th. I mecum [hac] opsecro [te] una 

Si. Fiat. Th. Servorumque operam et lora mihi cedo. 
Si. Sume. Th. Eademque opera haec tibi narravero, 45 
Quis me exemplis hodie eludificatus [est]. 


TRAN 10. 

Qui homo timidus erit in rebus dubiis, nauci non erit ; 
Atque equidem, quid id esse dicam verbum, nauci, nescio. 
Nam herns me postquam rus misit, ut filium suum arcess- 
erem : 

Abii ilia per angiportum ad hortum nostrum clanculum. 
Ostium quod in angiportu est horti patefeci fores j 5 

Eaque eduxi omnem legionem, et maris et feminas. 

41. Deludificatust me hodie BCD. R has [Disperdidit me Hie] hodie. 

43. Nunc Vulg. Nun BaCD, an evident blunder. 

43. The MSS. omit bac and te, which are supplements by Camer. 
R has / mecum, te obtecro, una nunc jimut. „ 

45. Sume eademque opera CD. Sume eademque operam B. Sume eadem 
ego opera Camer. WR. bare tibi the MSS. baec intui tibi R. 

46. This is the reading of BCD, omitting est. W has — 

Quis med exemplis hodie [ille] ludificatus est. 

R has — 

Quis me hodie exemplis ille ludificatus est. 

1. dubiis, so Priscian, who quotes this line at p. 683. The MSS. are in 
some confusion. dubii . . s Ba. dubiisis Bb. dubii jit C. dubiis is D. 

3. R believes that there is a blank after v. 3. 

3. utJUium the MSS. Jilium ut Both. RW. accerserem the MSS. 

arcesserem most edd. 

4. Abii ilia, so Camer. Abilla BCD. Ab Ufa KZ. 

5. orti BCD. horti the rest. eius R. foris Camer. fores 

the MSS. 

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7 « 


Postquam ex opsidione in tutum eduxi maniplares meos : 
Capio consilium, ut senatum congerronum convocem j 
Quem quom convocavi, atque illi me ex senatu segregant. 
Vbi egomet video vorti rem in meo foro, quantum potest, io 
Facio idem, quod plurimi alii, quibus res timida aut tur- 
bida est : 

Pergunt turbare usque, ut ne quid possit conquiescere. 

Nam scio equidem, nullo pacto iam esse posse clam 

Sed quid hoc est, quod foris concrepuit proxuma vicinia? 
Hems meus hie quidem est. Gustare ego eius sermonem 

volo. 15 



Th. Ilico intra limen astate illic: ut, quom extemplo 

7. obsidione FZ. opsidionem BaCDa, an evident blunder. 

8. congeronum Bb. congcronem Ba and the rest of the MSS. 

9. Quem eum convoeavi Gamer. Quom convoeavi B. Qm cuvocavi 

CD. Quom eum convoeavi R. EXSENATU is said to be the reading 

of A. e the rest of the MSS. senatu F. senatus or saenatus BCD, 

an obvious blunder. segraegant C. 

10. This line is entirely omitted in B. egomet Z. ego me 

CDF. rem verti Pylad. verti rem F. Vulg. • ventre CD. 

11. fat 10 B. plurimi the MSS. V. 14 proxima the MSS. alii 

quibus Camer. aliquibus BCD. quibus FZ. 

12. ut ne quid possit Camer. ut ne quid sit B. ut quid sit the rest of 
the MSS. 

1 3. Neseio Ba, an evident blunder. After this line there are traces 

in A of seven lines altogether omitted in BCDFZ, but of these only three 
disjointed words can be decyphered — MET or avt at the beginning of the 
third, pro at the beginning of the fourth, and ille at the beginning of 
the fifth. 

14. Sed quid BbFZ. Sed qui BaCD. proxima vicinia ABDFZ. 
troxima vicina C, an obvious blunder, proxume viciniae R. 

15. Serus meus B, an evident blunder. quidemsT A. quidem est 
the rest. 

1. Ilico AFZ. tllico ' praeter morem' BCD. limen astate illic ut 

cum, so the MSS. limen ista state ut quom R. The traces in A arc too 

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Continuo esiliatis. Manicas celeriter conectite. 

Ego ilium ante acdis praestolabor ludificatorem meum, 

Quoius ego hodie ludificabor corium, si vivo, probe. 

Tr. Res palam est. Nunc te videre melius est, quid 
agas, Tranio. 5 

Th. Docte atque astute mihi captandum est cum illoc, 
ubi hue advenerit. 

Non ego illi extemplo ita meum ostendam sensum : mittam 
lineam ; 

Dissimulabo me horum quicquam scire. Tr. O mortalem 
malum ! 

Alter hoc Athenis nemo doctior dici potest. 

Verba illi non magis dare hodie quisquam, quam lapidi, 

potest. 10 

Adgrediar hominem ; appellabo. Th. Nunc ego ille hue 
veniat velim. 

Tr. Si quidem pol me quaeris, adsum praesens praesenti 

Th. Euge, Tranio, quid agitur? Tr. Veniunt ruri 
rustici ; 

doubtful to be accepted as a guide. extemplo Vulg. exemplo BaCa, 
an obvious blunder. 

3. Manicas Vulg. BCD have Manilas. conectite ABCDa. con- 

nectitc DcFZ. cia 

3. PRAESTOLABOR A. praestabor B. praestabo the rest of the 

4. quoius B. cuius the rest, including A. HO . . . LUDIFICABOR A. 
hodie ludificabor R. hie ludificabor Ba. hie ludificabo Bb and the rest of 
the MSS. Vulg. \V. 

6. astute mihi the MSS. astu Both. R. W omits mi hi. illoc, 

so the MSS. Uto Camer. R and perhaps A. 

7. So the MSS., except that B has mum and sens-, but these are cor- 

rected in Bb. extemplo Warn ostendam: sensim R. Camer. omits ita, 
and so Vulg. W. extemplo . . am . mosten A. 

8. mortalem, so Pius. mortale the MSS. 

9. Aliter Ba, an evident blunder. 

10. illinonmagisdarfhodie A. illi non mugis hodie the MSS. 
dare illi non magis hodie Camer. Vulg. W. Da entirely omits this 

11. R omits ille against all the MSS. 

13. queris BC. presens B. presenti BC. So v. 37 presente B. 
presente Dc. v. 34 question i BC, w. 39 and 31 BCD. v. 33 questio all. 

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8 o 


Philolaches iam hie aderit. - Th. Edepol mihi opportune 

Nostrum ego hunc vicinum opinor esse hominem audacem 

et malum. k 

Tr. Quidum ? Th. Qui negat novisse vos. Tr. Negat ? 
Th. Nec vos sibi 

Numum umquam argenti dedisse. Tr. Abi, ludis me, 
credo. Haud negat. 

Th. Quid iam ? Tr. Scio, iocaris nunc tu : nam ille 
quidem haud negat. 

Th. I mo edepol negat profecto; neque se hasce aedis 

Vendidisse. Tr. Eho, an negavit, sibi datum argentum, 

opsecro ? 20 

Th. Qui iusiurandum pollicitus est dare se, si vellem, 

Neque se hasce aedis vendidisse, neque sibi argentum 
datum esse. 

Dixi ego istuc idem illi. Tr. Quid ait ? Th. Servos 
pollicitus est dare 

Suos mihi omnes quaestioni. Tr. Nugas! numquam edepol 

14. C entirely omits this line. opportune mi R against the MSS. 

opurtune B. advenit Z. advenies BD. adveniet F. 

15. bunc Vulg. hue Z. hue BCF. hoc D. 

16. Quia negat Both. R, against the MSS. novise BaC. 

um NiJ 

17. Numm'squam BaC. Nummiquam Bb. Nuumquam Da. A 'ium- 

quam Dc. argenti FZ. argentei BbCD. argetei Ba. 

18. This line is found in B, but is omitted in the rest of the MSS. 

W brackets it. loearis Ba. R has haul edepol negat. haul 

negat Ba. baud negat Bb. 

19. hasce aedis DbFZ. has cedis CDa. has . aedis, with an erasure B. 
has aedis Vulg. W. 

2 1. Qui BCD. Quin most edd. R\V, 

22. aedis (acc.) all (C edit). datum esse BbDcFZ. datum est 
BaCDa. datum Pylad. Vulg. esse argentum datum W. sibi argentum 
datum R. R, following Acidalius, supposes that a line is wanting after 
v. 22. 

24. omnes (acc.) all. 

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Th. Dat profecto. Tr. Quin et ilium in ius iube ire. 
Th. Iam mane : 25 

Experiar, ut op i nor • certum est mihi. Tr. [Mihi] [hue] 
hominem cedo! 

Th. Quid, si igitur ego accersam homines? Tr. Factum 
esse iam oportuit. 

Vel hominem iube aedis mancupio poscere. Th. Imo hoc 
primum volo : 

Quaestioni accipere servos. Tr. Faciundum edepol censeo. 
Ego interim hanc aram occupabo. Th. Quid ita ? Tr. Null- 

am rem sapis : 30 

Ne enim illi hue confugere possint, quaestioni quos dabit. 
Hie ego tibi praesidebo : ne interbitat quaestio. 

Th. Surge. Tr. Minume. Th. Ne occupassis, opsecro, 
aram. Tr. Cur ? Th. Scies : 

Quia enim id maxume volo, ut illi istoc confugiant. Sine : 
Tanto apud iudicem hunc argenti condemnqbo facilius. 35 

Tr. Quod agis, id agas. Quid tu porro vis serere 
negotium ? 

25. in iuj iube ire. Th. Iam mane, saCamer. on conj., and so Vulg. W. 
BC are very corrupt in v. 25. This and the four following lines appear 
thus in BCD — 

Tr. Dat profecto quin et ilium in iussi veniam mane 
Experiar ut opinor. Th. Certum est mihi hominem cedo. 

Quid si igitur ego accersam homines? Tr. Factum esse iam oportuit. 
Vel hominem iube aedis mancipio poscere. Immo hoc primum volo. 

Th. Questioni accipere servos. Tr. Faciundum edepol censeo. 

From which it will be seen, that scarcely any changes are required, except 
in v. 25, although R has thought it necessary, “ dubitanter ,” however, to 
recast the whole passage. In v. 26, hue is a conj. addition by Camcr., and 
the second mihi by W. In v. 28, CDFZ omit hoc. 

27. homines (acc.) all. 

28. aedis (acc.) all. 

30. aram hanc R against the MSS. 

31. hue Saracenus. hie the MSS. 

32. Hie ergo R against the MSS. praesidebo ne Vulg. preside 


bone BF. praeside bone CD. interbitat B. 

33. mini me all, and v. 34 maxunt all. aram Pylad. arma BCD. 

34. illie istoc R against the MSS. 

35. hunc BbFZ. bine BaCD. condempnabo D. 

36. Quod agis Pylad. Quod agas the MSS. serere vis Both. R\V 

against the MSS. 


Digitized by Google 


Ncscis quam meticulosa res sit ire ad iudicem. 

Th. Surgedum hue : est consulere igitur quiddam quod 
tecum volo. 

Tr. Sic tamen hinc consilium dedero : nimio plus sapio 

Turn consilia firmiora sunt de divinis locis. 40 

Th. Surge! ne nugare! aspicedum contra me! Tr. Aspexi. 
Th. Vides? 

Tr. Video, hue si quis intercedat tertius pereat fame. 

Th. Quidum ? Tr. Quia nihil quaesti siet, mali hercle . 
ambo sumus. 

Th. Perii ! Tr. Quid tibi est ? Th. Dedisti verba. 
Tr. Qui tandem ? Th. Probe 

Med emunxti. Tr. Vide, sis, satine recte : num mucci 

fluont ? 45 

Th. Imo etiam cerebrum quoque omnem e capite 
emunxisti meo. 

Nam omnia malefacta vostra reperi radicitus ; 

37. Nescis tu Camer. W against the MSS. See Priscan, p. 637. 
metuculosa B. res sit ire; resitire BaCDa. 

38. Surgedum bine Both. R against the MSS. consulercst R against 
the MSS. 

39. Sic lumen, so Pius. Si tamen the MSS. 

40. Turn B. Time the rest of the MSS. 

41. intercedat Vulg. intercedas BaC. tercius C. V. 46 eciam C. 

43. Quia nib'll quaesti siet, mali, SO Camer. quia nihil qua estis id mali 

BCD ( quaestis id C), which, when properly arranged, is the reading of 
Camer., with the change of one letter, viz., id into it. W has quia nibil 
quaesti sit ; quia mali. R has quia nibil quaesti sit ei, ita mali, both of which 
are more remote from the MSS. 

44. Probe, so the MSS. of Pylad., Camer. Probi the MSS., except that 
BbZ have Probri. 

45. Med emunxti. so Pius, Both. WR. Me emunxisti Bb. Me emunxit 

BaCDFZ. Tide sis, satine recte B ( Vide sis satin erecte). Hide si satin 

erecte CD, num mucci fluunt BC. numuca fluunt D. nummi hue 

Jluunt FZ. 

46. omnem e capite emunxisti meo, so Pylad., from MSS., as he says. 
omnem e capite munxit meo Ba. omne e capite munxti meitm Bb. omnem 
e capite uxti meo C. omnem e capitcm uncxi mero D, and SO FZ, which, 
however, have unxi. W has the same as our text, except meitm for meo. 
R has omne and meo. 

47. Nam omnia iam mate facta R against the MSS. veslra 

the MSS. 

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Non radicitus quidem hercle, verum etiam eradicitus. 
Numquam edcpol haec hodie inultus destinaveris. Tibi 
lam iubebo ignem et sarmen, carnufex, circumdari. 50 

Tr. Ne faxis : nam elixus esse, quam assus, soleo 

Til. Exempla edepol faciam ego in te. Tr. Quia placeo, 
exemplum expetis. 

Th. Loquere : quoiusmodi reliqui, quom hinc abibam, 
filium ? 

Tr. Cum pedibus, manibus, cum digitis, auribus, oculis, 

Th. Aliud te rogo. Tr. Aliud ergo nunc tibi re- 
spondeo. 55 

Sed eccum tui gnati sodalem video hue inccdere, 
Callidamatem : illo praesente mecum agito, si quid voles. 

48. eradicitus the MSS., not exradicitus, as R has it. 

49. numquam B, and perhaps the rest. 

49, 50. These lines appear in a confused and corrupt form in the MSS. 
B has — 

Tr. Numquam edepol hodie inditus dcstinant tibi. 

Tb. Iam iubco ignem et sarmen carnifex circumdari, 
where the other MSS. omit Tr. and Th. Instead of inditus CD have 
imsitus. bare is due to Acidalius ; inultus to Pius ; destinaverit to Camer- 
arius ; iubebo to Pylades. Different editors have adopted various emenda- 
tions, R, as usual, the least probable of all. W has — 

Nunquam edepol hoc hodie inultus destinaveris. Tibi 
Iam iubebo ignem et sarmenta, carnufex, circumdari. 

51. Ne faxis, nam BbZ. Ne faxis sis nam BaDF. faxis sis unam C. 
soleo Vulg. solio BaCDa. 

53. fatiam B. Quia placeo, so the MSS. placeo, eo R, omitting 

53. quoiusmodi C. v. 53 quom B. 

54. digitis Vulg. dicitis Ba. dititis Da. 

55. ergo nunc CDF. ego nunc BZ. ergo nunc ego R. 

56. eccum tui gnati FZ. baec cum tui gnatis B ( gnati Bb). bic cum 


tu ignat * C. beceum i gnat ’ D. video hue the MSS. of Pylades. 

video buic BCD. video bic FZ. videod hue W (!). hue ad voj 

video R. 

57. agite CD. 

M X 

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« 4 




Ca. Vbi somnum sepelivi omnem, omnem atque obdorm- 
ivi crapulam, 

Philolaches venisse mihi suum [narravit] peregre hue 

Quoque modo hominem ad[venientem] servos ludificatus sit ; 
Ait, se metuere in conspe[ctum illius] occedere. 

Nunc ego de sodalitate solus sum orator datus, 5 

Qui a patre eius conciliarcm pacem. Atque eccum optume. 
lubeo te salvere, et, salvos quoin advenis, Theuropides, 
Peregre, gaudeo. Hie apud nos hodie ccnes. Sic face. 

Th. Callidamate, di te ament. De cena facio gratiam. 

Ca. Quin venis ? Tr. Promitte : ego ibo pro te, si 
tibi non lubet. 10 

Th. Verbero, etiam inrides ? Tr. Quian’ me pro te 
ire ad cenam autumo? 

1. somnum Z. omnium BaCD (the correction in Bb is doubtful). 

somnium F. somno meam R. omnem atque BCD. omnemque 

FZW. obdormivi , so the MSS. edormivi Camer. R\V. 

2. suum f narravit] peregre hue patrem , so Camer. The MSS. omit 
narravit, without any indications of a blank. WR place narravit before 
suum. C has buic instead of hue. 

3. ad[venientem] servos, so Aldus. BCD have ad servos, with 

a blank between ad and servos. 

4. eonspe[ctum illius], so Pylad. Camer. There is a blank in BCD 

between conspe and occedere, which R fills thus — [ctum sui patris], occe- 

dere CD. ocedere B. accedere Pylad. procedere Camer. R. 

6. optime or optimi all. V. a 3 maxime all. 

7. advenis Teuropides FZ. adveninisset beuropides Ba. adveninissete 
beuropides Bb. advenisset beuropides CD. 

9. Calidamate the MSS. Callidamates R. fatio B. gracia C. 

10. libel the MSS. 

10, 11. si tibi .... quiane me pro te, these words are omitted in C. si 
tibi BDb. sibi Da. si ire KZ. 

11. irrides FZ. inridens BD. quian BaD. quia Bb. quin FZ. 

te ire; B omits ire. autumo FZ. aut humo BaC. nut . umo Bb. 

authumo D. 

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Th. Non enim ibis : ego ferare faxo, ut meruisti, in 

Ca. Age mitte ista ac ito ad me ad cenam. Tr. Die 
venturum, quid taces ? 

Ca. Sed tu istuc quid confugisti in aram inscitissumus ? 

Tr. Advcniens perterruit me. — Loquere nunc, quid 
fecerim. 15 

Nunc utrisque discepcator, eccum, adest : age, disputa. 

Th. Filium corrupisse aio te meum. Tr. Ausculta 

Fateor peccavisse j amicam liberasse ; apsente te 
Faenori argentum sumpsisse; id esse apsumptum pracdico. 
Numquid aliud fecit, nisi quod *faciunt summis gnati 

generibus ? 20 

Th. Hercle mihi tecum cavendum est : nimis qui es 
orator catus. 

13. This line appears thus in B — 

i ru 

Ca. Age mitte ista acto ad me ad cenam. Tr. Die ventu quid taces ? 

while in CD we have ista acto, a blank after cenam, followed by two 
contracted words, which have been decyphered dicuntur umquid. In KZ 
we have — 

Tr. Age mitte ista hec et me ad coena die itut u . quid taces? 
and so W. Camer. and Vulg. have — 

Ca. Age mitte ista ct ito ad me ad coenam. Tr. Die venturum 
quid taces ? 
while R gives — 

Ca. Age mitte istaec : te ad me ad cenam die venturum. 

Tr. Quid taces ? 

It will be observed that B has cenam, and this appears to be the usual 

14. aram bine R. aram banc Pylad., but the MSS. have neither bine 
nor banc. inscitissimus all. 

18. pecccrvissc, so the MSS. potavisse Acidal. R. absentc te B. 
The rest of the MSS. omit te. 

19. predico B. 

ao. fecit B. feci CD. nisi quod fatiunt B. nisi quod feci CD. 

faciunt is bracketed by \V, and omitted by R. Both, omits aliud. 
summis BbK. sum Ba. summi CDZ. gnati so B. 

31. Hercle. so Pius. Erile BCD. Herile rZ. qui es ; the MSS. 

have quit. R, following Gifan., prints quit's. Camer. has quam es, and so 
Vulg. W. 

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Ca. Sine me dum istuc iudicare. Surge : ego isti 

Th. Maxume. Accipito hanc ad te litem. Tr. Enim 
istic captio est. 

Fac, ego nc mctuam, [igitur, et] ut tu meam timcas 

Th. Iam minoris [omnia fa]cio, prae quam quibus 
modis 25 

Me ludificatus est. Tr. Bene hercle factum, ct factum 

Sapere istac aetate oportet, qui sunt capite candido. 

Th. Quid ego nunc faciam, si amicus Demipho aut 
Philonides . . . , 

Tr. Dicito iis, quo pacto tuus te servos ludificaverit : 

Optumas frustrationes dederis in comoediis. 30 

Ca. Tacc parumper : sine vicissim me loqui Ausculta. 

Th. Licet. 

Ca. Omnium primum sodalem me esse scis gnato tuo. 

Is adiit me : nam ilium prodire pudet in conspectum tuum 

22. isti BCD. istic F. istuc Z. 

23. Accipito Bb. Accipitc Ba and the rest of the MSS. There is 

a blank in BD between hanc .... ad, but not in C. Hence R has banc 
[tute\ ad. istic , so the MSS. is tacc Both. W. 

24. mctuam [igitur r/] ut tu , so Gamer. There is a blank in BCD 

between mctuam . ... ut tu. D has tu\ and hence W tu ut. R has 
mctuam [mihi atquc ] ut tu. 

25. minoris [omnia fa]cio f so Camer. There is a blank in BCD 
between minoris .... cio. R has minoris [omnia alia fa]cio. \V adopts 
the conj. of Camer., but has quibus me modis , omitting me at the com- 
mencement of the following line. pre BCD. 

26. Me ludificatus est , so the MSS. Ludificatust me R. 

27. qui sunt , so Camer. quis the MSS. 

28. Demipho aut Philonides , so Camer. The MSS. have Dephilo aut 

Philomontes , except that "Ba has phino montes. R supposes that a line 

has fallen out after v. 28. 

29. pacto , so Vuig. capto BCD. servus Ba. 

30. frustraciones C. in comoediis Z. in commodiis BCD. in - 

commodus F. 

31. parumper sine DcFZ. paruom per sine BaC. partiuqi persine Bb. 

praumper sine Da. vicissim me loqui Acidal. WR. me vicissim loqui 

DFZ. me vicissim lo qui B. me vicissimio qui C. Licet, so Vulg. 

Lucet BaCD. 

33. adiit me, so the MSS. me adiit Guyet. R. 

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Propterea, quia fecit, quae te scire scit. Nunc te opsecro, 
Stultitiae adulescentiaeque eius ignoscas. Tuus est ; 35 

Scis, solere illanc aetatem tali ludo ludere ; 

Quidquid fecit, nobiscum una fecit ; nos deliquimus : 

Faenus, sortem, sumptumque omnem, qui arnica [empta] 
est, omnia 

Nos dabimus, nos conferemus, nostro sumptu, non tuo. 

Th. Non potuit venire orator magis ad me inpetra- 
bilis, 40 

Quam tu : neque illi sum iratus, nequc quicquam suc- 
censeo j 

Imo me praesente amato, bibito, facito quod lubet. 

Si hoc pudet, fecisse sumptum, supplicii habeo satis. 

Ca. Dispudet. Tr. Dat istam veniam. Quid me fiet 
nunc iam ? 

Th. Verberibus, lutum, caedere pendens ! Tr. Tamcnetsi 
pudet ? 45 

34. Propterea quia fecit quae te CDFZ (facit C). Propterea qui fecit 

qum . te, with the erasure of one letter, Ba. Propterea qui 'fecit qum-te Bb. 

Propter ea quae fecit quom te R. Propterea quae fecit quia te W. 

35. stulticie BaF. stulticie BbC. ado/escentiaeque, or adulescentiaeque 

the MSS. adulescentiaique R. ignoscat Ba, an evident blunder. 

36. illunc Ba, an evident blunder. etatem C. 

37. nobiscum una Camer. una nobiscum the MSS. nos, so Camer. 

non, or it, the MSS. deliquimus, so Pius. de/inquimus the MSS. 

38. qui arnica [empta] est, so WR. empta is not found in the MSS. 
quanti arnica est Camer. 

39. conferimus B. 

41. illi sum iratus, so the MSS. ( . su . . ratus Ba. . JiJ . iratus Bb). 
illi iam sum iratus R. illi sum [iam] iratus W. quidquam succenseo, 

so the MSS. quicquam ei suscenseo R. 

43. putet C, an evident blunder. supplici iam R. 

44. So Acidal. Vulg. W. The MSS. are corrupt. Thus B has — 

Tr. Dispudetis tam veniam quid me fiet. Tb. Nuntiatn 

( Nuntiam Bb). CDFZ have — 

Tr. Dispudet istam veniam quid me fiet nunc iam, 
except that CD omit Tr. R has — 

Ca. Dispudet. Tr. Si istam das veniam, quid me fiet nunc iam. 

45. lutum caedere Guyet. R\V. caedere lutum BaC. cedere lutum 

DFZ. caedere visum Bb. Tamcnetsi, so Gruter. Taminest si Ba. 


Taminest si Bb. Tam inest si C. Tamincstsi D. Tametsi F. Tam 

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Th. Interimam hercle [te] ego, si vivo! CA. Fac 
istam cunctam gratiam : 

Tranioni remitte, quaeso, hanc noxiam causa mea. 

Th. Aliud quidvis inpetrari a me facilius perferam, 

Quam ut non ego istum pro suis factis pessumis pessum 

Ca. Mitte quaeso, istunc. Th. Hem, viden’, ut restat 
furcifer ? 50 

Ca. Tranio, quiesce, si sapis. Th. Tu quiesce hanc 
rem modo 

Petere ; ego ilium verberibus, ut sit quietus, subegero. 

Ca. Nihil opus est profecto. Age iam, sine ted ex- 

Th. Nolo ores. Ca. Quaeso hercle. Th. Nolo, in- 
quam, ores. Ca. Nequiquam nevis : 

46. interemam Ba. hercle te, so Both. R\V. The MSS. omit te. 
ego ti vivo. Ca. Fac istam, so Camer. ego suibo. Ca. Facistam Ba 


(but Bb has siubo). ego suiio facts tam C. ego suiho facista D. ego 
iubeo fac istam FZ. 

47. Tranioni remitte queso BFZ. Tranioni remitte remitte quaeso CD. 
Tranioni iam remitte, omitting quaeso R. 

48. a me facilius perferam, so the MSS. perferam a me facilius 
Both. R. 

50. So Camer. Vulg. The MSS. are very corrupt, thus — Mitte que sis 
turn . trident ut restat furcifer Ba. Mitte quefis tume . viden . ut restat 
furcifer Bb. Mitteq; sis tume viden ut restat furcifer C. Mitte quests tu 

a tnt 

me viden ut restat furcifer Da ( quests tu me Dc). Tr. Mitte que /o tu me. 
Te. Viden ut restat furcifer FZ ( Vtdem Z). R has — 

Ca. Mitte quaeso istum. Th. [Ilium ut mittam] viden ut astat 
furcifer ? 

W has— 

Tr. Mitte, quaeso, sis, tu med. Tb. Hem, viden’ ut restat furcifer. 

51. So Camer. Vulg. \V. Here again the MSS. are corrupt. Tranio 
qui esse sapis. T H. Tu qui esse B. Tranio quiesse sapis tu quiesce C. 
Tranio quie re sapis tu quiesce D. R has Ca. Tranio, si sapis, quiesce. 
T H. Tu quiesce. 

53. ergo Ulum B. verberibus ut sit quietus, so the MSS. ut sit 
quietus verberibus Acidal. R. verberibus ut quietus sit W. 

53. Nil opus est profecto, FZR assign these words to Tranio. ted, 

so Guyet. te the MSS. 

54. inquam ores BC. inquam oraes D. inquam oras FZ. 

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Hanc unam noxiam unam, quaeso, fac causa mea. 55 

Tr. Quid gravaris ? Quasi non eras iam commeream 
aliam noxiam : 

Ibi utrumque, et hoc et illud, poteris ulcisci probe. 

Ca. Sine te exorem. Th. Age, habe; abi inpune! 
Hem, huic habeto gratiam. 

Spectatores, fabula haec est acta : vos plausum date. 

55. So BCD, B having queso. Hanc modo noxiam unam quaeso missam 
fac R. Ham modo unam noxae veniam quaeso fac Both. W. 

56. non eras iam, so Camer., and this is the corrected reading of B, 
which has non gras iam. non gratia CF. non gram D. gratiam 
non Z. 

57. Ibi tu utrumque R, but tu is not in the MSS. 

58. Age, abi, abi Bb. Age, ab . . with an erasure Ba. Age abe abi 
CD. Age, babe, abi FZW. cm B. bem the rest of the MSS. 
en R. 


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I. i. i. Exi . . .J bras .] Of the two forms of the word signifying a 
door, fora of the first declension, and forts of the third, the former 
is found only in the accusative plural foras, and the ablative plural 
forts , and these are by some grammarians designated as adverbs. 
We may say a few words upon each. 

Foras. — 1st. In the great majority of cases in which foras is 
employed it is combined with a verb which implies the movement of 
the person or thing addressed or spoken of from the interior of a 
house to the door. The verbs generally used are, foras ire, abt're, 
ex ire, txsurgere, effugere, efferre, cducere, seducere, deferre, excludere, 
exirudere, excire, excitare, eicere, vocare, evocare, egredi, progredi, 
pellere, edere se, proruere se*, prosequi, and the like. Less common 
but still conveying the same idea, Trin. II. ii. i, Quo illic homo 
foras se penetravit ex aedibus ? Eun. II. iii. 66, Homo quatielur eerie 
cum dono foras, ‘ hurled, kicked out.’ Sometimes the expression is 
figurative without reference to a door, as in Rud. I. ii. 82 ,fludus eiecit 
foras, ‘ the wave has cast her forth ;’ and True. I. i. 18, Pisces . . eduxii 
foras, of drawing fish out of a pond in a net; and in Most. III. i. 68 
(64), abire foras is ‘ to go to a foreign land and still stranger, Phor. V. 
vii. 65, Vides peccatum tuum esse delatum foras, ‘carried out,’ i.e. ‘has 
been hinted abroad, has been disclosed.’ 2nd. The idea of motion 
outwards, although always implied, is in one or two phrases much less 
direct. Thus since vocari ad cenam foras means ‘ to be invited out to 
dinner,’ so promittere foras ad cenam means ‘ to accept such an invita- 
tion,’ ‘ to promise to go out to dinner.’ Thus Rud. V. iii. 64, Neve adco 
vocalos credam vos esse ad cenam foras ; and Most. IV. iii. 12 (iv. 12), 
Promisi foras Ad cenam, ne me te vocare censeas ; and Stich. IV. ii. 16, 

* In Eun. III. v. 51, Foras iimu/ omnes proruunt se is used with reference 
to persons hurrying out of a room in the interior of a house in order to 
proceed into another apartment. 

N 2 

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Ad cenam hercle alio promisi for as ; while in Men. I. ii. 1 5 we have the 
singular phrase ad cenam aliquo condicam foras. Still more remarkable 
are the expressions vcndere foras , numerare argentum foras, and locitare 
foras. The first of these occurs in Stich. I. iii. 66, Foras necessum est 
quidquid habeo venders, i.e. ‘ to sell off.’ The second in Pers. IV. iii. 62 
(70), quamobrem ego argentum numcrem foras, i.e. ‘why should I pay 
out money ?’ The third in Adel. V. viii. 26, Agelli est hie sub urbe 
pautum quod locitas foras, i.e. ‘ which you are in the habit of letting 
to a tenant.’ All of these convey the notion of an object piissing 
out of the hands or immediate control of the owner to an external 

Foris. — Fort's is used in direct opposition to intus and to domi. 
When opposed to intus it signifies the outside of a house as op- 
posed to the inside; when opposed to domi it signifies in a more 
general sense ‘ abroad,’ as opposed to ‘ at home.’ Intus and domi are 
sometimes expressed and sometimes omitted. Thus, Capt. I. ii. 5, 
Sinito ambulare si foris, si intus volent ; Cist. IV. ii. 20, Nam et intus 
paveo et foris formido ; Merc. III. iv. 2, Si domi sum foris est animus, 
sin foris sum animus domi est ; Cas. II. ii. 8, Domi et foris aegre quod 
sit, satis semper est ; Hec. II. i. 21, Idea quia ut vos mihi domi eritis, 
proinde ego ero fama foris. Again, intus being omitted, Most. II. 
i. 58, hasce ego aedes occludam bine foris, i.e. ‘ I shall lock up the house 
from hence on the outside ;’ and III. i. 153(1 50), Ego hie lantisper, 
dum exis, te opperiar foris, i.e. ‘I shall wait for you outside;’ again, 
domi being omitted, II. ii. 21, Foris ambulatis , natus nemo in aedibus, 
i.e. ‘you are walking abroad, not a living soul is in the house;’ and so 
Phor. II. i. 78, D. Antipho ubi nunc est ? P. Foris, i.e. ‘ not at home ;’ 
so in Eun. V. iv. 1 2, Quae dum foris sunt, ‘ who while not at home ;’ 
domi being opposed in line 1 6. We have seen above that promittere 
foras ad cenam signifies ‘ to accept an invitation to dine out ;’ in like 
manner cenare foris is ‘to dine out;’ thus Most. II. ii. 53, Vt foris 
cenaverat Titus gnatus (one night) ‘ when your son had dined out ;’ 
and Stich. I. iii. 36, Vocem te ad cenam, nisi egomet cenem foris ; and 
IV. ii. 16, G. Quid ais Pamphilippe ? P. Ad cenam, hercle, alio 
promisi foras. G. Quid ? foras ! P. Foras hercle vero. G. Qui, 
malum, tibi lasso lubet Foris cenare I P. Vlrum tu censes ? 
G. lube domi cenam coqui ; and in Men. I. ii. 17 we have nam 
si foris ccnat. In Heaut. V. i. 50, Nonnt id flagitium est, te aliis 
consilium dare, Foris sapere, tibi non posse auxiliarier, i.e. ‘ that you are 
wise for other people, but cannot help yourself.' In Phor. V. i. 1 8, 
ne vos forte imprudenfes foris Effutiretis, means, ‘ lest you unawares 

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NOTES. I. i. 2, 3. 


might blab, when from home,’ where for as might be substituted for 
fort's , and effutire foras would signify * blab out the secret.’ Fort's, in 
the sense of from without , does not appear in the earliest Latin writers, 
but is so used by Lucretius V. 544 and by Cicero. 

2. exhibes argutias ] i.e. ‘playing off your quips on me.’ Comp. 
Bac. I. ii. 19, Etiam vie advorsus exordire argutias ? The root arg 
seems to have conveyed the idea of brilliant light, and hence the 
words into which it enters denote something shining, or white, or 
piercing. Passing from the Greek apyos, apytvmt, apybptov, we have in 
Latin argentum, ‘ the brilliant white metal ;’ argilla, ‘ white clay ;’ and 
the verb arguo, which properly signifies to •* pierce’ or ‘ penetrate,' and 
when applied to the mind, ‘ prove’ or ‘ convince.’ Hence argutus, in 
reference to sounds, signifies strictly 1 sharp,’ ‘ shrill ;’ in reference to 
the mind of man, ‘acute,’ ‘penetrating;’ and argutiae are ‘subtleties,’ and 
in a bad sense ‘ sophisms,’ ‘ verbal tricks.’ According, then, as we 
select the literal or the figurative meaning, argutus homo may signify 
either a shrewd, sharp fellow (as opposed to ‘ a flat’), or simply 
one who is ‘a noisy chatterer.’ In True. II. vi. 12, arguti are clever 
talkers, Strenui nimio plus prosunt populo quam arguti et cati. Facile 
sibi facundilatem virtus argutam invenit , Sine virtute argutum cirem 
mihi habeam pro praefica.* In Trin. I. ii. 163, which will be quoted in 
the note on v. 14, argutus is applied to ‘garrulous gossipers.’ For 
argutus see also Merc. III. iv. 44, Pseud. II. iv. 56; argute, 
Trin. IV. ii. 132; argutarier, ‘to quibble,’ Amph. I. i. 193. In 
Amph. III. ii. 2, argutam is the participle, and means ‘ charged,’ 

‘ accused.’ 

3. herilis pernicies } ‘ thou that art thy master’s bane.’ There is 
for the most part little difficulty in determining the force of the epithet 
herilis in Plautus. Thus no doubt can exist with regard to herilis 
filius , filia, arnica, concubina, res, palria ; herile imperium, negotiumf 
Herilis metus (Amph. V. i. 17) signifies ‘the alarm which I felt for 
the safety of my mistress;’ custos herilis (As. III. iii. 65), ‘thou that 
art the guardian of thy master.’ In Poen. I. ii. 73, Earn pro herili et 
nostro quaestu satis bene ornatae sumus signifies, ‘ in so far as regards 
our master’s profit and our own ;’ but the most difficult combination is 

* See frag. Frivol., Superahoque omnes argutando praefcas, where argu- 
tando means ‘ with piercing cries.’ 

t Aul. II. iii. 8, IV. i. ij; Bac. II. i. x, II. iii. 117, 132, IV. ix. 7; 
Capt. II. i. 5; Cist. II. iii. 8, IV. ii. 83; Epid. I. i. 18, I. ii. 61; Men. 
V. vi. 1; Mil. II. i. 37, 44, II. iii. 3, 66, II. v. 6, 48, 60, II. vi. 1, 28, 68; 
Most. I. i. 20, 79, II. 1,2; Pseud. I. iv. 2,20, II. iii. 7; Stich. II. ii. 2 ; 
Trin. 111. i. x; True. II. ii. 42, III. ii. 1. 

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in Pers. II. ii. n, Scio fidci hercle herili ut soleal impudicitia oppro- 
brarier , where fidci herili means ‘ honesty of a slave (i. e. when a slave 
is honest) in the service of his master;’ and the import of the passage 
is, ‘ I know that it is usual for a slave who is honest in the service of 
his master to be twitted with impure motives.’ In so far as the 
sentiment of the passage is concerned, it is repeated below, IV. i. 
3> 5- Weise, who explains “ Sensus debet esse : scio heros non 
stare solere promissis,” has entirely mistaken the meaning, which 
was correctly apprehended by Acidalius. 

4. te . . . ulciscar probe.] We have the same words in Poen. V. iv. 58, 

Nunc pot ego te ulciscar probe. V/ciscor, in Plautus and Terence, is 
generally construed, as here, with the accusative of the person on 
whom vengeance is to be taken.* Sometimes we have in the 

ablative the kind of punishment, as Cas. II. i. 8, F/agitium illud 
hominis ! ego ilium fame , ego ilium Si/i, maledictis, ma/factis, amatorcm 
Vlciscar : but it is also construed with the accusative of the thing on 
account of which vengeance is taken, as in this play, the tliird line 
from the end, Ibi ulr unique, el hoc el illud , poleris ulcisci probe; so also 
Poen. V. v. 1, Si ego minam non ultus fuero probe , quant lenoni dedi 
Turn profecto me sibi habcnto scurrae ludificatui ; and Trin. V. ii. 49, 
Miserum est male promerila, ut merila, si mihi ulcisci non Heel, i. e. ‘ It 
is very provoking if I am not allowed to inflict upon evil deeds the 
punishment they have deserved.’ This is the speech of Charmides 
after he had unwillingly agreed to forgive his son. Weise appears 
to have mistaken the meaning when he says, “ Sensus : miserum est 
si mihi non licet et filium punire, et amicum remunerare aut gratias 
referre ei and he seems to have had some misgiving, for he adds, 
“ Sed haec sententia aliquanto plus iusto perplexa est." 

5. Exi, inquam , nidor, e culina] i. e. ‘ come forth, you stinking 
scullion.' The reading is very doubtful, and was probably suggested 
to Pylades or some other early corrector by the line in Juvenal S. 
V. 162, Captum te nidor e suae pula! ille culinae, and that in Martial 
I. xciii. (xcii.) 9, Pasceris et nigrae solo nidore culinae. Nidor properly 
signifies the smell, smoke, or vapour proceeding from some object 
when burned, and generally indicates a rank, foetid, or suffocating 

* So Amph. IV. iii. 9 ; As. 1 . ii. 22 ; Cas. II. iv. 20; Bac. III. iv. 9, istanc 
ulciscar multij modis ; Bac.V.2,69; Epid. II. ii. 84 ; Men. I. ii. 17, IV. ij. 
72; Pers. IV. vii. 16 ; Pseud. V. ii. 26 ; Rud. III. iii. 36 ; Trin. III. i. 18 ; 
As. V. ii. 53, where the accusative of the person is understood, not ex- 
pressed : and so And. III. v. 18; Kun. IV. vi. 24; Hoc. I. i. 15; Phor. 
V. vii. 69. hunc nostro motto ulcisci. 

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NOTES. I. i. 4—8. 


odour. It is applied by Lucretius to the stench proceeding from 
a recently extinguished lamp (VI. 792, acris nidor), by Virgil to fumi- 
gations with galbanum to drive away snakes (G. III. 415, galbaneo 
nidor e) and to the burning beard of Ebusus (/En. XII. 301, nidor emque 
ambusta dedil ), by Livy to burning feathers (XXXVIII. 7 ,/oedo quodam 
nidor e ex adusta p/uma), by Ovid to the entrails of a victim consumed 
on the altar (Met. XII. 153, Dis acceptus nidor)* and by Pliny to the 
fumes of sulphur (XXXV. 15, § 50, /an/a ids esl ut morbos comitiales 
deprehendat nidor e impositum igni). 

6. aedes.] For spelling compare I. i. 77, Periere, ct aedis et ager: 
I. ii. 18, Aedes quom ex/emplo, &c. ; 20, Laudunt fabrum atque aedes 
proban/; iii. 9, periere hae oppido aedes; the MSS. often read (dis : 
see critical notes throughout. 

8. Abi rus, abi dierecte. ] Cf. Cas. I. 15, Abi rus, abi dierec/us tuam 
in proznnciam; Most. III. ii. 163, Vbi cam's est i T. Abi dierecta: 
si, abin’ bine in malam crucem. Rud. IV. iv. 1 26, Quin tu i die- 
recta cum sucula et cum porculis. That abi dierecte, abi dierecta, 
abi dierec/us, i bine diereclus, abin dierectus, recede bine dierecte, 
phrases not uncommon in Plautus, are equivalent to abi in malam 
crucem, ‘ go to the mischief,’ ‘ be hanged to you,’ seems certain, 
but the etymology of the word is very doubtful, and it is found in 
Plautus only, with the exception of the passage quoted by Nonius 
from the F.umenides of Varro. (See below.) The most plausible 
explanation is that which represents it as a compound of erigo, 
di-erectus, and makes it refer to the outstretched limbs of a malefactor 
when hoisted up and nailed on a cross or gibbet. Thus I’oen. I. ii. 
134, I dierecte in maxumam malam crucem ; the passage from Most. 
III. ii. 163, quoted above; and Capt. III. iv. 103, Quin quiescis 
diereclum cor meum ! I ac suspends te, Tu supsullas, ego miser vix 
asto prae formidine ; and, as a sort of commentary or illustration, we 
may take Mil. II. iv. 6, Credo ego isloc exemplo tibi esse eundum aclutum 
extra portam, Dispessis manibus patibulum quom habebis. When we 
read in the Men. II. iii. 87 (92), Periit probe Ducit lembum dierectum 
navis praedaloria, the expression must mean * the piratical galley is 
leading (or towing) the skiff to destruction,’ but in Cure. II. i. 
21, P. Sed quid tibi est ? C. Lien necat, rents dolent. Putmones 

* Since the vapour arising from meat while cooked is by no means 
necessarily disagreeable, we find Martial VII. xxvii. 5, when speaking of 
the roasting of a wild boar, Pinguescant moduli laeto nidore penates, where, 
however, several MSS. have madido and laeti, and in any case loetus is 
equivalent to the Dis neeeptus nidor quoted above. ♦ 

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dislrahuntur , cruciatur iecur, Radius cordis per cunt, hirae omnes dolcnt. 

P. Turn tc igi/ur morbus agitat hepatarius 

C. 'Lien dicrcctus est, the word seems to he, taken literally, ‘ my spleen 
is bursting with distension.’ The reading diruptus est is evidently 
a gloss. For other passages in Plautus where dierec/us, See., occur, 
see Bac. IV. i. 7, Recede hinc dierecle ; Cas. I. 15, Abi rus abi dicrcctus 
tuam in provinciam ; Merc. I. 72, I hinc dicrcctus ; Merc. IV. iv. 16, 
A bin dicrcctus ; Poen I. i. 32, Abi dicrcctus ; Quin tu i dierccta, Rud. • 
IV. iv. 126; A bin hinc dicrccte, Trin. II. iv. 56. Nonius (p. 49) ex- 
plains the word, giving an example from Varro, 1 Dierccti dicti cruci- 
fixi, quasi ad diem erecti. Varro Eumenidibus ; Apagc in dicredum 
a domo nostra istam insani/atem.’ The interpretation given in Paulus 
Diaconus (p. 69, ed. Mull.) seems founded on the etymology adopted 
by Nonius, “ Dicredum dicebant per antiphrasin, volentes significare 
malum diem.” On the prosody of dicrcctus see note of W. on 
Men. II. iii. 92. 

9. En, hoccine volebas\ ‘There's for you’ (giving him a blow), ‘is 
that what you were wanting?’ Hem , although not found in the 
MSS., is probably the true reading. At least elsewhere we find this 
word employed to mark that a blow has been given, e. g. Poen. I. ii. 
168, where Agorastocles, enraged with Milphio, who had addressed 
Adelphasium in terms of the most tender endearment (the lines are 
quoted below, in the note on v. 1 4), flies upon him, exclaiming, Non ego 
homo trioboli sum, nisi ego illi mastigiae Exturbo oculos atque dentes: hem 
voluptatem libit II cm melt hem cor! hem label turn ! hem salute m ! hem 
suavium ! where a blow accompanies each repetition of the word 
hem, and so Men. V. vii. 29. 

- Perii is here an exclamation of pain and anger. In Plautus, 
generally, perii signifies ' I am lost, I am undone,’ and perire ‘ to be 
lost, to be ruined, to ruin oneself.’ So below, II. i. 2, Iupiter . , 
me perisse . . cupit ; and v. 6 , perii/ Tranio ; perii, II. ii. 78 (77); and 
in a multitude of passages. We cannot have better examples than 
As. I. iii. 80, Non omnino iam perii : est rdiquom quo peream magis. 
True. I. i. 24, Extemplo et ipsus periit, et res, et fides ; and in the 
lines which immediately follow, Bis periit amator, ab re atque animo 
simul, idem peril, ab animo peril, res peril, aurum periit, aliquid 
semper est quod per cat. In the same play, IV. i. 9, Salvus sum quia 
pereo, si non peream plane intercam, i. e. ‘ because I am going to 
the dogs, because I am ruining myself,’ where we may remark the 
jingle between per-eam and inter-cam, a device to which we shall 
afterwards call attention. 

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NOTES. I. i. 9 — 15. 97 

- hoccine] So haeccine, acc. pi. neut. v. 24 ; hoccine , acc. sing. neut. 
v. 26 ; hoccine modo , v. 25. 

1 2. fruttx] i. e. ‘ you dunderhead.’ Fruiex properly signifies ‘ a 
shrub’ or ‘ dwarf tree,’ also ‘ the stalk of a plant.’ There is a line in 
Terence, Heaut. V. i. 4, which may serve as a commentary, In me 
quidvis harum rerum convenit Quae sunt dicta in stultum, caudex, stipes, 
asinus, p/umbeus, and we ourselves talk of a fellow as being ‘ a poor 
stick’ or ‘ a perfect stick.’* R. has adopted the conjecture of Guyetus 
and has introduced rupex into his text, a word quoted by Festus 
(s. v. Squarrosos, p. 329, ed. Mull.) from Lucilius, and which, as we 
gather from Aul. Gell. (xiii. 9) and Tertullian (De Pall. 4, with note 
of Salmasius, Apol. 21, De Anima, 6), signifies ‘an ignorant boor.’ 
Since all the best MSS. agree in frutex , no change is necessary. 

14. deliciae popli.] This in the English edition of Forcellini is 
rendered, ‘ the sport and diversion of the people,’ but it means 
rather ‘ the darling of the people,’ i. e. ‘ of society.’ This is the 
sense of deliciae in Catull. II. 1, Passer deliciae meae pue/lae; and so 
in Plautus, Poen. I. ii. 152, we find it in a string of endearing 
appellations, J lea voluptas ! meae deliciae! mea vita! mca amoenitas ! 
Mcus ocellus ! meum labellum ! mea salus ! meum suavium Meum me/ ! 
meum cor / mea colostra ! mcus mol/icu/us casern ! and so in Pseud. 

I. ii. 47, quibus deliciae estis ; v. 90, Phoenicium . . deliciae summatum 
virum ; Pers. II. ii. 22, Paegnium, deliciae pueri, salve (‘you darling, 
darling boy’); and Stich. V. v. 1, Morem vobis geram, meae deliciae! 
and we have several examples in Cicero. We shall have occasion to 
say more about this word in the note on IV. iii. 9 in this play. In 
Asin. V. ii. 35, Subripiam in deliciis pallam quam habet, i. e. ‘ which 
she loves so much.’ 

1 5. Pus mihi tu obiectas ] i. e. * do you cast the country in my 
teeth ?’ The Scotch phrase, ‘ to cast up a thing to any one,’ i. e. ‘ to 
reproach any one with a thing,’ is still more close. Below, in 
III. ii. 1 2 1, Ah! cave tu i/li obiectes nunc in aegritudinc Te has emisse, 
‘do not taunt him’ (remind him). The phrase is varied in True. 

II. ii. 25, Pus tu mihi opprobras ? ut nacta es homincm quern pudeat 
probri. With regard to the contemptuous use of rus we may com- 
pare True. II. ii. 14, Rus merum hoc quidem est, ‘this is rustic 
coarseness in perfection,’ ‘ this is a pure specimen of a coarse country 

* Lapis is used in the same sense, Merc. Ill iv. 46, egomet eredidi 
Homini docto rem mandare, is tapidi mando maxumo. 


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9 8 


17. Cis, hercle, paucas tempestates\ i. e. ‘ within a brief period.’ We 
have cis employed in the same manner in True. II. iii. 27, cis dies 
paucos ; and in Merc. I. 42 , paticos cis menses. In the latter pas- 
sage, however, cis is not found in the MSS. but was inserted on 
conjecture by Acidalius, and has been admitted by the best editors. 
Tcmpestates paucas is here equivalent to breve lempus. Tempeslas 
in the singular is used in the sense of /empus in True. II. iv. 29. 
Verum tempestas memini quom quondam fuit , ‘ I remember when there 
was a time and in the Prologue (not by Plautus) to the Cas. v. 18, 
Ea tempestalc flos poe/arum fuit. Elsewhere in Plautus, tempestas, 
tempesla/em, tempestate, tempestatibus, signify bad weather, a storm, 
either with or without a qualifying epithet. In Cicero tempestas , both 
with and without a qualifying epithet, is used in several passages to 
signify ‘fine weather.’ Tempestas, weather (bad weather), Amph. II. 
ii. 58: liquida tempestas, Most. III. ii. 64 (62): tempestas, a storm, 

I. ii. 27 (24), 57 (52), iii. 6; Rud. II. iii. 38, IV. i. to, iii. 3: 
tempestatibus, storms, Merc. I. 83 ; Stich. III. i. 2 : tempestate, 
storm, Rud. IV. ii. 12, iv. 143: tempes/atem (importunam), Trin. 

II. iii. 8. 

18. Ferratilis is an air. Ary. 

20. Corrumpe heritem filium. ] So v. 27, corrumpat e t rem el filium, 
i. e. ‘is leading to ruin,’ and w. 28, 80, V. ii. 17 (iii. 17). Cf. Merc. 

III. ii. 1, Tandem impetravi ul egomet me corrumperem, Empta est arnica 
clam uxore mea el filio. In the whole of the following passages the 
word is applied to leading the young astray, undermining their 
principles: corrumpatur, Bac. IV. x. 3, V. ii. 72 ; corrumpi. III. iii. 15, 

IV. x. 3; corrupto. III. iii. 16; corruptclae, ‘ruin,’ As. v. ii. 17; 
corruptela, True. III. ii. 3 ; corrumpil, Epid. II. ii. 83, &c., &c. 
Amph. I. iii. 32, ne corrumpe oculos, ‘ do not spoil Merc. III. i. 3, 
oculos corrumpis ; Amph. V. i. 6, corrupta sum, * I am undone ;’ 
Men. IV. ii. 33 and 31, diem corrupit and corrupi, ‘wasted, lost the 
day ;’ Epid. I. i. 86, plane hoc corruptum est caput, ‘ I am utterly 
undone;’ Pseud. III. ii. 102, corrumpitur iam cena ; Trin. II. i. 14, 
hominum corrupter ; Pers. V. ii. 3, corruptor , ‘ that villain.’ 

21. pcrgraecamini] i. e. ‘play the profligate.’ The stem and 
austere old Romans, when they first became acquainted with the 
Greeks in Southern Italy, would naturally be shocked by a mode of 
life so repugnant to their own habits and prejudices, and hence when 
they wished to express that a man was indulging in dissolute prac- 
tices and embarked on a profligate career, they said that he was 
‘playing the Greek.’ The word occurs again in this scene, v. 61, 

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NOTES. I. i. 17— 23. 


and in IV. ii. 44 (iii. 21). See also Bac. IV. vii. 15, Pocn. III. ii. 26, 
True. I. i. 69. Congraecem, from an active form, congraeco, was 
introduced by zEdus and Camerarius into the text of Bac. IV. iv. 91, 
where the MSS. give congregem , but so the MSS. have pergregetur in 
IV. vii. 15, where pergreuettur is undoubtedly true. 

22, 23. pascite Parasitos.] See IV. ii. 6 (i. 29), . 9 . Manesne ilico, 
impure parasite f P. Qui parasitus sum f S. Ego enim Dicam ; cibo 
pcrduci poteris quovis. 

23. opsonate pollucibililer.\ Opsono, the active form, and opsonor, 
the deponent form, seem to be used indifferently; thus Aul. II. 
iv. 1, Postquam opsonavit herus et conduxit cocos; and a few lines 
lower down, v. 16, Quid ? hie non po/erat de suo Senex opsonari 
filiae in nupiiis ? so also Adel. I. ii. 37, Opsonal, potat, olet un- 
guenla, de meo ; and And. II. vi. 20, Vix, inquit, drachmis opsonatus 
cst decern ; the active form, however, is the more common. As to 
the orthography, see Proleg. oy/eov or of>n 00 denotes in Greek any 
article of food except bread and wine — generally, anything eaten 
with farinaceous food to give it a relish, especially ‘ fish,’ the favourite 
dainty among the Athenians. So in Latin, pulmmtum denotes pro- 
perly anything eaten with puls to give it a relish ; hence ‘ a 
dainty,’ and hence pulmentaria are rich-dressed dishes, but occa- 
sionally simply a relish. Tu pulmentaria quaere Sudando, Hor. S. 
II. ii. 20. 

- pollucibiliter.\ The verb pollucere was used in connection with 
religious observances, and seems to have been a priestly term signi- 
fying ‘ to present as an offering to a god.' Thus Festus (p. 253, ed. 
Miill.), Pollucere merces \quas curds dco\ liceat, sunt far, polenta, vinum, 
panis fermenlalis, ficus, passa, suilla, bubulina, agnina, casei, oi’i/la, 
alica, sesama, et oleum, pieces quibus est squama praeter squarum (scarum); 
Herculi aulem omnia esculcnta, poculenla. Cassius Hemina, as quoted 
by Plin. H. N. xxxii. § 2, § 10, Numa constituit ut pieces qui squamosi 
non esscnl ni pollucerenl, parsimonia* commentus, ut convivia publica et 
privata cenaeque ad pulvinaria facilius compararentur, ni qui ad pol- 
luctum emerent, pretio minus parcerent eaque praemercarentur. Again, 
Cato R. R. 132, Dapem hoc modo fieri oportet. Iovi dapali culignam 
vini quantum vis polluccto. . . Cum pollucere oportebit sic facies. Iupiter 
dapalis, quod tibi fieri oportet, in domo famitia mea culignam vini 
dapi, eius rei ergo made hac i/lace dape pollucenda esto. So also 
Stich. I. iii. 80, Hacc venisse iam opus est, quantum potest 17 

* Parsimonia is a conj. of Scalig., the MSS. have patrimonies. 

O a 

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decumam partem Her cult * polluceam. We find also the participle in 
Rud. II, iv. ii, Non ego sum pollucta pago. Polin' ul me apstineas 
manum i which must mean, ‘Hands off! I am no tit bit for the 
bumpkins_ of the parish,’ i. e. ‘I am meat for your masters.’ The 
application of this word in Cure. I. iii. 37, Tun meam Venerem vitupe- 
ras ? Quod quidem mihi polluelus virgis servos sermonem sera t / which 
must signify ‘ a slave who has been entertained with a liberal allow- 
ance of stripes for the verb potlucere signifying ‘ to offer in sacrifice,’ 
and the custom being to present the most choice objects of each 
kind to the gods, the derivatives of pollucere frequently convey the 
notion of sumptuousness, magnificence, unsparing liberality; thus 
we find in Macrob. S. II. 13, poltucibilis cena in the sense of a 
sumptuous banquet, and in the passage before us opsonate pollucibilitcr 
mean, ‘ make your market without stinting yourself.’ So also we 
have seen above, in the passage quoted from Cassius Hemina, 
polluctum used in reference to a banquet prepared in honour of the 
gods without regard to price; and Macrob. S. II. 12 mentions 
specially a polluctum Hercules; in the Rud. V. iii. 63 we read, 
Spectatores, vos quoque ad ccnam vocem, Ni daturus nil sim, neque sit 
quicquam po/luc/i domi, i. e. ' anything dainty ;’ and finally, in Stich. 
V. iv. 6, hinc quidem Hodie polluctura, praeter nos, iam dabitur nemini, 
i. e. ‘ good cheer.’ The modification in meaning which pollucere and 
its derivatives assumed in the later writers may be seen by referring 
to the Lexicons. The etymology is uncertain, but it has been 
conjectured with some plausibility that it is connected with porricio, 
which also is a sacrificial word. See Priscian IX. p. 874, and 
quotation from the Colax of Naevius. See also Bentley’s Terence, 
ed. Volbehr, p. xxvi. 

24. quom peregre hinc 1’//.] The young scholar will observe that 
peregre signifies, 1. ‘to’ a foreign land; 2. ‘from’ a foreign land; 
3. ‘in’ a foreign land; according to the verb with which it is con- 
structed. 1. The words in our text yield an example of the first, 
and so abiit peregre in IV. ii. 41 (iii. 18). 2. In II. i. 6, herns 

advenit peregre, periit Tranio ; and so peregre advenit, advenisse, adveni 
advenis , renit, venisse, in II. i, 27, III. i. 83 (79), III. ii. 54, 118 (116), 
IV. iii. (iv.) 12, V. ii. (iii.) 2, V. ii. (iii.) 8. 3. In Pers. I. i. 30, 

T. Basilice agi/o eleulheria. S. Quid iam f T. Quia herus peregre 
cst. S. Ain tu, peregre est ? So peregre ablegarit, Cas. Prol. 62; 
p. pmfcctus est, Trin. I. ii. 112; p. gestandus clupeus, Trin. II. iv. 195; 

* Compare omnino Bar. IV, iv. 15, 

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NOTES. I. i. 24—33- 


p. vendidit, Pseud. I. i. 49; p. advenientem, Trin. II. iv. 21, IV. ii. 155, 
True. II. vi. 34; p. rediisse, Stich. IV. ii. 7. 

31. in aliam partem ] i. e. ‘moving in a different direction, towards 
a different goal.' The young scholar must remember that in is 
followed by the accusative not only when it denotes actual physical 
motion towards a person, place, or thing, but also when it denotes 
an action tending towards some definite result, or a movement of the 
mind in the direction of or towards any particular object. So below, 
v. 64, in vesper um, ‘ against evening,’ i. e. ‘ with a view to my evening 
repast;’ and so I. ii. 38 (41), in firmitatm, ‘with a view to secure 
strength and in the next line, in usum, ‘ with a view to their being 
practically serviceable;’ in sped cm, ‘with a view to fair appearance,’ &c. 

33. Quid Mi, malum, me, aut quid ego agam, curatio'] i. e. ‘what 
business have you, confound you, to look after me or my proceed- 
ings?’ The construction quid curatio est tibi me, in which the 
accusative is put after the verbal substantive in io, is by no means 
uncommon in Plautus. Quid tibi hanc curatio est rem, verbero, aut 
mutitio? Amph. I. iii. 21; Sed quid tibi, nos mendicc homo, /actio est? 
Aul. III. ii. 9; Quid tibi ergo meam, me invito, tactio est? Aul. IV. x. 
14; Quid tibi hue rcceplio ad te est meum virum? As. V. ii. 70; 
Quid tibi istunc tactio est? Cas. II. vi. 54 ; Quid tibi tactio hunc fuvit, 
ib. 56; Quid islum tibi tactio est? Cure. V. ii. 27; Quid me vobis 
tactio est? Men. V. vii. 27; Quid tibi hanc digi/o tactio est? Poen. 
V. v. 29; Quid tibi hue ventio est? Quid tibi hanc aditio est? Quid 
tibi hanc notio est, amicam meam? True. II. vii. 61. In all the 
above examples, with the exception of that from Amph. I. iii. 21, 
where rem is in reality equivalent to me, we have the accusative of 
a person ; when a place is introduced, sometimes a preposition 
is supplied before the accusative, as Quid tibi ad hasce accessio 
aedes est prope aut pu/talio ? True. II. ii. 3 (cf. Quid illi ex ulero 
exi/io est? True. II. vi. 30); and sometimes the accusative is 
expressed by an adverb, Quid illi reditio hue etiam fuit ? Most. II. 
i. 30 ; Quid tibi interpellatio aut in concilium hue accessio est ? 
Trin. III. ii. 83; and so in the example quoted above from True. 
II. vii. 61. We find the dative after auscul/a/io, Rud. II. vi. 18. 
Quid mihi sccles/o tibi era t auscullalio, Quidve hinc abitio, quidve 
in navem inscensio ? It will be observed that in all the above 
examples, 1. the clause is interrogative with quid, the verb sum, and 
the dative of a pronoun (tibi, mihi, vobis, illi) ; 2. the verbal sub- 
stantive ends in io; 3. there is uniformly an expression of impatience, 
indignation, remonstrance, or anger. Hence such constructions as 

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the following, Opulcnto homini hoc servitus dura est, Amph. I. i. 12; 
impcralor Numidis, Sail. lug. 24 ; Is sibi impcratorcm aliquem quaeril, 
ib. 85 ; can scarcely be regarded as analogous, although sometimes 
adduced in illustration. The line quoted from Amph. prol. 34, 
Nam ius/a ab iustis ius/us sum orator da/us, where iusta is regarded 
as under the government of orator , would be remarkable, but iusta 
is not found in the best MSS., all of which seem to have iuslc, 
and so Vulg. 

35. scoria ducerc.] Scoria ducere, ductare, ductitare circumducere, 
&c., are established phrases denoting ‘ to keep loose company.’ 
So below, IV. ii. 43 (iii. 21); cf. Asin. I. iii. 12, 13, 17, V. ii. 13; 
Men. I. ii. 15, IV. iii. 20, V. iv. 62; Poen. I. ii. 60, IV. ii. 46; 
Stich. V. iv. 48; True. III. ii. to. Compare especially Poen. Prol. 
108, Dat aurum, dual noclem ; Stich. IV. i. 65, Vt iam nunc sce- 
lestus sesc ducit pro adolcsccntulo ; Poen. IV. ii. 46, Neque triobulum 
ullum amicae das, ct ductas grain's ; Merc. IV. iv. 46, Ncc pot ego 
patiar, sic me nuptam lam mate Measque in aedes sic scorta obductarier. 

37. fue\ This denotes an eructation on the part of Grumio. 
We have a coarse jest on the same theme in Pseud. V. ii. 5, where 
Pseudolus staggers in drunk and is greeted by Simo with — Di te 
ament Pseudole ! to which Pseudolus replies by hiccuping in Simo's 
face, who expresses his disgust, Phui — in malam cruccm ; and then, 
P. Cur ego me afflictor ? S. Quid tu, malum, ergo in os mihi ebrius 
inructasi again, on a repetition of the offence, Pergiri ruc/are in os 
mihi I to which Pseudolus retorts, Suavis ructus mihi esl, sic sine modo. 

38. oboluisti allium. ] On olcre with acc. see Madvig § 223. 2. 

39. Gcrmana inluvics ] i. e. ‘pure, unalloyed filth;’ so in Rud. 
III. iv. 32, ex germana Graecia means of ‘pure Greek parentage;’ 
and in Cas. III. iv. 25, Nunc tu mihi amicus es, in germanum modum, 
i. e. ‘a true, sincere friend.’ In Capt. II. ii. 38, Nam ille quidem 
Theodoromedcs fuit, germano nomine, means, 1 his own real name was 
Theodoromedes,’ in opposition to the nickname of Thesaurochru- 
sonicochrusides ; and so fralrem geminum germanum meum, Men. II. 
i. 7. Elsewhere in Plautus germanus and germana are used to denote 
the relationship of brother and sister. We have germana, germana 
soror,gemina germana soror, germanus, germanus /rater, gem ini germani 
fratres, &c., &c., over and over again. So Mil. II. ii. 83, Vt Philocomasio 
hanc sorortm geminam germanam alteram; iv. 30, Mca soror gemina 
germana, and so II. v. 31 ; ib. 64. germana huius ; Men. V. ix. 43, 
fratres germanos duos Geminos, una matre natos, et patre uno, uno die ; 

True. II. iv. 84, Germanac quod sorori non credit soror. 

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NOTES. I. i. 35 — 43 - 


41. Otire.] The verse requires that we should shorten the 
penultimate syllable. Priscian p. 838 recognises the double form 
of this verb, and quotes the line before us as an example, ‘Oleo, oles, 
et olo olis. Plautus in Mostellaria, Non omnes possunt olfre unguenta 
exotica nam nisi corripias penultimam Iambus stare non potest.’ He 
quotes also a line of Afranius and repeats his observation in p. 866. 
So Nonius (p. 147, s. v. olat) quotes the same line from Afranius as 
an example of olat, Non potest quin ilia stacta longeque et multis olat ; 
and olant is found in Poen. I. ii. 56. On the other hand, the 
common form of the verb occurs in the next line, oles, and in I. iii. 
1 2 1, Quid oleant nescias nisi id unum ul male olere intdlegas, we must 
have penultimate long, otherwise the trochaic measure would be 

43. Neque tarn facetis, quam tu vivis, 1 ’iclibus] i. e. ‘ delicate.’ The 
idea originally involved in facetus has nothing to do with wit or 
humour, but, supposing it to be derived from /ado, is ‘ dextrous,' 
‘ handy,' ‘ clever,’ ‘ agreeable,’ and it seems to be properly applied as 
an epithet to anything done gracefully, indeed 1 graceful’ would in a 
great number of cases accurately represent the meaning. We see 
this force of the word exemplified in Hor. S. I. x. 44, mol/e atquc 
facetum Virgilio annuerunt gaudentes rure Camenae ; in Ep. I. vL 55 
it is equivalent to ‘ affable’ or ‘courteous,’ Frater, Pater, adde; Vt cuique 
est aetas, ita quemque facetus adopta; and in the sense of ‘graceful, 
delicate pleasantry’ with strong irony in Sat. I. ii. 26, Malthinus 
tunicis demissis ambulat : est qui Inguen ad obscaenum subductis usque 
facetus ; but when in Sat. I. iv. 7 he characterises Lucilius as fa- 
celus, Emunctae naris, the meaning will be ‘ clever’ or * witty and keen 
scented.’ Even when applied directly to conversation facetus by no 
means always implies humour; thus, when Cicero De Off. I. 29 
divides humour into two species ( duplex iocandi genus), he characterises 
one of them as elegans, urbanum, ingeniosum, facetum, where facetus 
must signify ‘delicate’ or ‘graceful.’ So also Iustin. XXXIX. 25, speaks 
of faceti ioci. In like manner facete in Plautus frequently signifies 
simply, ‘ cleverly,’ ‘ agreeably,’ ‘ aptly,’ ‘ to the purpose.’ Thus, 
Asin. III. ii. 35, Vt adsimulabat Saurcam med esse, quam facete l 
Capt II. ii. 26, Vt facete orationem ad servitutem contulit ; I. ii. 73, 
H. Quia mi est natalis dies, Propterea te vocari ad cevam volo. 
E. Facete dictum! (somewhat different in Poen. III. iii. 24, where it 
means ‘a well-expressed sentiment;’) Mil. I. i. 39, Facete advortis 
animum tuum ad animum meum ; and II. vi, 58, III. iii. 33, IV. iv. 5, 
25. Pers. II. v. 22. A. Dorn inns me boi'es mercatum Eretriam mi sit, 

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Nunc mihi Eretria erit hate tua domus. T. Nimis tu faccte loquere 
i. e. * to the purpose.’ Indeed, it is doubtful whether facetus in 
Plautus ever strictly denotes ‘ humour.’ There seem to be two 
meanings ; handy, dextrous, clever, agreeable, apt, to the purpose ; 
and the other expressed by the English ‘ dainty.’ Thus CisL II. 
i. 1 6, Eo facetus es, quia tibi alia esl sppnsa locuples Lemnia ? 
i. e. 1 proud, uplifted ’ ‘ give yourself airs and graces.’ The context 
will not admit the sense ‘ merry.’ Mil. III. i. 47, Vet cavi/la/or 
/ace/us, vel cotcviva commodus, agreeable raillery. Pers. II. v. 5 . 
T. Propcra, abi domum. S. Nunc ego huic graphice facetus fiam ; 
Subnixis ah's me inferam, atquc amicibor gloriose. T. Sed quis hie 
ansa/us ambulat. S. Magnifies conscreabor. Here again facetus 
must mean, ‘ I will bear myself proudly, daintily,’ or ‘ like an ex- 
quisite of the first water.’ Poen. I. ii. 25, Minor , quidem, soror, te 
istaec sic fabulari, Quae tam cattida, cl docta sis el faceta, i. e. ‘ clever,’ 
‘sharp;’ True. V. 38, Qui, malum, bella aut facela es, quae ames 
hominem isliusmodi, i. e. ‘ either handsome or clever, witty ;’ As in. 
II. ii. 84, Exlemplo facio facelum me atquc magnifeum virum, i. e. 
‘ proud and haughty,’ ‘ majestic ;’ Mil. IV. ix. 8, Facelum puerum ! 
i. e. ‘a clever lad, he speaks to the purpose ;’ in the passage before 
us, Neque lam facelis quam lu vivis victibus, ‘ dainty, lordly viands ;’ 
Mil. II. i. 69, Ei nos facelis fabricis el doclis dolis Glaucomam ob oculos 
obiciemus, i. e. ‘ cleverly contrived.’ For facete in the same senses, 
compare Asin. III. ii. 35; Capt. I. ii. 73, II. ii. 26; Cas. III. v. 64 ; 
Men. I. ii. 22; Pers. II. v. 22, &c. Stich. V. ii. 7, fecisti here 
facetias, you have acted ‘most agreeably.’ 

45. a lliu to.] Whether we read allialo, which is a near approach 
to the alealo of the best MSS., or adopt al/ia/um, the conjecture of 
Saracenus, the meaning will be much the same. In the former case, 
allialo may form a substantive, alliatum, ‘ allow me living on my 
garlick-seasoned fare in the latter, we must regard alliatum as an 
adj. and translate, * allow me all be-garlicked as I am;' alliatus or 
alliatum is an Sir. \ty. 

55. isluc] nom. sing. neut. So II. ii. 47. istuc, acc. sing, neut., 
ib. w. 67, 68, iii. 51, 95, III. i. 99 (95); islanc, acc. sing, fern., I. iii. 
19; istaec, nom. sing, fern., iii. 27; istaec, nom. plur. fern., iii. 1 1 7 ; 
istoc modo, abl. sing, masc., iv. 8 ; is tic (there, adv.), II. i. 25, III. i. 71 ; 
istaec, acc. plur. neut., II. i. 41, IV. ii. 69 (iii. 46); istaec, nom. 
plur. neut., II. i. 48, IV. ii. 71 (iii. 48) ; is tic, nom. sing, masc., III. i. 
4° (36); istunc, acc. masc., i. 139 (136). 

57. compendiface ] i. e. 1 save yourself the trouble of further talk,’ 

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NOTES. I. i. 57. 


may be written as two distinct words, comptndi face, for the component 
parts are frequently separated. The phrase facert aliquid comptndi 
properly signifies, 1. ‘to save;’ 2. ‘ to abridge;’ and hence ‘to cut 
short.’ Thus, Bac. II. ii. 6, Comptndi multa verba iam faciam tibi, 

i. e. ‘I shall make a long story short for you,’ ‘ I shall save you 
the trouble of making a long speech.’ So Pseud. IV. vii. 42, Quis- 
quis es, adulescens, operam fac comptndi quaerere, ‘ save yourself the 
trouble.’ Again, True. II. iv. 26, Si quid tibi Cqmpendi facere possim, 
factum edepol velim, i. e. ‘if I can make any saving for you ;’ and 
Pers. IV. iii. 2, Nam ego hodie comptndi feci binos panes indies , i. e. ‘ I 
have made a saving of two loaves per day.’ The passive of facio is 
also used, As. II. ii. 41, Verbivelitationem fieri comptndi volo, i. e. ‘I wish 
this skirmishing of words to be cut short.’ Sometimes compendium 
is put in the accusative, followed by a genitive or dative, Rud. I. 

ii. 90, Si ad saxum quo capessit,* ea dcorsum cadi/ Errationis fecerit 
compendium, i. e. ‘ she will have brought her wanderings to an 
abrupt termination,’ ‘ save herself from all further wandering.’ In 
Stich. I. iii. 39, Hate verba subigunt me mores ut barbaros Discam , 
atque ut faciam praeconis compendium, Itaquc auc/ionem praedicem, 
ipse ut vendilem, the reading, as far as the last word is con- 
cerned, is very doubtful. The Palatine MSS. are corrupt, but the 
Palimpsest has preserved the true reading, and the meaning is 
tolerably clear. The parasite says that he is about to have a sale 
of his property by auction after the Roman fashion, and that he 
will save the expense of an auctioneer by acting in that capacity 
himself. So facere compendium puttandi, ‘ to cease from,’ Pseud. II. 
ii. 11. Again, in Capt. V. ii. 12, with the dative, Satis facundus es, 
sed iam fieri dictis compendium volo. A verb different from facere is 
occasionally employed, Mil. III. i. 186, Quam poles tarn verba confer 
maxume ad compendium. And we have ponere ad compendium in Cas. 
III. i. 3, 5, where ponito ad compendium means ' cut short by leaving 
that out.’ See the passage. Finally, since, according to the proverb, 
what is saved is gained, we find facere compendium signify ‘ to make 
an acquisition;’ Bac. I. ii. 51, Compendium, edepol, haud aetali optabile, 
Fecisti, cum istanc nactus es impudentiam ; where it must be regarded 
as opposed to dispendium. And indeed this seems to lead to the 
true meaning of the phrase, which seems to be, * to make a saving of,’ 
and hence, to ‘ spare,’ * cut short,’ compendium signifying a saving or 
contraction of expenditure, just as dispendium signifies a lavish outlay. 

* See note of \V, who appears to be quite wrong. 


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58. Nisi te mala re magna madari eupis.] The verb mado desenes 
particular notice. It seems to be derived from the same root as 
magis and magttus, and to be a frequentative form of an obsolete 
verb, mago, of which the participle madus remained in use. 1. The 
original signification of mado was 4 to magnify,’ ‘ to glorify,' in the 
sense of paying homage to a deity by offerings or sacrifices, and 
thence was applied to men when exalted by honour. In this sense 
it is constructed with the accusative of the object to which homage is 
paid, and the ablative of the object employed to testify homage. 
Thus, Cic. in Vat. VI. § 14, Volo ut mihi respondeas . . . quae te /an/a 
pravitas mentis tenuerit, qui tan/us furor , ut, quum inaudita ac nefaria 
sacra suscepcris, quum inf rorum animas elicere, quum pucrorum ex/is 
Deos Manes madare so/eas, Ac.; and De Rep. I. 43, Eos au/em, qui 
in magis/ra/u priva/orum similes esse ve/inl, eosque privatos. qui efficiant 
nequid inter privatum et magis/ralum differat,ferunt laudibus et madant 
honoribus. So also Enn. Ann. IX. frag. II. ed. Vahlen, Livius inde 
redit magno mada/us triumpho. 2. Hence mado signifies simply, ‘ to 
offer in sacrifice,’ and is constructed with the accusative of the thing 
offered, to which the dative of the object to which the sacrifice is 
offered is sometimes added. Examples are very common, e. g. 
Lucret. III. 52, Et nigras madant pecudcs et Manilms divis Inferias 
mittunt ; Varro ap. Non. p. 341, Quod Kakndis Iuniis et publiee et 
privatim favatam pultcm Diis modal ; again, passively, Hor. C. I. xix. 1 6, 
Madata veniet lenior hos/ia ; and in Liv. X. 28, Decius exclaims, lam 
ego mecum hostium legiones madandas I'elluri ac Diis Manibus dabo. 
3. We now come to that sense which is exemplified in our text, the 
sense in which it is used almost invariably by Plautus,* — to magnify 
with a bad or ironical force, 4 to load a person with misfortune,’ and 
is then constructed with the accusative of the person and the ablative 
of the word denoting misfortune. Thus we have in Aul. III. v. 61, 
Dotatae madant et malo et damno viros ; and in a fragment of the 
Amph., At ego certe cruce et crucialu mac/abo : exi, 0 ,foras, mastigia. 
The expression is very frequently couched in the form of an impre- 
cation, e. g. Trin. IV. ii. 151, Ego ob hanc operam argentum accepi : 
te mado infortunio; and Bac. IV. viii. 45, Et ego te et ille madamus 
infortunio; and so Cure. IV. iii. 5, Bac. II. iii. 130, Poen. III. i. 14. 
This use of the word is by no means peculiar to Plautus, for we read 
in Ennius (frag. Teleph. V. ed. Vahlen), qui ilium dii deaeque magno 

* We can scarcely consider Rud. I. ii. 8 an exception, Si sapiam, boe , 
quod me mactat, concinnem lutum, where maetat means, is ‘ tormenting me,’ 
ts 4 playing the deuce with me.’ 

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NOTES. I. i. 58. 107 

madassint malo; in Afranius (Privig. frag. XVI. ed. Ribbeck), Ah, 
fulica , bent perisli, di te madassint malo ; and in Pomponius (Praeco 
post. frag. V. ed. Ribbeck), At te di omnts cum consilio, calve, mac- 
tassint malo. Occasionally we find a play upon the double meaning 
of mado, as in Novius (Gallinaria frag. III. ed. Ribbeck), where the 
speaker is addressing some deity, Mado te his verbenis, rnada tu illanc 
in/ortunio; and in Plaut. Amph. IV. ii. 14, M. Sacrufico ego tibi. 
A. Qui f M. Quia enim te mado in/ortunio. 4. Nonius, who enlarges 
on the different meanings of mado, and quotes a great number of the 
passages adduced above, adds yet another signification, praccipitarc, 
which may be connected with the preceding as denoting * to consign 
to destruction ;’ he gives as his authority a passage from Accius 
(Antenoridae frag. V. ed. Ribbeck), qui aut illorum copias Fundam 
in campo, aut navis uram, aut castra maclabo in mare. 

The use of madus is peculiar. It is generally employed in the voca- 
tive singular, made, and when a deity is addressed signifies, * be thou 
honoured or glorified examples are common in Cato de R. R. Thus 
(cap. 132), Jupiter dapalis . . . made hac illace dope pollucenda csto . . . 
made vino inferio esto; again (cap. 134), Jupiter, made ferdo esto; and 
(cap. 14 1), Mars pater . . made his suovetaurilibus ladentibus esto. 
When made is addressed to a human being it is generally coupled 
with virtute* or some word expressing a good quality, and is a sort 
of complimentary formula implying a prayer that the person addressed 
may prosper and make constant additions to his stock of worth. 
That madus implies the notion of making honourable additions to 
what we possess is seen in a line quoted from Lucilius by Serv. on 
Virg. Ain. IX. 641, Made, inquam, virtute simulque his versibus esto. 
In the passage in the Ain. we have Made nova virtute , puer, sic itur ad 
astra; and Liv. X. 40, Tu quidem made virtute di/igentiaque esto; in the 
line of Accius (Neoptol. frag. IX. ed. Ribbeck), Tu, uti dixi, made 
his armis, mac/a virtutem patris, mada must mean simply ‘ add to’ or 
‘ transcend.’ Occasionally, we find mac/i in the vocative plural, as 
in Liv. VII. 36, Macti virtute, inquit, mi/i/es Romani, este. Lastly, but 
rarely, madus is employed to mean ‘ loaded,’ ‘ overwhelmed,’ ‘ hard 
pressed,’ ‘violently assailed;’ in Lucret. V. 1339, Vi nunc saepe boves 
Lucae ferro male madae Dij[fugiunt,fera fata suis cum mul/a dedere ; 

* In the later writers made is followed by a genitive, c. g. Mart. XII. 
vi. 7, Made animi, quem rarus babel, morumque tuorum Quos Numa quos bilaris 
posset habere Cato. And so Stat. Theb. II. 495. In these eases some 
might consider bonis or some equivalent word understood, which is actually 
expressed in Stat. Sil. I. iii. 106. 

P 2 

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and the force of made in a fragment of Accius (Diomed. frag. XVI. 
ed. Ribbeck), Maneas, his ante txilio made Pe/opiis Ex terris , must 
be ‘ violently driven forth.’ The note of Serv. on /En. IX. 64 1 is 
worth reading. It begins, 'Made, magis aucte, adfectatae gloriae. Et 
est sermo tractus a sacris: quotiens enim aut tus aut vinum super 
victimam fundebatur, dicebant, mactus est taurus vel vino vel ture, 
hoc est, cumulata est hostia et magis aucta. Macte ergo, pro 
mactus esto, vocativum pro nominativo posuit ut Persius, S/emma/e 
quod Tusco ramum millesime ducts Censoremvc tuum vel quod trabeatc 

59. ervom.] Ervom was a sort of vetch, or lentile, the same 
probably with the French ers, used for feeding cattle. See Col. 

II. xi. § 11, VI. 3, § 4, XI. 2, § 10, and comp. Virg. Eel. III. 100, 
Heu ! Heu ! quam pingui macer est mihi /aunts in ervo. 

60. agite, porro pergite\ i. e. ‘ drive on, proceed in your career.’ 
Porro, which is identical with noppu, the later Attic form of rrpdtrm, 
always conveys the idea of * progress’ or ‘ movement forwards,’ and 
is employed with reference to, I. Place ; II. Time ; III. Actions 
and Ideas. I. Place. Rud. IV. iii. 95, T. Vbi lu hie habitas f 
G. Porro illic longe, usque in campis ultimis, i. e. ‘ on there, in that 
direction, far away,’ &c.; Trin. IV. ii. 9 7, C. Scd quid ais i quo inde 
isti porro ? S. Si attimum advorlas e/oquar, i. e. ‘ whither did you 
proceed from thence in your onward course?’ and so in v. 103, 
Deinde porro. II. Time. Thor. V. viii. 33, Sed quid s per cm ? adate 
porro minus pecca/urum pu/cm ? ‘ but what can I hope ? can I think 
that he will improve as his years advance?’ and in v. 36, Quid mihi 
nunc adfers, quamobrem expedem aut sperem porro non fore, i. e. ‘ that 
the same will not happen hereafter ;’ Ilec. V. i. 38, Fac eadem ut sis 
porro : nostra utere amicilia ut voles, i. e. ‘be the same for the future 
as you are now,’ 'persevere in your present conduct;' so in Heaut. I. 
i. 107, <7/ porro rede spero, ‘for the future;’ and Phor. III. i. 10, 
Ecquid spei porro est; so also porro signifies ‘ forthwith,’ ‘ straight- 
way,’ in V. vii. 28-30, Scd transi sodes ad forum, atque il/ud mihi 
Argentum rursum tube rescribi, Phormio. P. Quodve ego dcscripsi 
porro i/lis quibus dtbui ? and Most. III. iii. 18 (IV. ii. 18). 

III. Porro is also used in what may be called a figurative sense 
with reference to actions and ideas, and may in very many cases be 
represented by the English expressions, ‘ to proceed,’ ‘ in the next 
place,’ ‘furthermore,’ ‘in addition;’ thus, Heaut. IV. v. 23, Sed 
porro, auscu/ta, quod superest fallaciae, i. e. ‘ but to proceed, to listen 
to what,’ &c. ; Adel. V. iv. 14. Dttxi uxorem, quam ibi miscriam vidi ! 

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NOTES. I. i. 59 — 62. 


nati filii, Alia cura ! porro autem il/is dum sludeo , &c., ‘ but to proceed,' 
‘in the next place;’ Adel. V. ix. 22, M. Syre, processis/i hodit pulcre. 
D. Si quidem porro , Micio, Tu tuum officium facies , i. e. ‘ if you will 
proceed onwards in doing your duty;’ Hec. IV. iv. 12, turbent porro , 
‘let them go on,’ ‘let them make confusion right on;’ and Most. V. 
i. 5 1 (ii. 36) ; again, Adel. IV. iv. 23, nunc porro, Atschinc, expergiscere, 
‘now, Aeschines, get on,’ ‘wake up,’ ‘be alive;’ Andr. Prol. 22, Dehinc ul 
quiescan/, porro moneo , el desinant Maledicere. According to this punc- 
tuation, porro moneo is ‘ furthermore I warn these persons ;’ or if we 
take quiescan t porro, ‘ let them keep quiet for the future.’ Heaut. III. 

iii. 30, Ccnsen vero ? quid ilium porro credis facturum, Chremei i. e. 
‘what do you believe that he will do next?’ III. i. 84, Cede dexlram: 
porro te idem oro ul facias, Chreme, i. e. ‘ in the next place ;’ Hec. IV. 

iv. 99, El te oro porro, in hac re adiutor sis mihi, i. e. ‘ and further- 
more I implore you;’ Heaut. IV. vii. 10, Porro haec ialenta do/is 
adposcunt duo, i. e. ‘furthermore,’ ‘in addition;' and Rud. III. ii. 39. 
The student may examine the following examples for himself: Poen. 
IV. i. 3, V. iii. 34; Trin. I. ii. 125, III. ii. 56, iii. 47, IV. ii, 97, 
103; Epid. V. ii. 61; Cure. III. 83; Men. V. ix. 51; Mil. II. iv. 33, 
III. i. 202, IV. i. 13, ii. 57, 99, iv. 8. 

62. saginam caedite.'] This expression is very embarrassing. Let 
us first examine the meaning of the word sagina. In the writers upon 
rural affairs it signifies the act or process of fattening domestic animals.* 
Thus Varro R. R. III. 10 says that five points must be attended to 
in the management of geese — de genere, de fetura, de ovis, de pul/is, de 
sagina, i.e. ‘ the breed,’ ‘ the propagation,’ ‘the eggs,’ ‘the goslings,' and 
‘the process of fattening;’ and Columella VIII. 14 tells us that when 
the goslings are four months old the largest are to be selected and set 
aside for fattening, farlurae maximus quisque deslinalur; and then 
goes on, el esl facilis harum avium sagina, i. e. ‘ the process of fattening 
these birds is easy;’ so also Plin. H. N. IX. 56, § 82 informs us, on 
the authority of Varro, that Fulvius Lupinus, a short time before the 
civil war, was the first who kept snails in a preserve ( coc/earum vivaria 
ins/i/uit), and proceeds, quin el saginam earum commen/us esl sapa el 
farre aliisque generibus, &c. In the above passages the word sagina 
denotes the ‘art’ or ‘process of fattening,’ and hence it easily 
passed into the signification found in Tacitus, Juvenal, &c., of the 
‘materials used for fattening,’ ‘ nourishing, rich food,' and hence ‘ food’ 
in general. This use is not, however, confined to the writers who 

* Gesncr, in his Index to the R. R. Scriptores, would connect the word 
with the Greek verb trnrrtu. 

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flourished after Augustus, as Freund asserts in his Lexicon, for Varro 
R. R. III. 17 says that Hortensius kept a body of fishermen in his 
pay to furnish the precious inhabitants of his ponds ( piscinae ) with 
little fishes, and that when the weather was so tempestuous that they 
could not bring to shore in their nets vivam saginam , then he supplied 
them with morsels of salted fish (sa/samen/a), where vivam saginam 
must signify ‘ living food,’ in contradiction to the sa/samen/a or 
pickled tunny.* Hence we have the verb saginare, * to fatten,’ sagi- 
na/us and saginandus; and Varro R. R. III. 10 supplies us with the 
term saginarium for a ‘ fattening coop.’ This being premised we 
may pass on to examine the three passages in Plautus, in addition 
to that before us, where the word is found. 1. Most. I. iii. 78 (77), 
lam is/a quidem apsumpta res erit , dies noclesque estur , bibitur Ne - 
que quisquam parsimoniam adhibel ; sagina plane est, which the older 
commentators explain, ‘ the place is a regular fatting coop,’ making 
sagina— saginarium. But this is quite unnecessary, and we may keep 
to the strict sense, ‘it is a clear case of stuffing and cramming.’ 
Again, 2. Trin. III. ii. 96, where Stasimus, speaking of his master as 
about to enter the service of some foreign prince, says, Aut aliquem 
ad regem in saginam herus se amiecit meus, i. e. 1 in order that he may 
grow fat at his cost;’ and we have a parallel to this in Cicero pro 
Flacco VII., Nuper epu/ali, paullo ante omni largitione sa/urali, Per- 
gameni, quod AJi/hridales, qui multi/udinem illam non audoritale sed 
sagina tenebat , se velle dixii, id sutores, id zonarii conc/amarunt. Cf. 
also Tacit H. II. 71. 3. The third example is in Mil. III. ii. 31, 
where a drunken slave, who had been stealing wine, says that if his 
misdeeds are discovered, Postea sagina ego eiciar ce/laria, where the 
term sagina ce/laria, being evidently a whimsical phrase coined to 
raise a laugh, must not be pressed too closely. But none of these 
throw any light upon the phrase before us. B has saginam caedite, 
the rest cedite. Lambinus adopts cedite and explains it dale, that is, 
give me food for my oxen. But this would involve a false quantity, 
for in that case cedite must be regarded as equivalent to cctte and 
connected with cfdo, ‘ give me,’ and then it would be impossible to 
scan the line. Weise renders the words by cibos comeditc, than which 
nothing could be more tame. Forcellini finds a way out of the difficulty 
by assigning a special meaning to sagina, of which this passage affords 
the only example, viz. ipsum animal sagina pinquefadum, in which 
case we might render the line, ‘ eat, cram yourselves, slay the fatted 

* The passage in Propcrt. IV. viii. 25 is not decisive. 

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NOTES. I. i. 63. 64. 


calf.’* Upon the whole, although I feel no confidence, I am inclined 
to consider that caedite is here equivalent to concidite, and is used 
with reference to efferiite, farcio signifying properly to stuff a sausage, 

1 eat, stuff yourselves out like sausages, chop up the good things.’ 

63. ire . . . parare ] i. e. ' to go to the Piraeus for the purpose of 
procuring.’ This use of the infinitive to denote a purpose or design, 
especially after a verb of motion, is extremely rare in the writers of 
the Augustan age, but is by no means uncommon in Plautus, as will 
appear fiom the following examples: thus, Amph. I. i. 106, Nunc 
pergam fieri imperium exsequi, el me domum capessere ; Bac. II. iii. 120, 
Senex in Ephesum ibit aurum arcessere ; IV. iii. 18, Parasi/us 
modo venera l aurum petere ; IV. viii. 59, Ilia au/em in arcem 
abivil aedem visere Minervae ; Cure. I. iii. 50, Minume : nam para- 
silum mist nudius quar/us Cariam Petere argentum ; Rud. I. ii. 6, 
Nunc hue ad Veneris fanum venio visere ; iv. 4, Omnia iam circum- 
cursavi atque omnibus in latebris perreptavi Quaerere conservam voce, 
ocu/is, auribus, ut perves/igarem ; True. V. 1, Eo mihi amare (a very 
Strange phrase); Trin. IV. iii. 6, Ecce hominem te, Stasime, nihili ! 
satin in thermopolio Conda/ium es 06/i/us, postquam thermopotasti gul- 
turem / Recipe te, et recur re petere, re recenti ; Pseud. II. ii. 47, 
Redder e hoc non perdere her us me misit. IV. v. 4, quoted by VV, 
is not an example according to the common reading. Nor do I 
think that Amph. I. i. 106, quoted above, falls under this head. 
See example of constructions of pergo. 

64. piscatum .] Piscatus must here signify 1 a dish of fish.’ So 
below, III. ii. 41, piscalu probo, ‘excellent fish;’ and in Cic. de Fin. 
II. 8, piscalu, aucupio, venatione, signify 1 the produce of fishing, 
fowling, and the chase.’ The meaning varies in different passages : 
in Bac. I. i. 69, bonus piscatus is ‘ a good take or haul of fish ;’ and 
so Rud. IV. ii. 6, piscatu novo me uberi compotivit (sc. Neptunus), 
while in the next line piscatus seems to be the * act of fishing,’ 
Miroque modo atque incredibi/i hie piscatus mihi Lepide evenit, i. e. ‘ this 
fishing of mine,’ but it may mean here also, ‘ this haul of fish ;’ in 
Rud. IV. i. 7, abiil piscatum ad mare must mean, ‘ he went away 
a-fishing to the sea;’ and so it is used by Plin. H. N. VIII. 16, § 17, 
omnium quos venatus aucupia piscatusque a/ebant. Piscatus, like 
gemilus, sena/us, sump/us, tumultus, and many others, belonged also 
to the second declension in the earlier form of the language, and 
Non. s. v. pisca/i, p. 488, quotes from Pomponius omne piscati genus, 

* The translation given in the English ed., ‘ chew your mast,’ ‘ exercise 
your grinders,’ is vague and quite wide of For.’s meaning. 

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1 1 2 


i. e. ‘all kinds of fish;’ and from Turpilius, si flabat Aqui/o aut 
A us ter inopia turn era/ pisca/i, i. e. ‘there was a scarcity of fish.’ We 
may remark that we use the word fishing in a double sense in 
English, when we say ‘ he is gone a-fishing,’ and ‘ he has had a 
good fishing.’ meaning ‘ a good haul of fish ;’ but we cannot with 
any accuracy employ the word fishing to denote the fish captured. 

66. op/uire. ] The verse requires that the penultimate should here 
be short, and hence the verb is optuor ; but in III. ii. 151 (150), 
op/uire from op/ueor ; and in III. ii. 154, op/uerier ; and so again in 
Amph. III. ii. 19; optuere in Bac. IV. iv. 18, but the text and scansion 
of the line arc doubtful ; optue/ur , Mil. IV. vi. 56. The simple tuor 
is in the received text of Trin. III. ii. 82, Etiam ob stullitiam /uant 
te tucris i niullam abomina, where hurts is an anapaest ; and in Lucret. 

IV. 449, Omnia quae tuimur fieri turn bina tuendo ; and again IV. 362. 
So contui is found below III. ii. 152 (151), and in As. I. i. iii, 
III. i. 20; con/uor. As. II. iii. 23, Pers. II. ii. 26; in/uor, Most. III. 

ii. 150 (149); in/ueor, Rud. II. iv. 28; in/uetur , Capt. III. iv. 25, 
True. II. vii. 40; intuentur, Bac. V. ii. 12; intueri, True. I. ii. 58; 
in/uens, Eun. III. v. 32 ; iniuitur, Heaut. II. iv. 23. Feslus, although 
his text is here imperfect, seems distinctly to recognise the double 
form, iuor and tutor, and says that when he wrote they were used 
indifferently; but we find nothing in the old writers to support his 
notion that tuor originally was equivalent to video and tueor to de/endo. 
See Fest. and Paul. Diac. pp. 354, 355, ed. Mtlll. 

67. G. Pol tibi is/uc credo nomen ac/utum fore. T. Dum inter ea 
sic sit, istuc “ actutum” sino .] So I, iv. 24 (25), Philolaches says, 
lam revortar ; to which Philematium replies, Diu est “ iam” id mihi. 

72. Ne tu erres, hercle, praeterhac mihi non facies moram.] So 
antehac, III. ii. 42; Imo vita antehac erat, and antidhac, Amph. II. 
ii. 79, Cist. I. i. 1. 

73. Satin abii/.] Satin is frequently employed by Plautus, not 
merely as a simple interrogative, but also to express strong emotion, 
anxiety, surprise, and indignation. It is used both alone and also in 
combination with ut and si. We shall give examples, explaining as 
we go along. 1. Simple interrogation: Stich. IV. i. 13, Sed satin 
ego tecum pacificatus sum. Antiphoi i. e. ‘have I made my peace with 
you sufficiently?’ Most. I. iii. 10, Conlemp/a, amabo, mea Scapha, satin 
haec me ves/is deceat ? i. e. 'look and tell me, Scapha, whether this 
dress becomes me well enough?’ and similar examples will be found 
in Most. I. iii. 125; Pers. I. i. 1 8 ; Merc. II. iv. 27; Men. IV. ii. 52, 

V. i. 41. In Men. IV. ii. 38, Satin audis ? is a very earnest question, 

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NOTES. I. i. 66—73. 1 * 5 

and still stronger, Trin. V. ii. 53, L. Saline salve ? die mihi. C. Recte. 

‘ Is all well ? speak. C. All right’ 2. Delight, wonder, perplexity; 
Poen. IV. ii. 97, Saline, prius quam unum esl mice tam /cl urn, turn inslat 
a/terum, i. e. ‘ is it not famous to see that before one dart has been 
fairly launched a second follows close upon its heels?’ In the two 
following examples astonishment and perplexity are indicated. Trin. 

IV. iii. 63, Mare, terra, caelum, Di vostram fidem, Satin ego oculis 
plane video? estne ipsus, an non esl? Merc. IV. i. 16, Satin tu sana es, 
opsecro? In True. II. vii. 2, Saline qui amal nequit quin nihili sit Atque 
improbis se artibus expoliat ? the meaning is, ‘is it not strange that 
a man in love cannot avoid being good for nothing?’ Here, and in 
many other passages, W considers that satin and satin esl are equi- 
valent to nonne, but the full force of satin would in this case be quite 
lost. 3. Wrath and indignation, mingled with surprise, real or 
affected — this is the force of satin in the line of our text, Satin abiit, 
ncque quod dixi,flocci exis/umal? i. e. ‘is it possible that he has gone 
off?’ &c. ; and so in Mil. II. vi. 1, which is exactly parallel, Satin 
abiit ille, ncque herile plus negotium Curat, quam si non servilulem 
serviat? so also Pseud. V. ii. 19, Satin ultro et argentum aufert et me 
irridet? In Trin. IV. iii. 6, satin implies self-reproach. Cf. Men. 

V. v. 42, Cist. I. iii. 2. We now pass on to the combination satin ul, 

with respect to which we must distinguish two cases— (a) when satin 
ul is followed by the indicative ; (b)- when satin ut is followed by the 
subjunctive, (a) When satin ut is followed by the indicative it is 
equivalent to nonne vides ul, i. e. ‘mark how,’ as in Pers. IV. iv. 106, 
Satin ut meminit libertatis ? Dabit haec tibi grandes bo/os, and may, 
according to circumstances, indicate admiration or contempt or sur- 
prise. It indicates admiration in Stich. I. iii. 1 14, Sed eccum Dinacium 
eius puerum ! Hoc vide! Satin ut facete atque ex pictura adstitit ? 
contempt, in Men. I. ii. 67, Mane, name, opsecro, horde: ab se, ecca, 
exit. Ah ! so/em vides. Satin ut occaecatus esl, prae huius corporis 
candoribus ! surprise, Merc. II. iv. 13, E. Tutc heri ipsus mihi nar- 
rasti. C. Satin ut oblitus fui Tibi me narravisse ? i. e. ‘ is it not won- 
derful how I forgot that’ etc.; surprise and pleasure in Mil. IV. iii. 41. 
There is a slight difference in the combination of the following 
passage, where ut is followed by ita, Men. III. ii. 56, Quid hoc negoti 
esl? Satin ul quemque conspicor Ita me ludificant ? ‘ What does this 
mean? Is it not possible for me to see any one without being 
mocked by him ?’ (b) When satin ut is followed by the subjunctive, 

as in Bac. III. iii. 87, Satin ut quern tu habeas fidclem tibi, aut quoi 
credos, nescias ? i. e. ‘ is it to be endured that,’ ‘ is it not abominable 


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] 14 

to think that,’ it indicates strong indignation. In this and in many 
other cases, where satin and satin ut occur, Weise considers that they 
may be expressed by the simple nonne ; but it will be found ujton ex- 
amination that in many places nonne would very inadequately express 
the force, and in others it is altogether out of place. Lastly, we have 
satin si; thus Rud. IV. v. 3, Satin, si quoi homini dei esse bene/actum 
volunt Aliquo illud pacto oplingit optalum pit's P i. e. ‘is it not manifest 
that if the gods,’ &c. ; while in Pseud. I. i. no. Satin est si banc 
hodie mulierem efficio tibi Tua ut sit ? i. e. ‘are you content if?’ 

— Satin' abiif, tuque quod dixi,flocci e.xistumat P] Compare V. i. 1, 
Qui homo timidus erit in rebus dubiis, nauci non erit Atque equidem 
quid id esse dicam verbum nauci, nescio ; Men. II. iii. 69, Neque ego 
ilium manco, neque floccifacio ; V. vii. 5, Cave quisquam, quod il/ic 
minitetur, vostrum flocci/ecerit ; Cas. II. v. 24, Tu islos minutos care 
Deos flocci/eceris ; Stich. II. i. 12, Cave qucmquam floccifeceris ; Trin. 
IV. ii. 73, Neque adeo edepol floccifacio; v. 150, Di te perdant, e/si 
floccifacio an perisses prius ; v. 152, Cetcrum qui sis, qui non sis, 
floccum non inter duim ; True. IV. ii. 56, De nihilo illi est irasci, quae 
te non floccifacit ; Rud. Prol. 47, flocci non fecit fidem. Compare 
further Trin. I. ii. 174, True. II. vii. 46, Rud. III. v. 16. 

I. ii. 2. Argumenta.\ Argumcntum is properly (see note on I. i. 2) 
‘ something which pierces and carries conviction with it,’ hence * a 
proof,’ hence ‘ reasoning,' hence ‘ a discussion’ or ‘ dissertation’ in 
which argumenta are adduced, and hence the ‘ subject or theme of a 
discussion or dissertation.’ It is from the idea of movement implied 
in reasons which ‘ pierce and carry conviction with them,’ that in is 
here followed by pectus in the accusative : ‘ I have raised discussions 
and adduced proofs which might penetrate into my breast.’ To say, 
with Lambinus, that in pectus is put for in pectore “ antiquo more,” is 
little better than an attempt to conceal ignorance. Observe that in 
the following line we have in corde not in cor; after the discussions, 
reasonings, and proofs had made their way into his breast, he then 
turned them over and arranged them "in corde.” In v. 9, Ei ret 
argumenta dicam means, * I will adduce proofs of what I assert,’ and 
so w. 15, 37, while in v. 9 we have the same meaning expressed by ad 
with the accusative, Auscultate argumenta dum dico ad hattc rem. In 
Trin. II. iv. 121 we find nearly the same words, Ei rei argumcntum 
dicam, which there signify, ‘ I will prove to you that you ought to 
follow my advice;’ and in True. I. ii. 68, Amator similis est oppidi 
hostilis. D. Quo argumento est i ‘How do you make that out?’ ‘How 
do you prove that ?’ The transition is easy from a discussion to the 

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NOTES. I. ii. 2-7. 



‘ subject or theme of a discussion,’ and thus argumtntum is used 
specially for the ‘ plot or story of a drama.’ Thus Amph. Prol. 51, 96, 
Post argumentum huius eloquar tragoediae ; and Trin. III. ii. 81, Facile 
pa! mam habes ; hie vic/us. Vicit tua comoedia Hie agit magis ex argu- 
mento et versus meliores faeit , i. e. * he keeps more closely to the story;’ 
hence, in a still more general sense, argumentum signifies the repre- 
sentation of story in a work of art. Thus Virgil calls the representation 
of the story of Io on the shield of Turnus, argumentum ingens ; and 
Cicero Verr. Act. II. iv. 56, when describing the famous doors of 
the Temple of Minerva in the Insula at Syracuse, Ex ebore diligentissime 
perfecta argumenta erant in valvis. We have argumentari in the Vulg. 
of True. IV. ii. 23, but the reading is more than doubtful. Examples 
of argumentum, in the sense of ‘reasonings,’ ‘proofs,’ ‘arguments,’ may 
be found in Amph. I. i. 267, 277, II. i. 45, II. ii. 174, V. i. 35; 

As. II. ii. 36; Cas. IV. iii. 13; Mil. IV. ii. 11, 24; Rud. IV. iii. 84; 

True. II. vi. 26 ; in the last passage argumenta are the tokens by 
which the paternity of a child is proved. In the sense of ‘ the plot 
of a play’ in As. Prol. 8; Cist. I. iii. 7; Men. Prol. g, it, 13, 16; 

Mil. II. i. 7, 20 ; Merc. Prol. 2 ; Poen. Prol. 46, 56, 57 ; Rud. 

Prol. 31; Trin. Prol. 16; And. Prol. 6, n; Heaut. Prol. 6; 
Adel. Prol. 22. 

5. Similis] with genitive. So in vv. 5, 8, 38 (35), 47 (43). 

7. Id reperi iam exemplum.\ The modifications of meaning which 
exemplum undergoes are worthy of attention. There can be little 
doubt that exemplum is derived, like eximius, from eximo, and it seems 
properly to signify an object picked out or selected from others of the 
same kind on account of its excellence. Hence it means ‘a model,’ 
something set up to be copied or imitated. Of this meaning we have 
an instance a few lines lower down v. 21 (19), inde exemplum expetunl, 
and again, III. ii. 75, 76, 86 (73, 74, 84). Hence figuratively, Men. 
V. vi. 27 , Eo exemp/o servio, tergi ut in rem esse arbitror, i. e. * keeping 
the interest of my hide steadily in view,’ as an artist who copies from 
a model; and Bac. III. vi. 11, Multi more isto atque exemp/o vivonl, 

i. e. ‘ making that manner of life their model.’ Hence in Trin. IV. 

ii. 76, Charmides, when endeavouring to bring a name to the recol- 
lection of the Sycophanta, Quod ad exemplum est I coniee/ura si 
reperire possumus. S. Ad hoc exemplum est , Char. C. An Chares f 
An Charidemus. An Charmides ? i. e. ‘ What is it like? ... It is like 
Char! Moreover exemplum may be used in a bad as well as in a 
good sense, and may signify an object selected not as a model but 
as- a warning to others, as we talk in English of making an example 


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of an offender. So Rud. III. ii. 3, Ferte opem inopiae atqut txemplum 
pessumum pessumdate. Plautus takes advantage of the double meaning 
in this play, V. i. 67 (ii. 52), T. Exemplum tdepol faciam ego in te. 
C. Quia p/aceo, exemplum ex/v/is ; cf. Rud. III. ii. 6. In Epid. I. 
i. 7, exemplum signifies an object to be looked at or contemplated, 
E. Quid tu f agis ut ve/is i T. Exemplum adesl; i. e. 1 look at me 
and judge.’ Exemplum may also signify the copy as well as the model; 
thus Poen. V. iv. 102 it occurs in both senses, 0 A pel la, 0 Zeuxis 
pie/or Cur numero estis mortui ? hinc exemplum ut pingerctis. Nam 
alios pie/ores nil moror huiusmodi tractare exempla; while in Pseud. 
II. ii. 56 exemplum is the impression of a portrait (expressa imago) 
made from a seal. The transition is easy to such expressions as the 
following: Rud. III. i. 2, Ego ad hoe exemplum simiae respondeo; and 
II. vi. 3, Nam si quis quid cum eo rei commiscuit Ad hoc exemplum 
amittil orna/um domum ; and As. II. iii. 9, Si is/oc excmplo tu omnibus 
qui quae runt respondebis, in which ad hoc exemplum and is toe exemp/o 
signify ‘ in this (that) manner,’ ‘ after this (that) fashion.’ Hence exem- 
plum is frequently employed as identical with modus , as in Rud. III. i. 1, 
Miris modis Di ludos faeiunt hominibus Mirisque exemplis somnia in 
somnis danunt, where modis and exemplis might be interchanged 
without affecting the meaning; so also True. I. i. 5, Quo t amans 
exemplis ludificetur, quo t modis Perea/, quo/que exore/ur exorabulis ; 
so in the Pers. I. iii. 77, Toxilus tells the parasite Saturio . ... Tu 
gnatam tuam Omatam adduce lepide in peregrinum modum; and in a 
subsequent part of the play, III. i. 7, Saturio having brought in his 
daughter dressed up tells her, Ea causa ad hoc exemplum te exornavi 
ego; so also in this play, IV. iii. 39 (iv. 39), Theuropides says, 
De/udificatus est me hodie indignis moelis ; and in v. 46 he says, tibi 
narrarero Quis me exemplis hodie i/le ludi/iealus est. Lastly, we have 
the phrases, Most. I. iii. 35, Di Deaeque omnes pessumis exemplis in/er- 
ficiant; and v. 55, Perii hcrcle ni ego i/lam pessumis exemplis enicasso; 
also Bac. III. iv. 6, Nam mihi divini numquam quisquam creduat Ni 
ego i/lam exemplis plurimis planeque amo; and Rud. II. iii. 40, nos 
v.ntisque Jluctilusque lactatae exemplis plurimis miserae perpcluam 
noclem, in both of which exemplis may be rendered by ‘ manner’ or 
‘ way.’ We can however easily trace the proper and original force 
of exemplum in this and in all cases where it is regarded as equivalent 
to modus. Thus, interficere pessumis exemplis is to put to death, 

‘ taking the most cruel kinds of ileath as a model;’ and amare plurimis 
exemplis is to love, ‘ taking as a model all kinds and varieties of love ;’ 
and so iactatae plurimis exemplis, &c., fee. 

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NOTES. I. ii. 16-25. 


16. gnarures . . . hanc ran.] YVe cannot draw any distinction as 
to meaning between gnarus and gnaruris. The latter occurs again 
in Poen. Prol. 47, Ad argumen/um nunc vicissatim volo Iiemigrart , 
aeque ut mecum si/is gnardres, but it is not found elsewhere until we 
come down to Arnobius and Ausonius. Forcellini marks the pen- 
ultimate long, gnaruris. The versification in the passage before us 
is so uncertain that it cannot be employed in evidence, while in the 
line from the Poenulus, which is an Iambic Trimeter, the penultimate 
must be short; and so also in Auson. Epp. XXII. 19, Non cultor 
installs non arator gnardris, which line also is an Iambic Trimeter. 
The young scholar will remark the accusative after gnarures governed, 
we must suppose, by the verb implied in the adjective. 

18. examussim] i. e. ‘true to rule and plummet.’ While, strictly, 
regula signifies ‘ a straight rule,’ norma ‘ two straight rules joined at 
right angles,’ that is, ‘ a square,’ perpcndiculum ‘ a plumb-line,’ libella 
‘ the combination of a rule and plummet,’ and rubrica ‘ the chalked 
cord’ used by masons, amussis would seem to denote a carpenter’s or 
mason's ‘ level,’ that is, an instrument used to ascertain that a surface 
is perfectly horizontal. This at least seems to be the meaning of 
Varro, as quoted by Nonius (s. v. Examussim p. 9), amussis est aequa- 
men la; amentum, id est apud fabros tabula quaedam qua utuntur ad saxa 
coagmentata ; and of Paul. Diac. (s.v., p. 6, ed. Miill.), who explains it 
as regula ad quam a/iquid exaequatur , although, in all probability, the 
whole of the above words were employed indifferently when technical 
language was not required.* See Auson. Eidyll. XVI. 11, where we 
have the nominative amussis. Ad amussim, or, in one word, Adamus- 
sim, is found in Varro R. R. II. 1, Si inquam, numerus non est ut sit 
ad amussim, which means, if the number given is not ‘ precisely 
exact;’ and in Aul. Gell. I. 4, XX. 1, Macrob. S. I. 4, it means in like 
manner, 1 to a nicety, exactly.’ Examussim is found again in Plaut. 
Amph. II. ii. 213, Nae ista edepol, si haec vera loquitur, examussim est 
optima, i. e. ‘ is absolutely perfect ;’ and Men. Prol. 50, Vt hanc rent 
vobis examussim disputem, i.e. ‘with perfect accuracy and distinctness;’ 
and reappears later in Apuleius. In Mil. III. i. 38 we have arntts- 
sitata, the participle of a verb amussito, Inest in hoc amussi/a/a sua 
sibi ingenua indoles, i. e. ‘a liberal disposition squared and balanced 
according to the nicest rule of right.’ 

2 5. tcgulas imbricesque . ] Imbrex is probably the gutter or open 

* Sisenna, quoted by Charis. p. 178, makes amussis an instrument for 
determining that a wall is built perpendicularly. 

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channel which receives the rain as it drops from the tiles, and carries 
it from the roof in a single stream. Such seems to be the explana- 
tion of Isidorus XIX. io and of Pliny H. N. XXXV. 12, § 43, who, 
when recounting the inventions of Dibutades of Sicyon, says, primusque 
personas tegularum extremis imbricibus imposuit, although his words 
are by no means clear. Imbrex occurs again in connection with 
tegulae in Mil. II. vi. 24, Quod meas confregisti imbrices et tegulas ; and 
in Sisenna Histor. III., dissipatis imbricum fragminibus ac testis tegu- 
larum , quoted by Non. p. 125, s. v. Imbrices ac tegulas. From the 
curved form of the imbrex it is used by Virgil in connection with an 
arched roof (imbrice tecti, G. IV. 296); in Martial Epp. II. xxxvii. 2 
it denotes some portion of a pig, Mammas suminis imbricemque porci, 
but what portion we cannot tell ; while from the sound of water 
rushing through a narrow channel it was applied to one of the forms 
of theatrical applause executed by bodies of men trained for the 
purpose (bombos et imbrices et testas vocabant), perhaps something 
like our Kentish fire. See the very curious passage in Sueton. 
Ner. 20. 

26. A~evol/.\ Observe that ne was the original form of the Latin 
negative. Compare ne par cunt = non parcunt, ne quidem, nedum, and 
such words as neg/ego, negotium, necopinatus. 

27. Perpluont Tignai\ The verb perp/uo is used by Plautus in 
two ways, transitively and intransitively. Here it is used intransitively: 
perpluont tigna, ‘ the beams let in the water,’ i. e. ‘ the water makes 
its way into the beams.’ In iii. 8 we have it in the transitive sense : 
llaec ilia est tempestas mea, mihi quae modestiam omnem Detexit leclus 
qua fui quam mihi Amor et Cupido In pectus f>erpluit meum, i. e. 
‘ rained through into my heart;’ and in Trin. II. ii. 41, Bene/acta bene- 
factis aliis pertegito ne perpluant, i. e. intransitively, ‘ lest they let the 
water through.’ Perpluit is generally used impersonally, ‘ to let rain 
or liquid in through a crevice;’ but see Most. IV. i. 16, Malum quom 
inpluit ceteros, non inpluat mihi, and observe the change of construction. 
For other examples of the use of perpluere see Fest. p. 250, ed. M., 
"Pateram perplovcre in sacris quum dicerent, significabant pertusam 
esse,” i. e. ‘ leaks, lets out the liquid,’ where we see the ancient form 
plovo, whence pluvius (cf. fluo-fluvius) ; Cato R. R. 1 55, In villa cum 
p/uet, circumire oportet, sicubi perpluat, et signare carbone, cum desierit 
plucre, uti tegu/a mutetur, i. e. ‘ water makes its way in.’ Quint. VI. 
ii. § 64 relates a witticism of Galba, who, when a person asked the 
loan of a cloak, replied, “ Non possum commodore, domi maneo,” and 
then Quint, adds the explanation, cum ctnaculum cites perpluere/. 

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NOTES. I. ii. 26-47. 


i. e. ‘let in water through the roof;' Apul. Met. X. 236, Turn de 
summo montis cacumine per quondam latentem fistulam in exce/sum 
prorumpit vino crocus diluta , sparsimquc defluens pasccn/is circa capcllas ' 
odoro perpluit imbre , i. e. ‘ wets them through,’ transitively, as in 
Most. I. iii. 8. 

31. si quid numo sarciri potest.] So in the parallel v. 68 (62), non 
videor mihi Sarcire posse aedcs meas. 

32. Vsque mantani\ ‘ they keep putting off, procrastinating.’ 
Manto is a frequentative from maneo. The word occurs again in 
Poen. I. ii. 52, An us nos apud'aedem Veneris mania!, i. e. * is waiting 
for us;’ and Pseud. I. iii. 49, aliquot hos dies mania modo, i. e. 
‘only wait for a few days;’ and in the same scene, v. 23, vah, 
mania, ‘pooh, stop;’ and again, Rud. II. iv. 26; it is quoted from 
Caecilius by Fest. s. v. maniare, p. 133, ed. Mull.; and by Non. 
s. v. mania! , p. 505. There is another frequentative form mansito, 
which appears in the Post-Augustan writers. 

38. Exlolluni, parant sedu/o in firmiiatem, Vi et in usum boni et 
in specicm popu/o Sint ; but in v. 60, ego sum in usu Facius nimio 
nequior ; here W reads usum, but is wrong. For this use of in with 
the accusative see note on i. 31, and compare Amph. I. i. 25, nu- 
mero mihi in meniem fuit. Ecquid te fudet ? S. Omnia quae tu vis. 
C. Vbi in lustra iacuisti. S. Egone in lustra! Trin. III. iii. 38, 
Is homo exorntiur graphics in peregrinum modum ; Rud. I. iv. 1 , Quid 
mihi melius esi, quid magis in rent est quam, &c. ; IV. ii. 31, Mag- 
nas res hie agi/o in meniem instruere ; Pseud. I. i. 126, edico . . . 
In hunc diem a me ul caveani ; v. 121, De islac re in oculum utrumvis 
conquiescilo. C. Oculum uirum, anne in aurem ? T. At hoc pervolgatum 
esi minus. 

47. Igitur ium\ ‘thereafter;’ and again III. i. 159 (156). (In 
the latter of these the Vulg. gives Igitur dum, in opposition to all the 
MSS.) Whatever may be the etymology of igitur — and nothing can 
be more unsatisfactory than the one proposed by Hand, in which 
scholars seem, for the most part, to have acquiesced— it is certain 
that in the older forms of the language igitur uniformly signifies 
‘ then’ or ‘ thereafter,’ and denotes that an event follows after another 
previously mentioned, either simply in time or both in time and as a 
result ; the use of igitur , denoting a logical result, belongs to a late 
period. We cannot have a better example than the Law of the 
XII. Tables quoted by Porph. on Hor. S. I. ix. 76, and cleverly 
restored by Carrio and Dirksen, Si. in. ius. vocal, ni. ii. antestalor. igitur. 
em. capita. Igitur in Plautus sometimes stands alone, and sometimes 

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is combined with turn , demum, or deinde. i. Igitur alone, Cas. II. ii. 
39, C. Abeo. M. Max magis quom otium mihi et tibi erit, Igitur tecum 
loquar : nunc valt. C. Valeas — where igitur signifies simply ‘ then 
in Amph. I. i. 55, where Sosia is giving an account of the propo- 
sitions made by his master to the Telel>oi, sin aliter sient animati 
neque dent quae petal Sese igitur summa vi virisque eorum oppidum 
expugnassere, igitur is not ‘therefore’ but ‘thereafter’ or ‘thereafter 
the result will be,’ and so in Mil. III. i. 177. Another very good 
example occurs in III. iii. 1-4, where ut igitur signifies ‘in 
order that thereafter.’ 2. Igitur turn; in addition to the line before 
us we have turn igitur in Trin. III. ii. 50, and in Bac. III. iv. 19, 
Igitur mihi inani atque inopi subblandibitur Turn , quom men i/tud nihilo 
p/uris referet Quam si ad sepulcrum mortuo dieat iocum, i. e. ‘ Thereafter 
. . . at a time when.’ 3. Igitur demum , in Amph. I. ii. 11, Igitur 
demum omnes scient Quae facta , i. e. ‘ then (or thereafter) at length ;’ 
and III. i. 16, Post igitur demum faciam res fiat pa/am; so also 
below, II. i. 33, and Rud. IV. ii. 25. In Merc. III. ii. 9 we have 
Demum igitur quom senex sis, &c. ; and Trin. III. iii. 52, Turn 
tu igitur demum id adulescenti aurum dabis Vbi erit locata virgo in 
matrimonium. 4. Igitur deinde, Stich. I. ii. 27, Sic faciam: adsimutabo, 
quasi cutpam aliquant in sese admiserint ; Perplexabiliter corum hodie 
perparfaciam pectora : Post id agam igitur deindc: ut animus mcus 
erit, faciam pa/am. Such is the punctuation adopted by modern 
editors, but I prefer the Vulgate, Post id agam igitur : deinde, ut ani- 
mus mcus erit, & c., i. e. ‘ thereafter I shall press that scheme : then, (at 
a later period,) as 1 shall feel inclined, I shall disclose the truth 
where deinde will denote a stage in the progress of events beyond 
that indicated by igitur. We have igitur signifying ‘ then,’ with the 
force of ‘ in that case,’ Epid. III. iv. 63, Quid tibi negoti est meae 
domi igitur, which is the nearest approach to the late force of 

51. Perdidi operam . . . oppido . ] Oppido was used extensively in 
conversation and familiar composition, and the force of the word 
may, in most cases, be conveyed by ‘ thoroughly,’ 4 entirely,’ ‘ com- 
pletely.’ 1. With verbs we have above perdidi oppido; in Aul. IV. ix. 
18, Amph. I. i. 143, oppido interii; in Bac. IV’. viii. 12, As. II. ii. 21, 
Aul. III. i. 5, IV. x. 70, Merc. IV. iii. 10, Most. III. i. 27 (23), 
Pers. IV. ix. 4, and Rud. II. vi. 66, peri oppido ; in Most. I. 
iii. 9, periere hae oppido aedes ; III. ii. 44, oppido occidimus ; Pseud. 
I. v. 10, oppido opsepta est via; Merc. II. i. 21, oppido bene vetle ; 
Bac. IV. viii. 28, animam amborum exsorbebo oppido. 2. With 

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NOTES. I. ii. 51. 1 21 

participles and adjectives ; As. V. ii. 33, corruptum oppido; Cure. I. ii. 
44, Ego oppido servata ; Epid. III. ii. 3, hoc oppido poli/um est ; Mil. 
III. i. 33, oppido Acherunticus ; Merc. II. i. 15, oppido mirum; Phor. 
V. i. 36, animo iniquo oppido ; Heaut. IV. ii. 2, angustum oppido ; 
iii. 26, instant rent oppido; iv. 12, oppido invitam; Hec. II. i. 41, 
tassam oppido ; so also with an adverb, Adel. III. ii. 24, oppido 
opportune te optulisti mihi obviam ; in all of which oppido, joined to 
the positive, gives it the force of a superlative. In one case oppido 
is used with a superlative, Rud. I. iii. 25, Hoc quod induta sum 
summae opes oppido, i. e. ‘ the clothes upon my back form the entire 
amount of my wealth.’ 3. More rarely oppido qualifies a conjunction ; 
thus Most. 111 . ii. 122 (120), Qualibet perambuta aedes oppido tamquam 
tuas, i. e. ‘completely as if it was your own;’ and Mil. III. L 40, 
Nam benignitas quidem huius oppido ut adu/csccnlu/i est; in the first of 
these, however, we may, if we please, place a comma after oppido and 
connect it with perambuta. In Liv. XXXIX. 47 and Vitruv. VIII. 3 
we have the combination oppido quarn, ‘ exceedingly.’ 4. Lastly, 
oppido is used by itself, in dialogue, as a strong affirmative, ‘ exactly 
so,’ ‘ precisely so.’ Thus Bac. IV. iv. 30, C. lieddidisti (sc. pecuniam) ? 
M. Reddidi. C. Omnemne ? M. Oppido. i. e. ‘ exactly so, the whole.’ 
So Phor. V. vii. 12, C. Estne ea, i/a ut dixi, liberalis f D. Oppido. 
i. e. ‘Is she not, as I said, quite the lady?’ ‘Yes, decidedly; very 
much so;' and II. ii. 1, P. Itane pa/ris ais conspedum veritum hinc 
abisse? G. Admodum. P. Phaniunt relic tam solam ? G. Sic. P. Et 
iratum senem? G. Oppido , — where admodum (for another example of 
admodum in this sense see Hec. III. v. 8), sic, and oppido are all 
equivalent to ‘ exactly so.’ In each of the above examples we may, 
if we please, supply the preceding adjective after oppido, oppido omnem, 
oppido liberalis, oppido iratum. With regard to the origin of oppido, 
grammarians have, for the most part, acquiesced in the explanation 
given by Paulus Diaconus after Festus (s. v. oppido, p. 184, ed. Mull.), 
although the canon laid down as to the correct use of the word is not 
supported by the practice of the best writers : “ Oppido valde multum. 
Ortum est autem hoc verbum ex sermone inter se confabulantium 
quantum quisque frugum faceret, utque multitudo significaretur saepc 
respondebatur, quantum vet oppido satis esset. Hinc in consuetudinem 
venit ut diceretur oppido pro valde multum. Itaque, si qui in aliis 
rebus eo utuntur, ut puta si qui dicant Oppido didici, spcctavi, ambu- 
lavi, errant ; quia nulli eorum subiici potest, vel quod satis est." I feel 
little hesitation in repudiating this etymology, and entertain little doubt 
that from the root ops, pi. opes, was formed an adjective, opidus or 


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op Indus, signifying ‘ abundant,’ to which oppidum, 4 a town,' and oppido, 
both belong, and that the true meaning of oppido is 4 abundantly,’ 
which we ourselves use as equivalent to 4 very,’ when we speak 
of a matter as 4 abundantly clear,’ 1 evident,’ 4 ridiculous,’ and so 
forth. There is a very obscure passage in Quintilian VIII. 3, § 25, 
with regard to this word; “ Satis est vetus: quid necesse est, quaeso, 
dicere oppido f quo sunt usi paululum tempore nostro superiores : 
vereor ut iam nos ferat quisquam.” Are we to understand that Quin- 
tilian here condemns altogether the use of the word oppido , or that he 
merely disapproves of the use of oppido in the sense of satis, or does 
he mean something different from either of these explanations ? 

52. Vtnit ignavia] i. e. ‘dissipation.’ Ignavus is the opposite of 
gnavus, ‘energetic,’ ‘vigorous,’ ‘active,’ ‘strenuous,’ and since idleness 
is the mother of mischief, ignavia and ignavus are employed to 
denote various phases of moral turpitude. Thus in our text ignavia 
signifies profligacy, dissipation, extravagance; and so in Trin. I. ii. 
95, Megaronides bitterly reproaches Callicles with having given a 
supply of money to Lesbonicus, Qui exaedificaret suam inchoatam 
ignaviam, i. e. ‘ build up to the summit the structure of his profli- 
gacy already commenced;’ so too Poen. IV. ii. 24, where ignavus is 
opposed to frugi bonae, ‘ respectable,’ Proinde habet hie orationem quasi 
ipse sit /rugi bonae Qui ipsus hercle ignaviorem potis est facere ignaviam. 
Ignavia signifies carelessness, want of activity, in Merc. III. iv. 77. 
In I. 23, Nusquam est disciplina ignavior, ‘ nowhere is household 
discipline more lax.’ The most common meaning is ‘ worthless, 
good-for-nothing;’ tile ignavos, ‘that profligate,’ Trin. I. ii. 128; 
ignavom, ‘a coward,’ Most. III. ii. 169; tgnavi, ‘cowards in war,’ 
Capt. II. ii. 12; mea ignavia, ‘ thou that art the monument of my 
folly,’ Pers. V. ii. 68 ; is ignavissumus (in wrath), ‘ that rascal,’ Poen. 
V. v. 3 ; tgnavi homines, ‘ these rascals,’ Rud. III. v. 49 ; and so 
ignavis and ignavia, in Men. V. vi. 8, 1 1 ; tgnavi, ‘ idle scoundrels’ 
(to slaves), Pseud. I. ii. 1; ipsi ignavi, ‘the worthless, good-for- 
nothing,’ Bac. 111. vi. 15, and me esse dicito ignavissumum, ‘call me 
utterly worthless,’ v. 27; tile ignavissumus, ‘that most worthless of 
men,’ Trin. IV. ii. 81; and so homo ignavissume. Men. V. v. 25; 
ignave, ‘you good-for-nothing old profligate,’ Cas. II. iii. 23; t'gna- 
viorem in the same sense, v. 28 ; and so ignavissumis vervtcibus, 
‘these good-for-nothing worn-out old wethers,’ III. ii. 4. Com- 
pare indi/tgens in vv. 23, 29. 

54 > 55 ' 5^1 Compare iii. 6, Haec ilia est tem/cstas mea, mi hi quae 
modestiam omnem De/exit, tutus qua fui. 

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NOTES. I. ii. 52-62. 


62. quin /olae Perpetuae ruant ] ‘ tumble down, with a crash, from 
top to bottom,’ the fall being uninterrupted, no portion being left 
standing. Perpetuus properly conveys the idea of unbroken con- 
tinuity ; it is seldom, if ever, equivalent to the English perpetual , in the 
sense of ‘ lasting for ever,’ but the meaning may generally be expressed 
by ‘uninterrupted.’ Thus perpetua iuga, applied by Pliny (H. N. III. 
v. 7) to the course of the Apennines from the Alps to the extremity 
of Italy, denotes that the ridge was continuous or uninterrupted; 
perpetuae mensae (Virg. /Kn. VII. 176) are long tables stretching in a 
straight line up and down, uninterrupted or unbroken by a transverse 
piece like the triclinium; perpetuae quaes/iones were the courts for the 
trial of certain criminal offences, which sat from year to year ‘ without 
interruption,’ unlike the special commissions appointed from time to 
time. Perpetuus and the adverb pcrpetuo are often employed by 
Plautus and Terence, uniformly with the force above explained. 
Thus perpetuom diem , Most. III. ii. 78 (76); perpetuam rnctern, Rud. 
II. iii. 40; triduom perpetuom , Adel. IV. i. 4; biennium perpetuom, 
Hec. I. ii. 12; perpetuos decern annos, Stich. I. iii. 14, require no ex- 
planation. Solida et perpetua fides (Merc. II. iii. 44) is ‘truth or 
honour, firm and uninterrupted.’ When Laches says (Ilec. II. ii. 
10), Si perpetuam vis esse affinitalem hanc, he means, ‘ if you desire 
that this connection between our families should remain unbroken 
and the same phrase recurs IV. iv. 14. The sentiment expressed 
by Auxilium in Cist. I. iii. 46, Vt sunt humam, nihil est perpetuom 
datum, is, ‘ nothing goes on steadily without interruption ;’ with which 
compare Hec. III. iii. 46. The expression perpetuus modus is peculiar 
to Plautus ; thus Most. IV. iii. 4 1 (iv. 41), Te ludificatus est et me 
hodie in perpetuom modum, means, ‘ he has befooled you and me this 
day one after the other, without interruption;’ and again III. i. 5, 
Nunc pol ego perii plane in perpetuom modum, means, ‘ now am I 
evidently undone, and must be ruined without a pause,' ‘ without 
anything to break or arrest or interrupt my downward career.’ In 
like manner with regard to the adverb pcrpetuo, the expression 
in Amph. Prol. 60, Nam me pcrpetuo facere ul sit comoedia, denotes, 
* for me to bring it about that this piece should be a comedy from 
beginning to end.’ Again in I. i. 15, when the slave inquires, 
Quid aist perpetuon , valuisti? he means, ‘have you enjoyed uninter- 
rupted good health ?’ and so again, Merc. II. iii. 53, D. Vsquene 
valuisti ? C. Pcrpetuo rede, dum quidem illic fui, i. e. ‘I enjoyed 
uninterrupted good health as long as I was there ;’ Heaut. IV. viii. 2 1 , 
perfice hoc mihi pcrpetuo, Chrcme, i. e. ‘ without interruption.’ In 

R 2 

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Most. III. i. 23 (19), Metuo ne technae meae perpetuo perierint , ‘ I am 
afraid that my schemes have been and will be upset one after another 
without a pause and so perpetuo per ire signifies the same as per ire 
in perpetuom modum, ‘to go to destruction headlong;’ Pers. II. iv. 10, 
Adel. II. iv. 19, Kun. V. iii. 13. The phrase in perpetuom is some- 
times equivalent to ‘ always,’ and may be used with reference to the 
period of a whole life: Heaut. IV. v. 33; Cic. Cat. I. 12; Liv. VII. 
37. The verb perpetuare occurs once in Plautus, Pseud. I. iii. 72, 
Non esl iustus quisquam amator nisi qui perpetual data , ‘ unless one 
who makes presents uninterruptedly,’ and is found in Cicero also. 
For other examples of perpetuus and perpetuo, see Amph. Prol. 6 ; 
Pocn. I. ii. 82; Pers. III. i. 2; Fun. V. iv. it; Adel. V. ix. 15; 
And. III. iii. 32; Adel. IV. i. 6; Hec. III. iii. 46. 

64. Cor dole! ] i. e. ‘ my heart aches,’ from which is formed the 
substantive eordo/ium, ‘ the heart-ache,’ found twice in Plautus ; Cist. 
I. i. 67, Poen. I. ii. 86; and revived by Apuleius Met. IX. 190. It 
has been adopted into Italian as cordoglio. 

68. Disciputinac a/iis eram ] i. e. ‘I was a pattern (or model) to 
others.’ The original unsyncopated form of the word is here pre- 
served in the Palatine MSS. In this passage disciputinac is equiva- 
lent to exemp/o, ‘ I was a model from which others might learn 
their duty,’ but it assumes many shades of meaning, which may 
however be easily connected with each other. Thus in As. I. iii. 
49, eadem distip/ina utimur means, ' we follow the same system ;’ 
in Cas. III. v. 24, Atticam discip/inam, ‘the laws and usages of 
Athens;’ and in v. 28, Malarum matam discip/inam, ‘the evil ex- 
ample or customs of bad women ;’ in Cist. I. i. 1 8, disciplina is ‘ the 
ways and rules of a family;’ in Bac. I. ii. 27, lua disciplina is exactly 
represented by ‘ your discipline,’ viz., that of a teacher towards a 
pupil, and so III. iii. 17; in Mil. II. ii. 30. pare! discip/inam, ‘let her 
school herself ;’ in Merc. I. 6, haec disciplina, ‘ this fashion or custom ;’ 
in True. I. i. 30, i/a est disciplina, ‘thus are matters ordered;’ in 
I. ii. 29, ea est disciplina, ‘ so was I trained to be.' 

- Parsimonia et duritia discipulinae a/iis eram.] Discipulinae may be 
either the genitive after parsimonia and duritia, signifying ‘ training,’ 
in which case the construction will be eram exemp/o a/iis, or the 
dative, eram discipulinae a/iis, i. e. ‘I was a lesson to others.’ 

I. iii. 9. Periere haec oppido aedesi] This is the reading of B, which 
has hec, and was adopted by Camerarius ; the rest of the MSS. have 
hae. There can be no doubt however that haec was used occa- 
sionally by the older writers as the feminine nom. pi., and it is 

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NOTES. I. ii. 64 — iii. 14. 


evident that it was much more likely to be changed by transcribers 
into the common form hae than the reverse. Thus in Aul. III. v. 58, 
Haec sunt atque aliat multat in magnis dotibus Incommodi/a/es sump- 
tusque in/olerabiles , is the reading of the best MSS. and is retained 
in the Vulg. ; so Eun. III. v. 34, Abducit secum ancillas: paucae, quae 
circum illam essent, manenl Novitiae puellae: continuo haec odor nan! ut 
lavet, where the reading is, apparently, not disputed; so also Phor. 
V’. viii. 23, where however the reading is doubtful; so islaec, nom. 
pi. fern. ( = is/ae haec); Hec. IV. ii. 17, .S'. Nihil ptd iam islaec res 
mihi volup/a/is ferunt. 

1 1 . meo ocello\ ‘ the apple of my eye.’ Catullus employs the same 
term when addressing his beloved Sirmio, Peninsula rum, Sirmio, 
insularumque Ocel/e. For a collection of terms of endearment see 

14. sapil scelcsta multum ] ‘the cunning jade is very knowing.’ 
Scelestus in the dramatists bears two Significations, which must be 
kept distinct. 1. It is used in the strict literal sense of villainous; 
thus below, II. ii. 72 (71), Scelestus, auri causa, ‘the villain (did it) 
for the sake of gold;’ and vituperatively, below, v. 26, Quid ais, 
scelesta, ‘what's that you say, you wretch?’ and Rud. IV. i. 4, Sed 
uxor scelesta, ‘but that jade, my wife,’ where Weise is quite mistaken. 
In this sense the epithet may be applied to things as well as persons, 
as in the line immediately following the one quoted above, Sceles/ae 
hae sunt aedes, ‘guilt attaches to this mansion;’ and in III. i. 1, See- 
lestiorem ego annum, &c., ‘ never did I see a more villainous year for 
lending out money;’ and this use of villainous is common in our own 
language. Scelestus is also employed to denote craft or subtlety 
rather than actual guilt, as in Trin. II. iv. 126, e/si scelestus est At mi 
infidelis non est, ‘although the fellow is a cunning rogue, yet he is 
not unfaithful to me it is used also playfully, as in the line before 
us, and so sceleste. Most. II. ii. 47, where the reading is doubtful, means 
‘ you rascal,' but without any serious emphasis. 2. As if to indicate 
the due connection between crime and misery, scelestus passes into 
the sense of miserable, and is used without necessarily implying guilt 
at all, in the sense of ‘ unhappy' or ‘ unfortunate.' So below, III. i. 36 
(33), nae ego sum miser, Scelestus, na/us dis inimicis omnibus. One who 
was unlucky or unfortunate might be regarded as punished by the 
gods for some crime ; and this seems to be indicated in the above 
passage, and also in Capt. III. v. 104, Eun. II. iii. 34, and As. V. 
ii. 6, At scelesta ego praeter alios meum virum/ui rata Siccum, frugi, 
continen/em, amantem vxoris maxume, ‘wretched beyond others;’ 

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so scelestus, ‘unlucky wretch that I am,’ Rud. III. v. 22; scelestius, 
‘ more unfortunate,' Men. III. i. 2 ; scelestissumum, ‘ most wretched,’ 
Cas. III. v. 34; me infelicem et sce/es/am, Cist. IV. ii. 17; cf. Rud. 
IV. iv. 123; mihi scelesto, Rud. II. vi. 18; and advantage is 
sometimes taken of the double meaning, as in As. II. iv. 69, Age, 
impudice, Sce/este. L. Non audes mihi scelesto subi'enirt. There is a 
close analogy between the use of sccleslus and the English adjective 
wretched, which is ambiguous, since it may be applied to a man who 
is simply unhappy, or to a man in an unhappy position from guilt. 
So also ‘ you wretch’ and ‘ he is a wretch’ are vituperative, while both 
may be employed playfully ; not so, however, ‘ wretch that I am ! ’ 
So we talk of wretched weather, a wretched harvest, a wretched year 
for farmers, and the like. 

23. aut meam speciem alios inridere .] Cf. III. ii. 125 (123), Ergo 
inrider e ne videare et gestire admodum (here absolutely) ; V. ii. 1 1 
(iii. 11), Verbero, etiam inrides? again absolutely. Examples of in- 
ridere with the accusative may be found in Pseud. V. ii. 19; Poen. V. 

ii. 71 ; Pers. V. ii. 26 ; Merc. II. L 26. 

29. Calns.\ For catus Cf. V. ii. 21 (iii. 21), Hercle mihi tecum 
cavendum est : nimis quam es orator catus. 

32. illi Morem praecipue sic geras.] Morem gerere alicui denotes 
that a person suits or accommodates his or her ways and wishes to 
those of another, and hence signifies generally, ‘ to comply with,’ * to 
obey.’ We have several examples in this play ; I. iii. 43, 69 ; II. i. 
51 ; III. i. 50 (51); ii. 36 (37): see also Pers. IV. iv. 55; Capt. II. 

iii. 44; Cure. I. ii. 62; Men. V. ii. 37. Sometimes the phrase is ap- 
plied to one who indulges his own inclinations, e. g. Amph. Prol. 131, 
Pater nunc in/us suo animo morem gerit. From the combination 
morem gerere are formed the adjective morigerus and the verb mori- 
gero or morigeror; so below. II. i. 51, Morigerae tihi erimus ambae ; 
and in Cist. I. iii. 27, Ea diem suum obiit, facta morigera est viro, 
i. e. ‘she did what her husband wished her to do — she died;’ and 
I. i. 86, dc ea re gessit morem morigerae mihi, i. e. ‘ in that matter 
my mother yielded to me, who in other matters was obedient 
to her;’ and with moribus in Men. I. iii. 19, Cape tibi hanc ( sc. pal- 
lam) : quando una vivis meis morigera moribus. See also Cas. II. 
viii. 29; Cure. I. ii. 70; Amph. III. iii. 26; Epid. V. i. 1. The verb 
is less common, but is found in both the active and deponent 
form; Amph. III. iii. 26, Volo de/udi ilium, dum cum hac usuraria 
Vxore nunc mihi morigero; and Capt. II. i. 4, Nunc servi/us si evenit, 
ei vos morigerari mos bonus est. The simple word mos is occasionally 

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NOTES. I. iii. 23—51. 


found in Plautus in the sense of ‘ will,’ 1 wish,’ ‘ favour thus Bac. 
III. iii. 55, Opstquens obediensque est mori atque imperils patris; also 
below, v. 128, Nam amator mertlricis mores sibi emit auro et purpura. 

33. unum inservire amantem.'\ Plautus constructs inservire with 
the accusative here and below, v. 59, si ilium inservibis solum; in 
Terence it is followed by the dative, Heaut. III. i. 9, I la ul filium 
mi urn amico atque aequali suo Video inservire, et socium esse in negotiis, 
and this is the practice of Cicero, Caesar, Livy, Tacitus, &c., in whose 
writings we find inservire honor ibus, omnibus rebus, ar/ibus, famae, &c. 
Occasionally' it is used without a case, as in Poen. IV. ii. 105, Nam 
et hoc docte consulendum, quomodo concreditum est Et illud autem inser- 
yiendum est consilium vernaculum, i. e. ‘ and on the other hand that 
scheme of our own must be zealously prosecuted;’ and so also 
Cic. Epp. ad Fam. VI. 12, Sed nihil est a me inservitum temporis 
causa. Praeservire is found once in Plautus, and takes the dative ; 
Amph. Prol. 126, Vt praeservire meo amanti possem palri. The word 
does not occur elsewhere until we come down to Aulus Gellius 
I- 7 - $ 3 - 

51. Inscila . . . es] i. e. ‘you are a simpleton.’ 1. The meaning 
of scilus in colloquial language may, in many cases, be correctly 
represented by the English ‘knowing.’ Thus Pseud. I. iii. 151, Ad 
earn rem usus est hominem astulum, doclum, scitum et callidum; also 
Amph. I. iii. 8, Nimis hie scilus est sycophanta, i. e. ‘a very knowing 
rogue is this fellow;’ and so Cas. III. i. 8, nimium scite stilus es, and 
v. 11, te demum nullum scitum scitius. The pun implied in the last 
example is more fully develojied in Pseud. II. iv. 58, P. Ecquid is 
homo scilus est? C. P/ebiscilum non est scitius; so also Merc. III. 
i. 28, tondetur nimium scite, ‘ that old ewe will be very cleverly 
shorn.’ So scite in Bac. II. iii. 69, Mil. IV. ii. 74, Trin. III. iii. 53, 
56, V. ii. 23; scitissume, in Stich. I. iii. 116; satis scite, Trin. III. 
iii. 56. Below, v. 104, scita tu es quidem, ‘a very knowing one art 
thou,’ is ironical. Nor is the epithet confined to animate objects, 
for we have in As. IV. i. 47, Pulcre scripsti! scitum sungraphum ! 
‘you have written well! a clever bond !’ and in Amph. I. i. 132, 
Haec nox est scita, ‘ this night is suitable, convenient (jolly).’ Jnscitus 
being the opposite of sci/us, signifies ‘ simple,’ ‘ green,’ ‘ foolish,’ as in 
the line before us ; so inscitus. Men. II. iii. 88 ; verum esse in- 
sciti crcdimus. ‘ we in our folly believe it to be true,’ True. I. ii. 90 ; 
and so Mil. III. i. 14 1, Qui deorum concilia culpet, s/ullus inscitusquc 
sit ; and so Merc. V. iv. 59, inscitum arbitrabimur, • we shall look 
upon him as an old idiot;’ in Rud. III. i. 5, inscitum sonmiavi 

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somnium means, ‘I have dreamed a senseless (unmeaning) dream.’* In 
like manner inscitia is ‘ folly.’ as in Cure. I. iii. 29, male mereri de im- 
mcrenli inscitia est; and so Mil. II. vi. 61, Poen. IV. ii. 99, True. IV. 
iii. 71. Paul. Diac. p. in, ed. Muller, explains “ Inscitia , stultitia.” 
2. Scitus signifying, as we have seen above, ‘ knowing,' ‘clever,’ ‘smart,’ 
is occasionally employed to denote personal attractions, and may be 
rendered ‘nice-looking;’ thus in Merc. IV. iv. 15, Satis scitum filurn 
mulieris means, ‘ not a bad-looking slip of a girl ;’ and so again in 
v. 17. The diminutive scitulus bears the same meaning; thus Rud. 
II. vii. 7, L. Qua sunt facie ? S. Scitula. ‘ L. What sort of looking 
girls are they? S. Pretty.’ And again, Rud. IV. i. 3, iam cluentas 
reperi Atque ambas forma scitula atque ac/a/ula. In Bac. II. ii. 31, 
Scitum is/uc t is spoken ironically, ‘ that’s very pretty ;’ and in Stich. 
I. iii. 30, Oratio scitissuma means, ‘ a most sensible and agree- 
able sort of discourse.’ Scitamcnta, if the reading be correct, in 
Men. I. iii. 26, signifies * dainties,’ ‘ tit-bits,’ lube igitur nobis aputl te 
prandium adcurarier Atque aliquid scitamentorum de foro opsonaricr. 
The text is so uncertain in Cist. IV. ii. 12 and in True. V. 42, where 
scitior and scitus appear in the Vulgate, that it is useless to discuss 
these difficult passages. 

54. pro capite tuo\ i. e. pro te, pro tuo corpore; and so below, m. 85 
and 142, and Rud. IV. ii. 24. The head being the principal member 
of the body, and according to the popular belief of the ancients the 
seat of life, is frequently put for the whole body, the whole individual. 
Thus hoc caput is frequently equivalent to ego or me. This is the 
force of caput in such phrases as Pseud. II. iv. 33, G. /gone ? P. Tute. 
G. Ego ? P. Ipsus, inquam , siquidem hoc rivet caput, i. e. ‘if I live;’ 
and so I. i. 86, plane hoc corruptum est caput, i. e. ego ; again, 
suum caput means se ipsum in Epid. III. ii. 33 ; and in Pseud. I. i. 1 29, 
Atque ipse egredi/ur, peni/us periurum caput; Stich. V. v. 10 ,fugit hoc 
liber /as caput, i. e. ‘ me.’ Caput is also frequently used in such ex- 
clamations as 0 lepidum caput, ‘what a jolly cove!’ Mil. III. i. 131 ; 
Ridiculum caput, ‘you absurd fool!’ Andr. II. ii. 34; Festirom 
caput, ‘what a trump!’ Adel. II. iii. 8; and in the vituperative, Vae 
capiti tuo! with which cf. Poen. III. iii. 32, Rud. III. vi. 47. So also 
the diminutive capitulum in Eun. III. iii. 25, O capitulum lepidissumum, 
' O you darling old boyl’ Capitulum is used in the sense of caput, 
coperto capitulo. Cure. II. iii. 14; and in As. II. iv. 89, huic capitulo 
is mi hi, ‘ to this humble individual.’ 

* So inseite, Trin. 1. ii. 58. 

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NOTES. I. iii. 54 — 101. 


83. Nec rede si illi dixeris] i. e. ‘ to speak evil of him,’ as opposed 
to in i/Ium bene loqui of the preceding line. The expressions, A’ec 
rede dicere alicui or in a/iquem, Inclementer dicere alicui or in ali- 
quem, Male loqui alicui , Nec rede loqui alicui, Male dicere alicui, arc 
all used in the sense, ‘ to speak reproachfully of a person,’ or, ‘ to 
address reproach or rebuke to a person.’ Festus s. v. A T ec, p. 162 
ed. Miill. quotes, Alec rede si illi dixeris from the Phasma of Plautus, 
and, Nec rede did mihi, quod iamdudum audio from the Demetrius 
of Turpilius. Thus As I. iii. 3, Nec rede quae iu in nos dicis aurum 
a/que argentum merum esl; II. iv. 65, Malo herc/e iam magno tuo 
nunc is/i nec rede dicis; Bac. I. ii. it, Mali sunt homines qui bonis 
dicunt male, Tu Dis nec rede dicis e non aequom facis ; Poen. III. i. 13, 
Si nec rede dicis nobis, dives de summo loco, Divitem audader solemus 
madare inf or tunio; Pseud. IV. vi. 23, Nam quanti refert le nec rede 
dicere Qui nihili facial qut'que inf lias non eat ? where there is an 
ellipse of illi after nec rede dicere; Amph. II. ii. 110, Iterum iam hie 
in me inclementer did/, atque id sine malo l Poen. V. v. 43, Quid tibi 
lubido, opsecro, Anthemonides, Loqui inclementer nostro cognato et pair i ? 
Rud. I. ii. 26, Aut qui inclementer dicat homini libero; III. iv. 29, 
Tun, trifurcifer , mihi audes inclementer dicere ? True. II. vii. 44, cur 
ausus inclementer Mihi dicere? Pseud. I. i. 25, Cur inclementer dicis 
lepidis Uteris, Lepidis label/is, lepida conscriptis manu; again, As. II. iv. 
71, Quae res? Tun libero homini Male servos loquere ? so also Bac. 
IV. iv. 83, Chrysalus mihi usque quaque loquitur nec rede pater; and 
below, IV. ii. 12 (i. 34), Non po/es tu cogere me ul tibi maledicam; 
and so Amph. II. i. 22 ; Cure. I. ii. 30, IV. ii. 27; Men. II. ii. 35, 40; 
Pers. II. iv. 8, 20; Poen. V. ii. 76; Rud. III. ii. 25 (without a case); 
Stich. I. ii. 57; Trin. IV. ii. 149; True. IV. iii. 1. 

91. Speculum] The material of which the mirror was made we 
discover from 7?. no: A 1 . Lin/eum cape, atque exterge tibi manus. 
P. Quid ita, opsecro ? S. Vt speculum tenuisti, me/uo ne oleant argen- 
tum manus. 

101. Cerussa ] ‘ white lead,' the or of the Greeks. 

The process of manufacture is described by Plin. H.N. XXXIV. 18, 
§ 54. Psimithium quoque, hoc esl cerussam, plumbariae dan/ officinae, 
laudatissimam in Rhodo : fit autem ramen/is p/umbi tenuissimis super 
vas ace/i asperrimi imposi/is atque ita desti/lanlibus. . . . Pit et alio modo, 
addito in urceos aceti plumbo opturatos per dies decern dcrasoque ecu situ 
ac rursus reieclo donee deficiat materia. He also ( 1 . c.) notices its 
employment as a cosmetic : Vis eius eadem quae supra didis, lenissima 
tantum ex omnibus? praeterque ad candorem feminarum. Sec also Ovid 


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r 3° 


Medic, fac. 73, Nec cerussa tibi, nec nitri spuma rtibentis Desit, et 
Illyrica quae venit iris humo, but here it forms part of a complicated 
recipe. We find the word cerussatus quoted from Cic. in Pison. XI. 
( cerussataeque buccae, when describing the general appearance of 
Gabinius), but all the MSS. here are corrupt, and present pulsatae; 
it occurs, however, in Martial VII. xxv. 2, Dulcia cum tantum scribas 
epigrammaia semper Et cerussata candidiora cute. There is another 
Ep. of Mart, in which cerussa is mentioned, X. xxii., Cur sphniato 
saepe prodeam mcnto Atbave pictus Sana labra cerussa, Philaeni, quatris ? 
basiare te nolo. 

102. Atramentum ] when used to denote a black pigment, is what 
we call lamp-black, and the mode in which it was usually prepared 
is distinctly described in Plin. H.N. XXXV. 6, § 25, Fit enim e fuligine 
pluribus modis, resina vel pice exustis, profiler quod eliam offtcinas acdifi- 
cavere fumum cum non emitlentes. Cf. Vitruv. VII. 10. Apelles and 
Micon are said to have used atramentum made from the charcoal of 
grape-stones, while Apelles also employed bone-black obtained from 
ivory. (Plin. l.c.) Atramentum librarium, or writing-ink, was composed 
by mixing atramentum with gum, while in atramentum tectorium, for 
stuccoing the walls of rooms, glue was the vehicle. (Vitruv. 1 . c.) 
Totally distinct from the atramentum described above was what the 
Romans called atramentum sutorium, and the Greeks x<lXrn*<W. This, 
as is evident from the description of Pliny (H.N. XXXIV. § 32), was 
sulphate of iron, which, when applied to tanned leather, would stain 
it black, forming exactly the compound which constitutes the common 
writing ink of modern times.* 

- postules ] i. e. ‘ you may as well try (expect) at the same time 
to whiten ivory with lamp-black.’ It is commonly set down in 
books upon Latin Synonyms that postulo is the strongest of all the 
verbs which signify ‘ to seek’ or ‘ to ask for,’ and that it denotes that 
the person employing it peremptorily demands something to which 
he has an unquestionable right. This is however by no means the 
common force of the word when used colloquially. We shall find 
a great number of passages in the dramatists where it means simply 
‘ to desire,’ ‘ to want,’ or ‘ to try to do something,’ and 1 to expect to 
be able to do ;’ in addition it sometimes conveys the idea that a 

* When Cic. Epp. Fam. IX. 21, speaking of Cn. Carbo the partisan 
of Marius says, lam pater eiuj, accusal uj a M. Antonio, sutorio atramento 
absotutui putatur, he probably means that he poisoned himself with this 
substance, but the explanation is uncertain. Galen reckons it among 
poisons. Consult Pereira. • 

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NOTES. I. iii. 102. 

! 3 > 

person wishes or endeavours to do something from a conviction that 
he is discharging a duty, or at all events seeking to do something 
which is desirable or right or fair,* and conversely it is frequently 
employed in a half-ironical sense, when one person desires to repre- 
sent the wishes or expectations of another as altogether unreasonable 
or unjust, ridiculous or impossible, as in the line now before us. A 
few examples will make this plain : thus below, IV. iii. 29 (iv. 29), 
ne ire inf lias postules, ‘ do not attempt to draw back and so in 

III. i. 85 (81), and in IV. iii. 14 (iv. 14), baud postulo, ‘I don't want 
you;’ in III. i. 15, i/a hate res pos/u/a/, ‘so the circumstances of 
the present case demand;’ Epid. III. iv. 8, 9, Non repperisti, adu- 
lescens, tranquillum locum ubi tuas virtutes exp/ices ut pos/ulas, ‘ as 
you think proper or reasonable;’ Amph. II. ii. 137, Nam hate quidem 
nos deliran/es facere dictis postulaf, ‘ wants to make us out to be mad ;’ 
Men. V. ii. 42, Quae haec, malum, impudentia esti Vna opera prohiberc 
ad cenam ne promittat pos/ules, Neve quemquem accipiat alienum apud 
le : serviren Ubi Pos/ulas viros i Dare una opera pensum pos/ules. 
Inter anallas sedere iubeas, lanam carere, i. e. ‘ can you ask,’ ‘ do you 
think it reasonable to ask?’ the meaning of postulare being, ‘to 
require a thing which is fair and reasonable;’ Rud. IV. iv. 106, Si 
hercle tantillum peccassis quod posterius pos/ules Te ad verum convor/i, 
nugas, mulier, magnas egeris; IV. iii. 4, Nihil habeo, adulescens, piscium: 
ne tu mihi esse pos/ules, i. e. ‘I say this in case you may wish 
that I had some,’ ‘may insist that;’ III. iv. 4, Tune legirupiontm 
hie nobis cum Dis facere pos/ulas i Trin. II. iv. 40, Ego quoque volo 
esse liber, nequiquam volo: Hie pos/ulet frugi esse, nugas pos/ulet; 

IV. iii. 1 5, Inter eosne homines condalium te redipisci pos/ulas, i. e. 
‘is it reasonable to want (to think that)?’ True. IV. ii. 17, S/ul/us 
es qui facta infec/a facere verbis pos/ules. For other examples see 
Rud. Prol. 17; II. vi. 59; II. iii. 63; Trin. II. L 11; IV. ii. 
130; True. IV. iv. 9, 10; &c., &c. In some of the following 
passages postulo may fairly be translated ‘ I demand,’ but even 
then it seldom carries with it a peremptory force. In the great 
majority of cases ‘to ask’ is the proper translation: Amph. III. 
ii. 10; As. I. iii. 37; Aul. II. vi. 12, 13, IV. i. 3, x. 27; Capt. I. ii. 
83, II. ii. 89, III. v. 81, V. i. 18, 21 ; Cas. II. ii. 22, v. 3, V. iv. 1 ; 
Men. II. iii. 88, V. ii. 17 (expect), ix. 21 ; Mil. IV. v. 6, II. iii. 31 ; 
Poen. I. ii. 187 (expect). III. i. 41, v. 11, 31, vi. 14, V. ii. 122; 

* Of this latter meaning we have good examples in Pers. I. i. 42; 
Pseud. III. ii. 61; Mil. II. v. 37. 

s 2 

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> 3 * 

Pseud. I. i. 99. Observe that in Mil. If. vi. 35, pos/u/are If cum sig- 
nifies ‘ to complain of you,’ * to accuse you and so poslu/a/io, Cas. 
III. ii. 26. See also Bac. III. iii. 38, 45. 

104. Purpurissum .] ‘ Rouge.’ It was macfe by boiling fine chalk 
with the purple dye obtained from the murex. Plin. H. N. XXXV. 
6, § 26, E re/iquis coloribus quos a dominis dan' diximus propter mag- 
nitudinem preli ante omnes esl purpurissum. Creta argcntaria cum 
purpuris punier tinguilur bibitque cum colorem celtrius lanis. Cf. 
XXXV. 6, ^ 12. The form purpurissa is quoted by Non. p. 218, 
from the Sanniones of Naevius, Inlino cretam, cerussam, purpurissum. 
Plautus uses also the participial adjective purpurissatus, True. II. i. 
35, Quia adeo fores nostras unguentis uncta es ausa accedere, Quiaque 
t'sfas buccas turn belle purpurissatas habes. 

105. Inlerpolarf\ This verb is found only in the form of a 
compound, but we can scarcely doubt that the simple polo is derived 
from the same root as polio. The true meaning of the word seems 
to be ‘to renovate,’ ‘ to furbish up,’ ‘ to change the appearance of an 
object,’ the idea being usually implied that this is effected by the 
addition of something which enters into combination with the original 
object. It is said to have been properly a term describing the 
operations performed by fullones in cleaning woollen garments, and 
this explanation is supported by a passage in Cic. Epp. ad Q. F. II. 
xii. 2, when speaking of Antiochus of Commagene ; Quod vull, t'n- 
quam, renovare honores eosdem, quomittus togam praetex/am quotannis 
in/erpolet, dccerncndum nihil censeo, i. e. ‘ to save him from furbishing 
up his old toga praetexta ever year.’* Vestimenta interpola in the 
Digest XVIII. 1, § 45 are opposed to nova. Cf. XXI. i. 37. 
Hence it signifies ‘to clean’ simply, without the notion of adding 
anything, as in Plin. H. N. XII. 14, § 32, At, Hercules, Alexandriae, 
ubi tura interpolantur. The meaning of the expression in Aul. IV. 
ix. 6 is very doubtful. Of the word used in the general or figurative 
sense of ‘ to invest an object with a new aspect,’ we have a good 
example in Amph. I. i. 160, where Mercury, addressing his own 
clenched fist, observes, Alia forma oporlet esse, quern tu pugno legeris; 
to which Sosia rejoins, //lie homo me interpolabit, meumque os finget 
dentto ; and in Cic. in Verr. Act. II. i. 61, § 158, Hoc modo isle sibi cl 
saluti suae prospicere didicit, referendo in tabulas et privatas el pub/icas 

* It is well known that togae were cleaned and whitened by rubbing in 
chalk or pipe-clay; hence the phrases (Livy IV. 25) album in •vestimentum 
addere petionis . . . causa, and (Pers. V. 177) cretata ambitio. Compare 
Plin. H.N. XXXV. 17 $ 57. 

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NOTES. I. iii. 104 — 107. 


quod gestum non esse/; tollendo quod essel, et semper atiquid demendo, 
mutando, interpolando. In the passage before us inlerpolare may be 
translated ‘you seek to beautify a most charming work of art by 
daubing it over with (Le. by the addition of) fresh colours.' See also 
Plin. H. N. XXXV. 16, § 56, Est in medicaminibus et Chia terra can- 
dicans, effectus eiusdcm, qui Samiae. Vsus ad mulierum maximc cutem : 
idem et Sclinusiae. Lactei co/oris est haec et aqua di/ui celerrima: 
eadem lade diluta ted&riorum albaria interpolantur, i. e. ‘ the white 
plaster on walls is renovated’ (by the addition of this whitewash). 
See also Q. Curt. VI. 2, § 5, speaking of Alexander, Igitur quum - 
intempestivis conviviis dies pariter nodesque consumeret, satietatem epu- 
larum ludis interpolabat, i. e. ‘ diversified by the introduction of.’ See 
also IV. 6, § 28, where the reading is doubtful. Below, I. iii. 117, we 
have the adjective interpoles, i. e. ‘painted Jezebels,' a word which 
occurs only in this passage and twice in Pliny: H. N. XIX. 2, § 8, 
speaking of spartum, so extensively used for cordage, he remarks, 
Est quidem eius natura in/erpolis, rursusque quam libcat vetustum novo 
misce/ur, i. e. ‘ is susceptible of renovation,’ i. e. as explained by what 
follows, ‘ the old fibre may be worked up again with new to any 
extent without injuring the quality of the product.’ Again, H. N. 
XXIX. 1, § 5, speaking of medicine, Mutatur ars quotidie totiens in- 
terpolis et ingcniqpum Graeciae fialu impellimur, i. e. ‘ changing its 
aspect daily.’ Holland thus paraphrases the expression, ‘ Thus you 
see how often this art from time to time hath been altered, and daily 
still it is turned like a garment new dressed,’ &c. 

107. jtfellnum] sc. pigmentum, a fine white earth, named from 
the island of Melos in which it was found. Plin. II. N. XXXV. 6, 

§ 19, Melinum candidum et ipsum est, optumum in Melo insula; in 
Samo quoque nascitur: eo non utuntur pidores propter nimiam pingui- 
tudinem;* accubantes effodiunt ibi inter saxa venam scrutantes. It was 
used also as a medicine. (Plin. 1 . c.) The young student must be 
careful to distinguish this adjective from another the quantity and 
spelling of which are the same, viz. me/lnus, derived from /d/Xov, an 
apple or quince.f It is used by Plautus to denote some colour, 

* And yet he tells us that melinum was one of the four colours used 
exclusively by Apelles, Echion, Melanthius, and Nicomachus, the others 
being lamp-black ( atramentum ), the red of Sinope, and the yellow ochre 
(sit) of Athens. Plin. H. N. XXXV. 6, § 32. 

t In Plin. H.N. XXIII. 6, § 54 ,fit et oleum ex bis, quod melinum -voca- 
•vimus, and in XIII. 1, § 2, we have melinum denoting a perfume ( unguentum ) 
particularly valued in Cos ; and lower down he gives the mode in which it 
was compounded by the admixture of various substances with melinum oleum. 

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perhaps apple-green, in his long catalogue of dresses of. different 
forms and shades, Epid. II. ii. 49, Cumatile aut plumatile, annum aut 
melirtum ; again Plautus uses melina to denote a purse or wallet made 
of sheepskin (fsijXov) or badger-skin ( meles) ; Epid. I. i. 20, Sed ubi 
est is? T. Adveni simul. E. Vbi is ago est? nisi si in vidulo, Aut si 
in mdina attulisti ; and in another passage milina is employed for 
a wine sweetened with honey (pAi), Pseud. II. iv. 51, Quid, si opus 
sit, ut dulce promat indidem ? ecquid habet ? C. Rogas ? Murrhinam, 
passum, defrutum, melinam, met quoiusmodi. Quin in corde inslrutre 
' quondam cotpit thermopolium. 

107, 1 18. Offuciam. Fuco.] Fucus, according to Pliny H. N. XIII. 
25, § 48, is a general term for marine shrubs, and he tells us that the 
Latin language has no word equivalent to the Greek 9>C*o 1, quoniam 
alga herbarum magis vocabu/um intclligitur, hie autem est frutix. He 
goes on to describe three species growing on the rocks by the sea 
shore, one of these a native of Crete,* and elsewhere speaks of 
it as communicating a very fast red colour to wool. There can be 
little doubt that Pliny, or at least his authorities, intended to indicate 
by the word fucus some of the tinctorial lichens, of which a con- 
siderable number are found upon maritime rocks in the Mediterranean, 
and even on our own shores, especially those which yield the red or 
purple colours, and form the principal constituents of the dye stuff 
known as archil. The most celebrated of these is the roccclla tinc- 
toria, which many modern writers have supposed to be identical with 
the novrtov <pvKOi of Theophrastus, the <£0 * os BdXaatrwv of Dioscorides, 
the phycos lhalassion or fucus of Pliny. Dioscorides denies that the 
paint used by women was made from this plant, and asserts that it 
was a root bearing the same name, and hence in our dictionaries we 
find it frequently stated that fucus means the anchusa tinctoria or 
alkanet root. A German botanist (Endlicher) has recently maintained 
that the fucus of the ancient was obtained from one of the algae, 
the rytiphlaea tinctoria , from which a red colour can be extracted.f 
Hence the word fucus is used to signify generally a dye or pigment, 
chiefly red, from whatever source obtained, as in the passage before 

* And yet in XX XII. 6, § 22, he terms this very plant an alga — Lauda - 
tissima ( alga marts, sc.) quae in Creta insula iuxta terram in petris nascitur , 
tinguendis etiam lanis ita colorem adligans, ut elui postea non possit ; and in 
XXVI. 10, § 66, he mentions the medicinal properties of the same plants, 
which he comprehends under the name of pbycos tbalassion id est fucus 
marinus, describing the three varieties and alluding to Crete as the habitat 
of that used in dyeing. 

t See Pereira, vol. II. pt. 1, p. 28. 

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NOTES. I. iii. 107 — 132. 135 

us, (see also Ilor. C. III. v. 28, Epp. I. x. 27,) and even colour in 
the abstract; thus Lucretius, when arguing that the ultimate atoms 
are destitute of colour, points out that blind men can distinguish 
bodies by touch, and goes on (II. 743), Scire licet nostrae quoque 
mcnti corpora posse Vorti in notitiam nullo circumlita fuco. Again, 
since paint conceals the surface of those objects to which it is ap- 
plied, fucus is used figuratively to denote deception, fraud, trickery, 
as in Capt. III. iii. 6, Nec subdolis mendaciis mihi usquam integumentum 
est meis Ncc sycophantiis nec fucis ullum man/ellum obvt'am est ; and 
Cic. Epp. ad Att. I. 1, Prcnsat unus P. Galba. Sine fuco ac fu/laciis, 
more maiorum, nega/ur, and hence the proverbial phrase fucum facere, 
i. e. ‘ to humbug a person.’ See also Hor. S. I. ii. 83 and Q. Cic. de 
pet. cons. 9. In reference to style fucus is used to denote a tawdry 
ornament. See Cic. de Orat. II. 45, III. 52 ; Quintil. VIII. 3, § 6 ; 
cf. II. 13, § 25. In this last passage Quint, alludes to a practice 
prevalent among mangoncs of painting the slaves they had for sale, 
which may be regarded as an illustration of the passage before us, 
and the object was, evidently, ut vitia corporis occu/erent, &c. 

Ojfucia is employed both literally and figuratively. Here literally 
to denote paint. Figuratively in Capt. III. iv. 123, Ita mi stolido sur- 
sum vorsum os subtevere offuciis ; and in Aul. Gel). N. A. XIV. 1, § 2, 
who reports the views -of Favorinus to the effect, Disciplinam istam 
Chaldaeorum tantae vetustatis non esse , quantae videri volunl : neque cos 
principes eius auctoresque esse, quos ipsi ferunt : sed id praesligiarum 
atque offuciarum genus commentos esse homines aeruscalores, et abum 
quaeslumque ex mendaciis captantes. 

1 18. Edenlulac\ i. e. ‘toothless from age.’ Sec Martian. Capell. 
lib. IV. p. 116, Grot. Plautus uses the word in exactly the same 
sense in Cas. III. iii. 20, Quid ego nunc ficiam ? Flagitium maxumum 
feci miser Propter 0 per am itlius hirci improbi atque edentuli ; and in 
Men. V. ii. 1 1 1, Vt ego hunc proteram leonem vetutum, o/entem, edcn/ulum; 
while in Poen. III. iii. 87 it is applied to wine which has lost all 
harshness from age, Vbi tu Leucadio, Lesbio, Thasio, Coo, Velustate 
vino edentulo aelatem irriges. He uses also the verb edcntare, ‘ to 
knock out or deprive of teeth,’ in Rud. III. ii. 48, Nimis vclim 
improbissumo homini malas edentaverinl. 

132. si morata est male] i. e. ‘if her habits (or ways) are bad;’ so 
below, I. iv. 8, is toe modo moratus. Moratus, derived from mores, 
signifies “ moribus praeditus sive bonis sive malis ;” and so Ilec. 
IV'. iv. 21, sed quid muUeris Vxorern habes ? aul quibus mora/am 
moribus? it occurs in this sense in As. III. i. 3, is to more mora/am; 

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1 3 6 


Capl. I. ii. 22, eius mora/us moribus ; Merc. II. iii. 58, ut morata est? 
Pers. IV. iv. 6, si incolae bene sun/ morati; As. II. iii. 10, i/a haec 
morata est ianua ; Aul. II. ii. 62, mora/a rec/e; Stich. I. ii. 52, peius 
mora/am; True. I. ii. 5, i/a adulescen/es morati sun t; Aul. Prol. 22 
(filium pariter moratum), and is not uncommon in Cicero. In Hor. 
A. P. 319, morataque rec/e Fabula, is correctly explained by the old 
commentator, “ in qua mores singularum personarum optime ex- 

142. Trigin/a minas ] and so again III. ii. 136. The price of an 
accomplished and attractive female slave seems to have varied from 
20 to 60 minae. Thus Stratippocles, Epid. I. i. 50, is represented 
as having paid 40 minae for a beautiful captive girl ; in the Cure. I. 
i. 63, Phaedromus complains of the leno who was the proprietor of 
Plancsium, Alias me poscit pro ilia /rigin/a minas Alias talentum 
magnum. He at one time asks 30 minae, at another 60, and in II. 
iii. 65 she is represented as having been sold for 30, with the addition 
of 10 for her apparel and ornaments. In Merc. II. iii. 93, 20 minae 
are spoken of as a reasonable price for a handsome female slave, 
and 30 minae were paid by Philolaches for Philematium, and by 
Pleusidippus for Palaestra, Rud. Prol. 45. The same price was fixed 
for the attractive Pamphila in the Phormio, III. iii. 24. In Pseud. 
I. i. 51, iii. no, Phoenicium is represented* as having been sold 
for 20 minae; and in Adel. II. i. 37, IV. vii. 34, 20 minae is the 
price paid by a leno for a psaltria. In Pers. IV. iv. 113, a maiden 
believed by the purchaser to be a slave is sold without a warranty 
for 60 minae, the seller having at first asked 1 00 : Tuo periculo sex- 
agin/a haec datur argen/i minis. In Poen. IV. ii. 75, two little girls, 
one five, the other four years old, were sold to a dealer by a Sicilian 
pirate for t8 minae (it seems doubtful whether the nutrfx who was 
sold along with them was included in the above sum). Phaedria tells 
Thais, Eun. I. ii. 89. that he gave 20 minae for a little black girl 
(ex Aethiopia ancillu/am) and an eunuch, both of which he had pre- 
sented to her. As to men, Hegio (Cap. II. ii. 103, iii. 4, 20) values 
Philocrates, whom he regards as a young able-bodied slave, at 20 
minae ; and in the same play we are told that a little boy was kid- 
napped when four years old and sold for 6 minae (Cap. V. ii. 21, 
iii. 2, iv. 15). In the As. (I. iii. 77, II. ii. 97) Cleaereta agrees to 
make over her daughter Philenium to Argyrippus exclusively for one 
year (hunc annum) for 20 minae. 

144. JVec quicquam argen/i tocavi iam diu usquam aeque bene. Cf. 
III. i. 4, Locate argen/i nemini numum queo. 

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NOTES. I. iii. 142 — iv. 33. 

1 37 

I. iv. 1. Advorsum venire mihi.\ Cf. IV. i. 19 (18), ubi advorsum 
ut Eant vocanlur hero; v. 24 (21), Nunc eo advorsum hero ex plurimis 
semis; ii. 16 (i. 36), At tu mecum, pessume, i advorsus ; ii. 29 (iii. 6), 
Callidamati nostro advorsum venimus ; ii. 32 (iii. 9), ei advorsum 

17. lacen/es, &c.] So in Pseud. V. i. 1, where Pseudolus staggers 
in drunk, Quid hoc ? sic cine hoc fit i pedes, statin an non ? An id vollis 
ut me hie iacentem aliquis lot la I ? 

18. Made t homo ] ‘the man’s drunk,’ spoken aside, but overheard 
by Callidamates. Madidus like Vvidus in Horace (C. II. xix. 18, 

IV. v. 39) is an euphemism for ebrius, and so madere mero, or, 
absolutely, madere. Thus in True. IV. iv. 2, Si alia membra vino 
madeant, cor sit saltern sobrium; Pseud. V. ii. 7, Molliter sis/e nunc 
me, cave ne cadam, non vides me ut madide madeam; and we find 
opposed to each other in As. V. ii. 7 and 9, Siccum,/rugi, continentem, 
amantem uxoris maxume, and Aladidum, nihili, incontinentem, atque 
osorem uxoris suae; while in Amph. III. iv. 18, Mercury, playing 
on the double meaning of madidus, says that when Amph. arrives,- 
De supero, quom hue accesserit,/aciam ut sit madidus sobrius, i. e. ‘ I’ll 
moisten his clay for him without making him tipsy.’ From the same 
root probably comes the word madulsa found in Pseud. V. i. 7, Pro- 
fee to edepol ego nunc probe abeo madulsa, with regard to which we read 
in Paul. Diac. s.v., p. 126, ed. Mtlll, “ Madulsa ebrius, a Graeco fiabSv 
deductum, vel quia madidus satis a vino.” 

25. Puilol. Iam revorlar. Piiilem. Diu est ‘ lam’ id mihi, ‘I shall 
be back directly.’ ‘ That “ Directly” is an age to me ;’ so in Amph. I. 
iii. 32, I. Ne corrumpe oculos; redibo actutum. A. Id ' actutum' diu 
est; Merc. II. iv. 25, C. Inveniclur, exquiretur, aliquid fiet. E. Enicas, 
Iam istuc ‘Aliquid Fiet’ metuo; and Poen. I. ii. 50, M. Taceo. A. Si 
tacuisses iam istuc * Taceo' non natum foret. 

33. eumpse.] We find in Plautus the nominative fem. eapse (Cist. 

I. ii. 17; Cure. I. iii. 4 ; Mil. II. i. 63; Rud. II. iii 80; True. I. i. 3, 

II. vi. 15), the accusatives eampse (Aul. V. i. 7; Cist. I. iii. 22; Men. 

V. ii. 22; Mil. IV. ii. 77; Poen. I. ii. 60; Rud. IV. viii. 14) and 
eumpse (Most. I. iv. 32 (33); True. I. ii. 58, IV. iv. 37), and the 
ablatives eapse (Trin. IV. ii. 132, in eapse occasiuncula) and eopse (Cure. 
IV. iii. 6, eopse illo sc. infortunio), which seem to be colloquial abbre- 
viations for ea ipsa, eum ipsum, earn ipsam, ea ipsa, and eo ipso; at 
least this is a more reasonable account of the words than to dismiss 
them with the observation that pse is a “ syllabica adiectio,” and 
receives support from True. I. ii. 31, Quia te addudurum hue dixeras 


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turn ipsum, non eampse (see v. 18 preceding, and also IV. iv. 37, Sine 
eum ipsum adire hue: sine si is est modo. Sine eum ipsum adire ut 
cupit), and from the word reapse, which occurs not only in Plautus, 
True. IV. iii. 41, De is toe ipsa, e/si tu taccas, reapse experta intellego, 
but also in Cicero, and is explained by Festus p. 278, ed. Mull, 
s.v. Reapse, “Reapse est Reipsa: Pacuvius in Armorum iudicio, Si 
non est ingratum reapse quod feci bene!’ Lucretius divides reapse into 
two halves in II. 658, but the reading is doubtful. 

II.L l. summis opibus atque industriis ] ‘with all his might and 
main.’ So in Merc. I. i, Ex summis opibus viribusque usque experire, 
nitere. The plural of induslria is so rare that lexicographers quote 
no example except that before us. It is possible that Tranio employs 
it designedly to raise a laugh, as a strange word or a piece of bad 
grammar is sometimes introduced for that purpose in our own 

4. Nee Salus nobis saluti iam esse, &c.] It is obvious that Sa/us 
ought to be printed with a capital, and saluti without, as the first is 
intended as the personification of the second. There is an exact 
parallel in Capt. III. iii. 14, Neque iam Salus servare, si volt, me potest : 
nee copia est ; and in Adel. IV. vii. 43, ipsa si cupiat Salus Servare 
prorsus non potest hanc familiam. Compare As. III. iii. 123, Atque ut 
Deo mihi hie immolas bovem, nam ego tibi Salus sum; and v. 137, Vt 
consuevere, homines Salus frustratur el Fortuna. In Hec. III. ii. 3, 
Salus is the goddess of health, and is paired with Aesculapius. 

5. mali maeroris montem. ] So in Epid. I. 77, Tantae in te im- 
pendent ruinae, nisi subfulcis firmiter, Non po/es supsis/ere, Hague in le 
inruont monies mali; and in Merc. III. iv. 32, Montes tu quidem malt 
in me ardentes iamdudum iacis. 

- ad portum. ] It will be remembered that in the first scene ( v . 63) 
Tranio announced his intention of going down to the Piraeus. 

6 peregre\ ‘ from abroad.’ See note on I. i. 24. 

7. lucri is in opposition to argenti, ‘is there any one who may 
wish to make some money, clear gain.’ 

8. ex crucian' rneam vicem . ] Vicem, when used adverbially with a 
genitive or a personal pronoun, signifies ‘ instead of,’ ‘ in exchange 
for.’ Thus below, V. iii. 24, Fac ego ne metuam igilur et ut tu meam 
limeas vicem; so Capt. III. iii. 10, Omnis res palam est, neque de hac re 
negotium est quin male Occidam, oppetamque pestem, heri vicem meamque ; 
Mil. II. i. 72, El mox, ne erretis, haec, duarum hodie vicem, Et hie et 
il/ic mulier feret imagirum ; Rud. III. v. 34, Vos respondelote istinc 
islarum vicem; True. I. ii. 56, A. Quae in nos illosque ea omnia tibi 

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NOTES. II. i. i — io. 139 

din's, Dinarche, Et nostram et illorum vicem. This use of vicem is 
not however confined to Plautus, but is found in Citfcro, Livy, and 
other writers. 

9. Plagipalidae] i. e. qui plagas patiun/ur : vox Plaulina. It 
occurs again in Capt. III. i. 12, where it is applied to parasites, Nil 
morantur iam Laconas, imi supselli viros, P/agipa/idas, quibus sunt verba 
sine penu et pecunia , i. e. ‘ men of Spartan endurance.’ The word 
is in form a patronymic, like rapacidae in Aul. II. vii. 8, Rapacidarum 
ubi tantum siet in aedibus, i. e. ‘ children of the lash.’ Plautus uses 
two other words bearing the same meaning : plagiger. Pseud. I. ii. 21, 
Hue adhibete aures, quae ego toquar, plagigera genera hominum, and 
p/agigerutus, below IV. i. 1 9, q. v. Plagiger and plagigerulus are 
both 3 jt. \<y. 

- Ferritribax, a hybrid compound from ferrum and rp’dia • the 
pure Latin word is ferriterus, Trin. IV. iii. 14, Oculicrepidae , cruri- 
crepidae, ferriteri, masfigiae. Ferriterium, below III. ii. 55 q. v. is 
equivalent to Ergastulum, a place which is described in As. I. i. 2 1 
as A pud fustitudinas ferricrepinas insulas Vbi vivos homines mortui 
incursant berves. All the words given above, ferritribax, ferriterus, 
ferriterium, ferratilis,ferricrepinus, seem to be &n. Xey. 

10. Falai] This word is thus explained by Non. p. 114; “ Falae 
turres sunt ligneae (Ennius Lib. XV., ‘ Malos defindunt, fiunl tabulata 
falaeque.’) haec sunt in circo, quae apud veteres propter spectatores 
e lignis erigebantur.” Again, Paul. Diac. p. 88, ed. Mall., “ Falae dicta 
ab altitudine, a falando, quod apud Etruscos significat caelum and 
again, ib., “Falarica genus teli missile, quo utuntur ex falis, id est locis 
exstructis, dimicantes.” The falae in the Circus are alluded to by 
Juv. S. VI. 590, Consulit ante falas delphinorumque columnas ; and 
appear to have been not, as we might infer from the words of 
Nonius, elevated wooden structures from which the spectators viewed 
the shows, but a row of seven wooden pillars which were ranged 
along the spina, and on which were placed the ova, which marked 
the courses. See the commentators on the passage. The falarica is 
well known from the description given by Livy XXI. 8 (see too 
XXXIV. 14). See also Enn. Ann. 534, ed. Vahlen; Virg. /En. IX. 
705, and note of Servius; Lucan. VI. 196; Sil. I. 351, &c. There 
is another word which some suppose to be derived from the same 
source, viz. fatere, found in Varro R. R. III. 5, § 14 seqq., but the 
meaning of this term as there employed is very doubtful. With 
regard to the etymology proposed by Festus it is difficult to offer 
an opinion, but we can scarcely doubt that the same root appears in 

T 2 

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the Greek <fmXa i, which Hesychius interprets 'O pa, aednn, corrected 
by Scaliger ’Opr;, aeon {at, and by others 'o pa>v oromai. 

io. For explanation of this line see Excursus on “ Terms used 
in reference to money," & c. 

15. curro curriculo.] Cf. Pers. II. ii. 1 7, T. Vola curriculo. P. Istuc 
Marinus Passer per Circum solel. 

30. See quid . . . cura/io, I. i. 33 ; quid clami/a/io ... I. i. 6. 

33. miserum est opus , Igitur demum fodere puleum, ubi si/is fauces 
/end.] Cf. Amph. I. ii. 1 r, igi/ur demum; Stich. I. ii. 29, igitur deinde; 
Most. III. i. 159 (156), Igitur turn accedam hunc, quando quid agam 
invenero, i. e. turn demum; Epid. III. iii. 4, Igitur, ‘then’ or ‘there- 
after;’ As. II. i. 3, lam diu est factum quam discesti ab hero a/que 
abiisti ad forum Igitur inveniundo argento ut fingeres fallaciam ; some 
interpret it ‘ idcirco, ea gratia,’ but I prefer ‘ then,’ ‘ thereafter, ‘ forth- 
with ;’ Amph. III. i. 16, Post igitur demum faciam res fiat pa/am. 

37. Cedo so/eas mihi.\ It was the practice to throw off the slippers 
before reclining on the triclinium, and hence when any one wished to 
rise from table he called for his slippers. So in True. II. iv. 12, 
Dinarchus, when feigning that he was banqueting with Phronesium 
and wished abruptly to break up the party, exclaims, Cedo so/eas mihi 
Properate, auferte rnensam, and then, as if he had been propitiated, 
Deme so/eas. Cedo bibam. 

39. matula. ] This word is used in a peculiar sense in Pers. IV. 
iii. 64, Tacen an non laces i numquam ego te tarn esse matulam credidi, 
which seems to mean, ‘ I never took you for such a blockhead.’ 

41. There are several colloquial phrases in which nul/us is equiva- 
lent to non or tie. 1. (as in the passage before us) Nul/us sum, i.e. Perii, 
‘ I am undone,’ ‘ I have ceased to exist.’ This phrase is common in 
Plautus and Terence, e.g. Merc. 1 . 104, II. iii. 130 ( nul/us sum, occidi), 
V. iv. 17; IIcc. III. i. 39, IV. iv. 31 ; And. III. iv. 20; Ph. V. vii. 49 ; 
and in Cas. II. iv. 26, si id factum est, ecce me nullum serum, i.e. Tam 
an undone elderly.’ Nulla sum, Hec. IV. i. 6. There is an analogy 
between the above and an expression in Pseud. I. i. 35, C. At te Di 
Deaequc quanlus es . . he was about to add perduint, but is interrupted 
by Pseud., who adds, servassint quidem. 2. With the subjunctive 
nul/us is equivalent to nullo modo, or 6imply to ne or non, ‘ upon no 
account.’ Bac. I. i 57, tu nul/us adftieris si non lube! ; Trin. III. i. 5, 
C. Non credibile dicis. S. At tu edepol nul/us crcduas ; Rud. IV. iv. 91, 
where Palaestra is speaking of the contents of the cistella, Ibi ego 
dicam quidquid inerit nominatim : tu mihi Nul/us ostendcris ; Hec. I. 
ii. 4, si non quaere/, nul/us dixeris. In all the above there is an 

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NOTES. II. i. 10—47. 


injunction or command, but not in the following: Eun. II. i. 10, 
Mtmini lame/si nul/us moneas. In the phrase nullus venit, As. II. iv. 2, 
Libanum in tonstrinam ut iusseram venire, nul/us venit, nul/us is cer- 
tainly equivalent to the simple non; nul/us venit again, Rud. I. ii. 55, 
II. ii. 17; and so, perhaps, neque ullus in II. iii. 10; compare also 
Men. V. v. 27; to which add Cas. IV. ii. 16, Qui amat, tamen hercle 
si csurit, nuliurh esurit ‘ not at all.’ There is a remarkable use of 
nul/us in And. II. ii. 33, which we may notice here; C. Liberatus 
sum hodie, Dave , tua opera. D. Ac nul/us quidem, i. e. ‘ and yet you 
are not so,’ ‘ you are not out of the wood.’ 

46. non hoc longe, Dc/phiumi\ Hoc is deictic, ‘ not so far as the 
breadth of this nail,’ pointing perhaps to the nail of his finger. 
Cf. Trin. II. iv. 80, Decedam ego illi de via, de semi/a, De honor e 
populi; verum quod ad ventrem attinet Non hercle hoc longe, nisi me 
pugnis viceril; and Bac. III. iii. 19, Nego tibi hoc annis viginti fuisse 
primis copiae, Digitum longe a paedagogo pedem ul efferres aedibus. 

47. Nam in/us potate.] The words intus and intro are found again 
and again in Plautus, chiefly in reference to the interior of a house, 
and for the sake of the young scholar we may explain the force of 
each. — 1. Intus. Intus has two distinct meanings. It is equivalent 
sometimes to the Greek Mov, ‘ within,’ no motion being implied, 
and sometimes to the Greek Mofftv, ‘from within,’ motion from 
within outwards being indicated. 1. Of the first we have an ex- 
ample in the line before us, ‘ For drink away inside the house ;’ and 
in w. 54, 53, Intus cave muttire quemquam siveris. P. Curabitur. 
T. Tamquam si intus natus nemo in aedibus, ‘ Beware of permitting any 
one to whisper inside,’ . . . ‘just as if no living creature was dwelling 
inside;’ and in III. ii. 12, Nam et cenandum et cubandum est intus 
male. 2. Of the second also this scene will afford an example, 
v. 57, clavcm mi harunce aedium Laconicam lam iube ejferri intus, 
i. e. ‘to be brought out from within;’ and again, III. i. 145 (142), 
evoca aliquem intus; so exit intus, True. II. i. 43; exit foras intus, Cas. 
II. v. 42; arcessit intus, Bac. IV. vi. 26; evocate intus, Men. I. iii. 35. 
For other examples see Amph. II. ii. 138 ; Cist. III. 8 ; Cas. II. v. 43 ; 
Epid. III. ii. 44, iv. 45, &c. — II. Intro. Intro, on the other hand, 
has only one meaning, and invariably denotes motion from without 
inwards ; thus Most. II. i. 50, Omnium primum, Phi/emalium, intro abi, 
‘ go away into the house ;’ and again, III. ii. 161, ergo intro eo sine per- 
ductore. So Redi nunc iam intro alque intus serva, Aul. I. ii. 3 ; sequere 
tu intro, Epid. II. ii. 120; remeabo intro, V. i. 55; vise intro, ii. 47 ; 
revorlamur intro, Bac. V. ii. 21 ; illicere intro, v. 32, &c. ; almost every 

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^ 4 ^ 


page will supply examples. The only passage in any classical writer 
in which intro does not imply motion is in Cato R. R. 57 § 7, who, 
when descanting on the virtues of pickled cabbage, declares, Et si 
bilis atra est, et si lienes /urgent, et si cor dole!, et si iecur, aut pulmones , 
aut praecordia, uno verbo omnia sana faciet intro quae dolilabunt , 
although he had said in the previous sentence, Si quid antea mali 
intus erit. Forcellini quotes a passage from Palladius I. 40, ut si 
pi/am miseris, intro stare non possit, where, however, the difficulty is 
removed by a slight change in the punctuation, which ought to be, 
si pi/am miseris intro, stare non possit. 

48. n [ eniant.\ So the MSS. Nonius (p. 509) quotes a line from 
the Hecuba of Ennius in which he employs evcnat for eveniat , and 
hence Both, and R would here read evenant, but the introduction 
of this form here is altogether uncalled for. Cf. Cure. I. i. 39 ; 
Epid. II. ii. 105, III. i. 2 ; Trin. I. ii. 3 ; in some of which the change 
may be made with propriety. See also pervenant, Rud. III. ii. 12; 
Trin. I. ii. 56. 

54. mutire ] ‘ to speak even in a whisper.’ Mutio or muttio signifies 
properly ‘ to speak through compressed lips,’ and hence ‘ to speak 
in a whisper,’ and sometimes ‘to mutter’ or ‘grumble,’ as in Amph. 
I. i. 225, M. Etiam mutis ? S. Iam tacebo. Occasionally it is used 
humourously with regard to inanimate objects, as in Cure. I. i. 20, 
of a door {ostium), Beltissumum hercle t'idi et taciturnissumum, Num- 
quam ultum verbum mutit : quom aperitur, facet; and again, v. 93, Vide / 
ut aperiuntur aedes festivissumae ! Non mutit cardo : so also neu virgae 
mutiant, Poen. Prol. 18. Other examples of mutire will be found in 
Amph. I. iii. 22; Bac. IV. vii. 2; Men. V. i. 11; Mil. II. vi. 83; 
Pers. V. ii. 46; Andr. III. ii. 25. In one passage in Terence, Hec. 
V. iv. 26, mutire must signify ‘to be silent:’ P. Die mihi, harum rerum 
num quid dixti iam patri ? B. Nihil. P. Neque opus est: Adeo mutito: 
placet non fieri hoc i/idem, ut in comoediis Omnia omnes ubi resciscunt : 
&c., where adeo mutito must mean ‘ be silent then’ or ‘ remain silent.’* 
We have also a substantive mutitio in Amph. I. iii. 21, a line which 
we have quoted above in the note on I. i. 33. The frequentative 
form musso is found in Aul. II. i. 1 2, Neque occultum id haberi neque 

* Freund takes this quite differently; he seems to suppose that mutito 
is the ablative of the participle, and would construe neque opus est adeo 
mutito, ‘ there is no need of whispering it about but if that were the 
construction it would rather mean, ‘ there is no need of speaking about it 
in a whisper,’ i.e. ‘you may speak openly if you please,’ which is directly 
the reverse of the obvious sense of the passage. 

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NOTES. II. i. 48— ii. 1-2. 


per metiim mussari, where mussari must signify ‘ be suppressed ;’ in 
Merc. Prol. 49 the common reading mtissans is uncertain.* Mussito 
also is employed by both Plautus and Terence, and is generally 
equivalent to reticere. + Thus Pseud. I. v. 86, Non a me scibas pistri- 
num in mundo tibi Quom ea mussi/abas ? i. e. ‘ when you maintained 
silence with regard to those matters;’ and Mil. II. v. 65, S'. Quid 
propius fuit Quam ut perirem, si loculus fuissem hero / P. Ergo , si sapis 
Mussitabis ; also True. II. ii. 57, Egotie haec mussi/em ? ‘can I keep 
silence on these matters ?’ Adel. II. L 53, Accipiunda et mussitanda 
iniuria adulescen/ium est; lastly, in Cas. III. v. 33 it means simply ‘ to 
keep still,’ without the idea of withholding the knowledge of some- 
thing, Ita omnes sub arcis sub leclis latentes Alelu mussi/anl : i. e. ‘ keep 
still,’ ‘ do not utter a word.’ On the other hand, the context in Mil. 
II. iii. 40 seems to require that we should translate mussitabo ‘ I shall 
whisper the truth;’ and again, Mil. III. i. 120, Ego haec mecum mussito 
is equivalent to ‘ says I to myself.’ See also Liv. I. 50. 

63. Quamvis desubito] i. e. ‘on however short a notice.’ Cf. II. ii. 
57, Atque ille exclamal derepente maxumum. 

69. Pro/ecto ut liqueanl omnia et tranquilla sin/.] Cf. III. ii. 64 (62), 
Tam liquidus est, quam liquida esse tempestas sole t, i.e. ‘clear and 

II. ii. 1-2. We have a similar address in Stich. III. i. 1, Quom bene 
re gesta salvos convortor domum Nep/uno grates habeo et lempeslalibus ; 
and at greater length in Trin. IV. i. 1-22, Salsipotenti el mullipotenli 
lovis fratri et Nerei J Neptuni Laetus, lubens, laudes ago, el grates 
gratiasque habeo, et ftuctibus salsis Quos penes mei potestas bonis meis 
quid foret et meae vitae, Quom suis me ex locis in patriam urbisque 
moenia reducem faciunt ; Atque ego, Neptune, tibi ante alios Deos gralias 
ago atque habeo summas. Cf. also Rud. IV. ii. 1. Quom, ‘since,’ ‘in- 
asmuch as,’ is constantly used in thanksgivings and congratulations 

* Mujjo is used in the sense of ‘ to speak with hesitation’ by the writers 
of a somewhat later period, e.g. Lucr. VI. 1179, mussabat tacito medicina 
timore; Virg. Aen. XI. 345, set i dicere mussant ; XII. 657, mussat rex ipse 
Latinus Quos generos •vocet ; and in the sense of ‘ to mutter,’ ‘ grumble,’ 
Liv. VII. 15, mussantesque inter se rogitabant ; and XXXIII. 31, sot's Aetoti 
decretum decent legatorum clam mussantes carpebant. Musso is also quoted 
by Festus p. 144 from Ennias, but the reading is somewhat doubtful. 
Mussati (deponent) is quoted by Non. from Varro. 

t See note of Donatus on Adel. II. i. 53. 

J The best MSS. agree in this reading, which presents the obvious 
difficulty that Nercus is nowhere spoken of as the son of Neptune. R and 
others have adopted the conj. of Both., lovis fratri aetberei Neptuno, which 
is ingenious but not convincing. 

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in order to point out the cause of the gratitude expressed. Thus, in 
addition to the examples we have given above, we may quote Rud. IV. 
viii. 6, P. Quid ? patri etiam gratu/abor , quom illam invent/ ? T. Censeo ; 
cf. Rud. IV. ii. 3, iv. 134, vi. 3 ; Trin. II. iv. 104 ; True. II. vi. 35. 

3. Verum si posthac me pedem latum modo Scies itiposisse in un- 
dam. ] So Rud. V. ii. 7, cubi/um hercle longis Uteris signabo iam usque 

11. expeclatus] i. c. ‘looked for with eagerness.’ Thus Amph. 
II. ii. 26, Certe enim me illi expectatum optato venturum scio. 
S. Quid ? me non rere expectatum amicae venturum meae ? so also II. 
ii. 47, Amphitruo asks, ex pectatusne advenio ? to which Sosia replies 
ironically, Haud vidi magis Expectatum : eum salutat magis baud 
quisquam quam canem; and in Trin. II. iv. 173, expec/alus filius is 
a son whose birth had long been eagerly looked for. 

18. Here, salve: salvom te advenisse gaudeo : Vsque invaluisti i\ 

i. e. ‘ have you been quite well up to the present time ? ’ This was 
the ordinary salutation when the person addressed had been absent 
for a considerable time; sometimes it is perpetuone valuisti? i. e. ‘have 
you kept your health without interruption?’ Thus Amph. II. ii. 47, 
Valuistin usque ? and in v. 83 Alcumcna says, Et sa/u/avi, et valuis- 
sesne usque , ex quisivi simul, Mi vir: and Bac. II. iii. 14, N. Benene 
usque valuil? C. Pancratice atque athletice (like a prize-fighter); and 
we have an address of this kind in its most formal shape in Ep. I. 

ii. 27, Adgrediar hominem : advenientem peregre herum suum Slraiip- 
poclem Salva impertit salute servos Epidicus. S. Vbi is est? E. Adest. 
Salvom te gaudeo hue advenisse. S. Tam tibi istuc credo quam mihi. 
E. Benene usque valuisti? again, I. i. 15, Quid a is i perpetuon, valu- 
islii and Merc. II. iii. 53, D. Vsquene valuisti? C. Perpetuo rede, 
dum quidem illic fui. Cf. Trin. I. ii. 12, where there is a cordial 
reciprocation of compliments between two friends; Cure. I. i. 16; 
Pers. I. i. 23. 

23, 25. The words generally employed by the dramatists to 
denote the outer door of a dwelling-house are Ianua, Ostium, 
and For is or Fores. Of these the second occurs more frequently 
than the first, and the third more frequently than either of the 
two others, the plural Fores being more common than the sin- 
gular For is, which may be accounted for by supposing that doors 
were usually in two pieces, or folding doors. When the door 
was closed, and a person was desirous of obtaining admission, he 
knocked, which is expressed sometimes by such verbs as percutere 
(»*». 84, 88). pellere (Adel. IV. v. 4, V. iii. 2), but the vox signata is 

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NOTES. II. ii. 3 — 25. 145 

PuUart (pulta dum fores , Most. III. i. 144; Quis ostium pul tar it , 
Adel. IV. v. 3 ; Ibo et pultabo ianuam hanc, Poen. III. iv. 30; Quid si 
recen/i re aedes pultemi v. 18, &c.). This operation, when the visitor 
became impatient, was performed with great violence with the feet ; 
thus, in the passage before us, Theuropides complains, Pultando pedi- 
bus pene confregi hascc ambas; and again, v. 25, Quin pultando, inquam, 
pene confregi fores; so Eun. II. ii. 53, Parmeno to Gnatho entering 
the house of Thais, Qui mihi uno digitulo fores aperis fortunatus Nae 
tu istas faxo calcibus saepe insultabis frustra; and Merc. I. 20, At 
etiam asto ? at etiam cesso foribus facere hisce assulas ? i. e. ‘ to kick 
these doors to splinters.’ Cf. Most. IV. ii. 19. But the young scholar 
must carefully avoid confounding pullare ostium s. fores with the 
phrases into which the verbs crepo and concrepo enter, viz. crepuit 
s. conerepuit ostium s. for is, crepuerunt fores, and the like. These are 
employed exclusively to denote that some one is opening the door in 
order to come forth from the interior of a house, and they constantly 
serve to herald the appearance on the stage of one of the characters ; 
thus Pseud. I. i. 127, C. St t tace, opsecro hercle / P. Quid negoti est f 
C. Ostium Lenonis crepuit. P. Crura mavellem modo. C. Atque ipse 
egredilur penitus periurum caput; Amph. I. ii. 34, crepuit foris, Am- 
phitruo subdi/ivus, eccum, exit foras ; so Cas. V. i. 1 7 ; Aul. IV. v. 5 ; 
Phor. V. v. 12, P. Sed ostium conerepuit aps te. A. Vide quis egre- 

diatur. P. Geta est ; Hec. IV. L 6 ; Cas. II. i. 1 5, Sed foris 

conerepuit atque ea ipsa, eccarn, egreditur ; Most. V. i. 14; and in 
Andr. IV. 1. 59, the entrance of Mysis is thus announced, D. Hem t 
St! mane, conerepuit a Glycerio ostium; in like manner Mil. II. i. 
76, Foris conerepuit hinc a vicino sene, Ipse exit ; Cure. IV. i. 25, 
Sed interim fores crepuere, linguae moderandum est mihi ; Poen. III. 
iv. 31, Tacendi tempus est nam crepuerunt fores. In these phrases we 
remark the idiomatic use of a or abs : ostium conerepuit aps te — con- 
crepuit a Glycerio ostium — hinc a viceno sene ; and so fores crepuere ab 
ea, Eun. V. vii. 5; crepuerunt fores hinc a me, Heaut. I. i. 121 ; quid 

est quod tarn a nobis graviter crepuerunt fores, III. iii. 52 ; where the 

word following the preposition indicates what door is rattling.* It 
has been supposed that the noise thus spoken of must refer merely 
to the grating of the hinges, and this opinion receives support from 
Cure. I. i. 20, where Phaedromus formally salutes the ostium of his 
mistress, on which Palinurus asks, P. Quid tu ergo, insane, rogitas, 

* The same idiom occurs, but more rarely, in reference to knocking 
from the outside ; Adel. V. iii. 2, quisnam a me pepulit tarn graviter fores ; 
compare also True. IV. iii. 78, acce ab sese egreditur foras. 


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valeatve ostium ? Pit. Bcllissumum hercle vidi et taciturnissumum, A'um- 
quam utlum vtrbum mu/if, quom aptritur, laid ; Quomque ilia nodu 
elanculum ad me exit, lacet ; and at the end of the same scene, v. 93, 
Vide ! ut aperiunlur aedes festivissumac ! Non mutit cardo. Est lepidus. 
P. Quin das suaviumf and again in the same play, I. iii. 1, Placide 
egredere, et sonitum prohibe forum , et crepitum cardinum ; and Trin V. 
i. 8, sed fores Hae sonitu suo mihi moram iniciunt incommode. Some 
of the older commentators however imagine that the doors of the 
dwelling houses opened outwards directly upon the street, so that 
every one who issued forth rattled the door before opening it, in 
order to give warning to passers by. According to this view, when, 
in v. 75, Tranio is endeavouring to frighten Theuropides and to 
make him believe that the outraged ghost is about to sally forth, he 
exclaims, Concrepuit foris t Hiccine percussil ? i. e. ‘ the door rattles 1 
was it he (the ghost) who smote on it?’ 

42. Sermonem nostrum qui aucupet .] Plautus is fond of the meta- 
phor derived from the watchful stillness and artifices of a bird-catcher ; 
so As. V. iL 31, Aucupemus ex insidiis elanculum quam rem gerant ; 
Mil. IV. i. 43, Viden tu illam oculis venaturam facere , atque aucupium 
auribus; so ii. 5 ; Men. IV. i. 12, Hue concedamus : ex insidiis aucupa; 
Rud. IV. iv. 49, Viden sce/es/us ut aucupatur, ‘ is playing off his lures 
True. V. 72, Lepide mecastor aucupavi , ‘I have had capital sport.’ 

44. Capitalis caedis facta «/] i. e. ‘ an atrocious murder was 
committed.’ Caedis is another form of the more common nomi- 
native caedes, as we find aedis for aedes, torquis for torques, and cam's 
and canes. The epithet capitalis is emphatic, since caedes or caedis 
would not, taken alone, necessarily imply murder. Young scholars 
are apt to be embarrassed by the word capitalis. As there is a want 
of distinctness in some even of our best dictionaries in regard to the 
modifications of meaning assumed by this word, and their connection 
with each other, we shall say a few words on the subject. Caput 
signifies* (1) ‘the head.’ (2) The head being regarded by many 
ancient physiologists as the seat of the vital principle, Caput denoted 
* the life.’ (3) Caput was used by the jurists to designate 1 the poli- 
tical life’ of a Roman citizen, and comprehended the whole amount 
of his privileges as a free man, as a member of a family, and as a 
civ is optimo iure. Hence when an individual from any cause suffered 
the loss of these privileges, or of any portion of them, he was said 

* We notice here those leading meanings only of caput which are 
necessary for our present purpose. For others see notes on I. iii. 54, 
III. i. 60. 

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NOTES. II. ii. 42 — 44. 

T 47 

to undergo Capitis Deminutio. This being premised, the adjective 
Capitalis when employed with reference to (2) and (3) may be applied 
to what affects the physical life , or to what affects the political life. 
1. As affecting the physical life it signifies literally ‘deadly’ or 
‘ dangerous to life,’ and in this sense it occurs in Mil. II. iii. 23, 
Tuis nunc cruribus capitique fraudem capitalem hinc creas, i. e. ‘ you 
are raising up a deadly injury to limb and life so capi/a/i ex 
periculo, Rud. II. iii. 19; rectus capitali periculo, Trin. IV. iii. 81; 
and figuratively, Poen. IV. ii. 57, Sc in tu herum tuum meo hero 
esse inimicum capitalem, i. e. ‘a deadly enemy ;’ so ira capitalis in 
Hor. S. I. vii. 13; and odium capitate in Cicero de Am. 1. Hence 
Capitalis signifies ‘ terrible,’ * atrocious,’ as in the passage now 
before us, and in Adel. IV. vii. 3, D. Fero alia flagitia ad te in- 
gentia Boni illius adult seen /is. M. Ecce a u tern. D. Nova, Capitalia, 

i. e. ‘ atrocious ;’ and so in Cicero we have capitalis oratio, capi- 
talis iniustitia, capitalem et pcstiferum Antonii reditum, and even 
capitalis homo. 2. As affecting the political life capitalis is ex- 
tensively employed with regard to criminal proceedings. Since the 
punishment for some criminal offences was death, but for a much 
larger class was some penalty which entailed capitis deminutio, the 
phrases res capitalis, causa /acinus crimen capitate, iudicium capi- 
tate, poena capitalis, taken by themselves, are ambiguous, and their 
force must in each case be determined by the context. They 
may signify a ‘capital’ charge trial or punishment, according to the 
English force of the term in such cases, but much more frequently 
they indicate merely a charge trial or punishment affecting the poli- 
tical privileges but not the life of the person implicated. 3. Since 
anything which affects either the physical or political life of an 
individual is of serious importance to him, capitalis occasionally 
signifies ‘of paramount importance;’ and so we may take Stich. III. 

ii. 46, Earn auspicavi ego in re capitali mca, ‘ upon her I depended for 
an omen when all my best interests were at stake.’ 4. Occasionally, 
Capitalis is found in the sense of ‘ excellent,’ as when we talk of 
‘ a capital speech,’ ‘ a capital dinner,’ or the like ; thus Ovid. Fast. 
III. 839; Cic. ad Q. F. II. 13; Trebell. Poll. XXX. Tyrann. 10; all 
of which are quoted in Forcellini. 

Before quitting Capitalis we must notice Capital, which is used as 
a substantive, but appears to be merely the abbreviated form of the 
neuter capitale. It is used 1. with lintcum, vestimentum, velum or some 
such word understood, to signify a napkin worn upon the head by 
priestesses. “Item texta fasciola qua capillum in capite alligarent 

U 2 

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j 4 8 


dictum Capital a capite, quod sacerdotulae in capite etiam nunc solent 
habere,” Varro L. L. V. § 130, ed. Mull. (iv. 29); and so Paul. Diac. 
p. 57, ed. Mull., “ Capital linteum quoddam quo in sacrifices utebantur.” 
2. with /acinus understood, Paul. Diac. p. 48, “ Capital , facinus quod 
capitis poena luitur.” Plautus has it twice; Men. I. i. 16, Numqmrn 
tdcpol fugiet, lametsi capital fcccrit ; and Merc. IV. iv. 26, C. Eutuchc 
capital facis. E. Quif C. Quia acqualem ct sodalcm, civcm liberum, 
micas. See also Lucil. ap. Non. s. v. capital , I. 175 (p. 38). 

In the passage now before us, Weise, following the Ed. Prin. in 
opposition to the best MSS., reads capitalis aedis facta est , which 
he explains, “ Capitalis autem hie est, propter crimen in ea commis- 
sum quasi interdicta,” but he adduces no authority for such a meaning 
of capitalis. We find indeed in Paul. Diac. p. 66, ed. Mull., “ Capitalis 
lucus, ubi, si quid violatum est, caput violatoris expiatur," but this can 
have no place here. 

57. In the well known passage in Virgil G. I. 203, Non aliter 
quam qui, &c., Aulus Gellius (X. 29) and Servius (ad. loc.) agree that 
atquc is equivalent to statim, and in the line now before, us scholars 
propose to translate atquc by ‘ forthwith.’ I do not however see that 
this is necessary, and would render it simply ‘ and then,’ i. e. ‘ the 
next thing that happened was.' There are however several passages 
in Plautus where the latter of two events connected by atquc is repre- 
sented as following so immediately upon the former that the conjunc- 
tion may fairly be translated ‘ forthwith ;’ thus Bac. II. iii. 45, Dum 
circumspccto , atquc ego hmbum conspicor ; Epid. II. ii. 33, Quota ad 
pcstum venio, atquc ego illam illic video praestolarier; Merc. II. iii. 1 7, 
Nunc si dico, ut res est, atquc illam ntihi me Emisse indico, quemadmodum 
existumet me f Atquc illam apslrahal, trans mare hinc venum asporlet ; 
Capt. III. i. 19, Salve/e inquam, Quo imus una, inquam, ad prandiumi 
atquc illi lacenl ; to which we may add Merc. II. iii. 17, i. 35; Trin. 
III. ii. 43 ; but scarcely Poen. III. iii. 38. In Cas. Prol. 48 at seems 
to be equivalent to statim ; and in Amph. III. ii. 74 atquc is most 
conveniently translated by ‘ but.’ 

62. Mirum quin vigilanti dicer et\ ‘ It is wonderful that the 
man who was murdered sixty years ago did not tell his tale to my 
master when wide awake,’ the force being ‘ It is a very likely story, is 
it not, that (the ghost of) a man who was murdered sixty years ago 
would tell his tale to one who was wide awake 1 ’ Mirum quin implies 
strong irony, and is employed to evince the impatient contempt felt 
by the speaker for some statement or observation made or implied 
by the person with whom he is conversing. Thus Amph. II. ii. 1 1 8, 

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NOTES. II. ii. 57—62. 


Mirum quin te advorsus dicat, i. e. ‘ it is very likely that he (your own 
slave) will contradict you!’* Aul. I. ii. 7, Mirum quin iua nunc me 
causa faciat Iuppiter Philippum regem aut Barium, trivmefica / i. e. ‘ it 
is very likely, is it not, that Iupiter, for your sake, will make us rich 
as king Philip or Darius 1 ’ Cist. IV. ii. 67, Ilalisca, when inquiring 
for the cistella which she had lost, says, Non edepol praeda magna, ‘ it 
would be no great prize to any one who has found it,’ to which 
Lampadiscus replies, Mirum quin grex venalium in cistella in/ucrit 
una, i. e. ‘ it is very likely, is it not, that there should be a troop of 
slaves (or anything else of value) in that box of yours l’t Merc. 1 . 91, 
Mirum quin me subagilaret l ‘it’s very likely, isn’t it, that he would 
take liberties with mel’ and so exactly Pcrs. III. i. 11, iii. 28; Rud. V. 
iii. 37; Trin. IV. ii. 125. There is a passage in Pcrs. III. iii. 37, in 
which mirum is followed by quin, but they are disconnected by a long 
stop, and hence the meaning is different ; T. Fortasse metuis in manum 
concredcre. B. Mirum: quin citius iam a foro argentarii Abeunt, quam 
in cursu rotula circumvortitur, L e. ‘ you are perhaps afraid to trust 
her in my hands (without payment down),’ to which Dordalus replies 
with a sneer, 1 that is wonderful, isn’t it ! why I tell you that now- 
a-days (even) bankers levant more rapidly than a wheel turns round 
when rolling along.’ The phrases mirum ni, mira sunt ni, mira sunt 
nisi, are altogether distinct ; they express real surprise or wonder, and 
mean literally, * I shall be surprised if so and so is not the case,’ but 
generally may be correctly expressed by our ‘ I shouldn’t wonder if so 
and so is the case;’ thus Amph. I. i. 163, Mirum ni hie me quasi 
muraenam exossare cogitat, ‘ I shall be surprised if this fellow is not 
thinking of boning me as if I were a muraena,’ i. e. ‘I believe that 
this fellow is,’ ‘I shouldn't wonder if he were;’ v. 127, Mira sunt 
nisi invitabit sese in cena pluscu/um, i. e. 1 1 shouldn’t wonder if he 
had been taking a drop too much last night;' and again, v. 275, 
Mira sunt nisi latuit in/us illic in iliac hirnea, L e. ‘ I shouldn’t be 
surprised if that fellow was lying concealed in that wine jar ;’ Bac. III. 
iii. 46, Mira sunt ni Pistoclcrus Ludum pugnis contudit, ‘ I shouldn’t 
wonder if P. had been giving L. a beating;’ Cas. III. ii. 24, Atque 
edepol mirum ni subolet iam hoc huic vicinae meae, ' indeed I shouldn't 
wonder if the lady my neighbour had got an inkling of this already ;’ 
Trin. IV. ii. 19, Quam magis specto, minus placet mihi hominis facies: 
mira sunt Ni illic homo est aut dormilalor, aut sector tonarius, ‘I 

* Wciso quite misunderstood the force of this when he renders it vetim 
eum advorsus te idem edicere, b. e. repetere quod modo dixit. 

t Here again \V. has completely misunderstood the meaning. 

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shouldn't wonder if that fellow were either a robber or a cut-purse.’ 
In Trin. II. iv. 94, after Philto had been moralising upon the lot of 
man, and declaring that rich and poor after they had passed into the 
nether world were upon a complete equality as far as wealth was con- 
cerned, Stasimus, according to the Vulgate text, is made to say, Mirum 
ni tu illuc ttcum divitias /eras, which cannot be explained according to 
the view we have given of mirum ni. But the Milan Palimpsest gives 
here Anmirumquintu, and the Pall. MSS. (BCD) An mirum inito or an 
mirum ini tu, while mirum ni is found only in the interpolated MSS. 
and Ed. Prin. Hence there can be little doubt that R has restored 
the true reading, Mirum quin tu i/lo Ucum divitias /eras, i. e. ‘ it is very 
likely, isn’t it, that you could carry your riches to the other world,’ — 
a contemptuous sneer, which is quite appropriate and in character. 

70. De/odit insepultum clam . ] Clam and Palam are employed as 
adverbs in the sense of ‘ secretly’ and ‘ openly,’ and are often directly 
opposed to each other ; thus Merc. V. iv. 63, Si quis prohibueril plus 
perdet clam, quam si praehibueril palam. Clam is sometimes combined 
with another adverb, as Poen. III. iii. 49, At enim hie clam /urlim esse 
volt. Clam, moreover, is in very many passages used as a preposition 
governing the accusative, or the ablative, or, more rarely, the genitive, 
and in this case signifies ‘ without the knowledge of’ or ‘ concealed 
from the knowledge of;' thus Cas. Prol. 51, Pater filiusque clam alter 
alterum, ‘ the one without the knowledge of the other;’ Most. V. i. 13, 
Nam scio equidem nullo pacto iam esse posse clam senem, ‘ that in no 
way can the truth be concealed from ;’ Merc. III. ii. 2, with the abla- 
tive, Empta est arnica clam uxore mea et filio ; Merc. Prol. 43, with the 
genitive, Res exula/um ad i/lam abibat clam patris. So clam me, Cas. 

I. i. 7, Rud. I. ii. 45, Heaut. I. i. 46, 66, Hec. II. ii. 10, III. iv. 10, 
IV. ii. 1 ; clam te, Andr. I. v. 52, Eun. IV. vii. 25, Hec. IV. iv. 59, 
Phor. V. viii. 15 ; clam ilium, Merc. II. iii. 26 ; dam uxorem, As. IV. ii. 
6, Cas. Prol. 54, II. viii. 15, 32; clam virum, Amph. Prol. 107, Cas. 

II. ii. 27. The choice of case seems quite arbitrary, for we have 
clam uxorem and clam viro in the same sentence, Merc. IV. vi. 3, 5, 
1 1 ; and no distinction of meaning can be drawn between clam f>atrem 
Merc. II. iii. 8; clam patre, True. II. i. 37; and clam patris, Merc. 
Prol. 43. Palam is not used as a preposition, but both clam and 
palam, especially the latter, appear as indeclinable adjectives, signi- 
fying respectively ‘secret’ and ‘ evident’ or ‘open;’ thus Adel. I. i. 
46, Dum id rescitum iri credit, Jantisper cave/; Si sperat /ore clam, 
rursus ad ingenium redit, i. e. ‘ if he hopes that what he does will be 
secret ;’ and hence /accre aliquid palam signifies not ‘ to do something 

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NOTES. II. ii. 70 — III. i. 40. 151 

openly,’ but to ‘make something evident,’ ‘to reveal or disclose some- 
thing, as in Poen. Prol. 126, Quod res/a/, restant alii qui faciant pa/am, 
i. e. ‘who will disclose' or ‘make clear;’ and True. IV. iii. 77, ipsa 
haec ultra , ut factum est, fecit omnem rem pa/am, ‘ revealed the whole 
matter;’ so Heaut. IV. iii. 43, C. Metuo quid agam. S. M etuis P quasi 
non ea poteslas sit tua Quo velis in tempore ut te exsolvas, rem facias 
pa/am; and Hec. I. ii. 30, Pa. Non est opus pro/ato : hoc percontarier 
Desis/e. P" Nempe ea causa ut ne id fiat pa/am, i. e. ‘ that the thing 
may not be revealed;’ and Adel. IV. iv. 16, Semi ilico id i/las suspi- 
cari ; sed me reprehendi /amen, Ne quid de fratre garrulae illi dicer em, 
ac fieret pa/am; and so Trin. I. ii. 106, with clam opposed in the 
preceding clause. 

84. Quae res te agilat, Tranio P] Theuropides says this observing 
the anxiety and' alarm, partly real and partly affected, exhibited by 
Tranio. So in Men. II. ii. 47, Quod te urge! scelus ? in Bac. IV. ii. 2, 
Quae te mala crux agilalP cf. also Aul. I. i. 32, Quae illunc homi- 
nem intemperiae tenentP and Epid. III. iv. 39, Mil. II. v. 24, Quae te 
intemper iae tenentP 

93. Compare IV. ii. 68 (iii. 45), is vel Herculi con/erere quaes/um 
possiet, and note. 

III. i. 39. pilum iniecisti mihi. ] We have a similar expression in 
Epid. V. ii. 25, Tragu/am in te inicere adornat : nescio quam fabricam 
facit, but in the latter case the phrase represents the perpetration of 
some fraud or trick. 

40. Hie homo certe est ariolus] i. e. ‘ this man is assuredly a wizard.’ 
Ariolus seems to signify ‘ a diviner,’ one who knows the truth with 
regard to the past, the present, and the future, without reference to 
the source from which his knowledge is procured. Thus Amph. 
V. ii. 2, Nil est quod timeas : ariolos, aruspices, Mitle omnes ; quae 
futura et quae facta eloquar; and so Cas. II. vi. 4. Terence also classes 
together arioli and aruspices in the general sense of ‘ diviners,' Phor. 
IV. iv. 27, inter dixit ariolus Aruspex vetuit ante brumam a/iquid 
novi Negoti incipere. Sometimes the word signifies emphatically ‘ a 
true prophet;’ thus Poen. III. v. 46, Eheu quam ego habui ariolos 
aruspices, i. e. ‘ alas, how I have found the Aruspices turn out true 
prophets,’ referring to the words which he had used at the commence- 
ment of the scene; and so also Rud. II. ii. 20. Sometimes, as in 
the passage before us, it is used contemptuously, as when we call 
a man ‘a wizard’ or ‘ a conjuror.’ Sometimes, since a prophet when 
he uttered his predictions was supposed to be excited to frenzy by the 
direct influence of a present God, ariolus signifies ‘one possessed,’ 

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' a madman thus True. II. vii. 41, Truxit ex irt/imo ren/re suspirium, 
hoc vide, deni thus Frendit, icit femur : num opsecro nam ario/us, qui ipsus 
se verier at? Plautus employs super stitiosus in the same sense as 
ario/us; thus Amph. I. i. 167, 1 /lic homo super stitiosus est, i. e. ‘that 
man's a conjuror;’ and again, Cure. III. 27, with exactly the same 
force, Supersti/iosus hie quidem est, vera praedicat ; while in Rud. IV. 
iv. 95 we find the two words combined : Palaestra having offered to 
give an exact account of the contents of the cistella enclosed in the 
vidulus, Gripus, fearful of losing his booty, interferes. Quid si ista aut 
superstitiosa, aut ariola est, atque omnia, Quidquid insit, vera dice! ? anne 
habebit ariola? D. Non feret nisi vera dice I, ncquiquam ariolabitur, 
where we have the feminine ariola, which occurs again in Mil. III. 

i. 99, Praecantatrici, eonicctrici, ario/ae atque aruspirae; and the verb 
ariolor, which is found again in As. III. ii. 33, Cist. IV. ii. 80, Rud. II. 
iii. 17, Phor. III. ii. 8, in all of which ariolare simply signifies ‘you 
are right,’ ‘ you have divined the truth ;’ and so ariolare vera. As. V. 

ii. 74. In Rud. II. iii. 46, Capil/um promittam optumum est, occipiamque 
ariolari, i. e. ‘ the best thing I can do is to let my hair grow long 
and begin to play the prophet’ In Mil. IV’. vi. 41 ariolari and 
divinare are identical, Ariolatur. Quia me amat, propter ea I’enus fecit 
earn ut divinaret ; and so As. II. ii. 50. In Adel. II. i. 48, sed ego hoc 
ariolor means simply ‘ but this I predict.’ It will be seen from the 
above passages that Ariolus and Ariolor, although sometimes used 
loosely in the sense of prediction or prophesy, generally speaking 
imply that what is said is absolutely true, and this seems to be in the 
mind of Cicero when he says, Epp. ad Att. VIII. n, npoSt<rni{u 
igitur, noster Attice, non hariolans ut ilia (sc. Cassandra) cui nemo 
credidit, sed coniectura prospiciens, i. e. ‘I predict what will happen, 
not speaking with the certainty of an inspired prophet like Cassandra, 
but looking into the future by drawing inferences (from the present 
and the past) {coniectura).’ In another passage, De N. D. I. 20, he 
classes together among the professors of iwmirj or Divinatio, harus- 
pices, augures, harioli, votes et coniectores. Plautus uses coniector in the 
sense of ‘a prophet’ Amph. V. i. 76, Ego Tiresiam coniectorem advocabo; 
and in Cure. II. i. 33 it is ‘ a professional diviner,’ Vah ! solus hie 
homo est, qui scial divinitus : Quin coniectores a me consilium petunt ; and 
in Poen. I. iii. 34 it means ‘ a skilful interpreter,’ Nam isti quidem 
hercle orationi Oedipo Opus est coniectore qui Sphingi interpres fuil. 
The feminine coniectrix has been quoted above from Mil. III. i. 99. 

41. Quin tu islas minis tricas] Anglice ‘tricks,’ ‘shufflings.’ The 
word Tricae deserves notice. It occurs in Plautus in the following 

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NOTES. III. L 41. 153 

passages: Cure. V. ii. 15, Quod argentum , quas tu mihi tricas narras ? 
Pers. V. ii. 17, Quid ais, crux, s/imulorum tritor ? quomodo me hodic 
vorsavistit Vt me in tricas coniecistit In Rud. V. ii. 36, Tricas! means 
‘pshaw/ ‘nonsense,’ ‘mere trash/ Pers. IV. iii. 61, nihil mihi opus 
est Litibus neque tricis, i. e. ‘ quibbles.’ Cicero uses the word in 
the sense of ‘ embarrassments,’ ‘ hindrances domesticas tricas, ad Att. 
X. 8, sub. fin. See also Caelius in ad. Fam. VIII. 5. The original 
and proper meaning t)f tricae seems to have been ‘ threads/ and from 
the passage quoted above from Pers. V. ii. 17 compared with IV. i. 9, 
it is clear that it denoted ‘a noose’ or ‘snare;’ hence the transition 
is easy to ‘a trick’ or ‘deception,’ and hence, as in Pers. IV. iii. 61, 
it means ‘paltry legal tricks’ or ‘quibbles/ and hence in Rud. V. 
ii. 36 the exclamation tricas ! is one of contempt, — ‘ what you offer 
is a paltry subterfuge ;’ and it may be observed that the expression 
of contempt used by Gripus in the next clause is tramas putridas. 
Lexicographers have sought a different origin and explanation of the 
word, referring to Pliny II. N. III. ii. § 16, where he is discussing 
the geography of Apulia. He mentions Arpi as having been founded 
by Diomedes and named Argos Hippium, which was subsequently 
corrupted into Argyrippa, and then goes on, Diomedes ibi delevit gentes 
Monadorum Dardorumque et urbes duas quae in proverbi ludicrum 
vertere, Apinam et Tricam. The proverb itself is to be found in 
Martial XIV. i. 7, who, when about to write a series of distiches 
descriptive of the small gifts interchanged by all classes at the 
Saturnalia, says, Sunt apinae tricaeque et si quid vi/ius istis, ‘ they are, 
I admit, trash and trumpery;’ and again, I. cxiv. 2, Quaecumque lusi 
iuvenis et puer quondam Apinasque nostras, quas nec ipse iam navi, &c. 
Now although the Romans may have been unable to explain the 
origin of the proverbial expression Apinae Tricaeque, and although 
we may find it difficult to give any account of Apinae, no sober- 
minded philologist will be willing to accept and rest satisfied with 
the story of Pliny about the two towns destroyed by Diomedes. 
Non. Marcellus p. 8, seems to consider that tricae is the same 
word as the Greek rpi'xfr, “ Tricae sunt impedimenta et implicationes 
dictae quasi tericae quod pullos gallinaceos involvant et impediant 
capilli pedibus implicati.” Trico-onis in the sense of ‘a shuffling knave’ 
or ‘cheat’ is quoted twice by Nonius (s. v. Tricones, p. 22) from Lu- 
cilius, Lucid Cotta sene: r, Crassi pater huiu Panaeti Magnus trico fuit 
nummariu solvere nulli, Lentus ; and again (s. v. Tricae, p. 338), Nec 
mihi amatore hoc opu nec Iricone vadato : and the word reappears 
again in the Augustan Historians (Capitolin. Ver. 4.) in the sense 


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of ‘ a drunken brawler.’ Tricosus, which is quoted from Lucilius, 
is a conj. emend, for si/ricosus, which is the reading of the MSS. 
in Non. s. v. Bovinator (or Bovialor) p. 79. Cf. Aul. Gell. xi. 7. 
Tricor the verb is found twice in Cicero, Ad Att. XV. 3, XIV. 19, in 
both cases in the sense of shuffling, equivocating. We have also 
in Plautus the verbs extrico and intrico : I. ii. 48, 5 . Quid de 
ilia fiet fidicina igitur ? E. Aliqua reperibitur , Aliqua opt exsolvam, 
txlricabor aliqua. S. P/enus consili ts. Pers. IV. i. 9, Nunc ego leno- 
nem Ha hodie inlricalum dabo Vt ipsus sese qua se expedial nescial. 
Extrico and ex/ricatur are used by Cicero and Horace in the sense 
of ‘ to disentangle.’ Intrico is quoted from Afranius, from a frag, 
of Cicero, and is used by Ulpian in the Digest. 

43. Jl/agis opportunus advenire quam advent's. So Merc. V. iv. 3, 
Optuma opporlunilale ambo advcnistis. 

55. D. Iam hercle ego illunc nominabo.] Plautus here alludes, in 
all probability, to a privilege accorded by the laws of the XII. Tables 
to creditors. In virtue of this any one who had a claim against 
another might, if the legal evidence were defective, proceed to the 
house of his debtor and publicly demand payment in loud and abusive 
language, so as to bring shame upon the defaulter among his neigh- 
bours. Thus Festus s. v. Vagulatio, p. 375, ed. Mull., “ Vagulatio in 
L. XII. significat quaestionem cum convicio. Cui testimonium defucrit, 
is tcrtiis diebus ob portum obvagula/um ito;" and again, s. v. Portum, 
“ P or turn in XII. pro domo positum omnes fere consentiunt; Cui 
testimonium defucrit, his tertiis diebus ob portum obvagulatum ito.” 
This Vagulatio seems to be equivalent to what Plautus elsewhere 
terms Pipulum (Aul. III. ii. 32), Ila me bene a met Laverna , te iam, 
nisi reddi Mihi vasa tubes, pipulo hie differ am ante aedes. With regard 
to Pipulum the student may consult Varro L. L. VII. § 103, ed. Mull. 
See also Aul. Gell. XX. 9, where however some edd. consider the 
passage as an interpolation. The words F/agitare, Flagitator, Fla- 
gitium, are also frequently employed to denote a clamorous demand 
by creditors for payment ; thus Poen. III. i. 34, Est domi quod edimus, 
ne nos tarn contemptim contcras : Qtddquid est pauxi/lu/um illuc nostrum, 
illud omne intus est Neque nos qucmquam flagitamus , neque nos quisquam 
flagitat : Pseud. IV. vii. 46, Sed to, bone vir, ftagitare saepe clamore 
in foro, Quom libel la nusquam est ; I. v. 143, edepol si non dabis 
Clamore magno et multum flagitabere ; and Men. Prol. 45, Propterea 
illius nomen mcmini facilius Quia il/um clamore vidi flagitarier. So 
for flagitator, Cas. Prol. 24, Nequis formidet flagitatorem suum, Ludi 
sunt; ludus datus est argentariis ; and below, Most. III. ii. 80 (78), Sol 

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NOTES. III. i. 43—81. 

l 55 

semper hie est tuque a mani ad vesperum Quasi fiagitator astat usque ad 
ostium; and for flagitium, Epid. III. iv. 77, F. Fides non reddis ? 
P. Neqtte fides , neque tibias. Propera igitur fugere hinc, si te Di amant. 
F. Abiero. Flagitio cum maiore post reddes tamen. The same practice 
is alluded to in I. ii. 15, where a debtor exclaims, Quin c depot egomti 
clamore defetigor, differor ; and Cure. V. iii. 5, Postquam nihil fit, 
clamors hominem posco; and in a more general sense True. IV. ii. 46, 
lam hercle ego tibi, illccebra, ludos faciam clamore in via Quae advorsum 
legem accepisti a plurimis pecuniam. 

62. te ex tenia turn ] ‘ to exhaust yourself with bawling,’ i. e. ‘ to 
stretch your lungs till they crack.’ The verb ext into, a frequentative 
from extendo, occurs again in Bac. IV. ii. 1, Quid is/uc ? quae is/aec est 
pulsatio ? Quae te mala crux agitat? ad is tunc qui modum Alieno vires 
/teas extentes ostio ? and in Lucr. III. 489, where he is describing a 
man seized with a fit, Concidit et spumas agit, ingemit el tremit artus, 
Desipil, extentat nerves, torquetur, anhelat ; but it is not found in any 
other Latin author till we come down to Ammianus Marcellinus. 

63. Ne ypv quidem.] ypv, as will be seen from the various readings, 
is a conjecture of Acidalius. The MSS. have nec erit quidem, which 
is quite unintelligible. There are several passages in Plautus where 
Greek words are brought in, and these, as might be expected, appear 
in most cases in a very corrupt form in the MSS. Below, in IV. iii. 
46, Md rby ’AirdXXo is written correctly in Latin characters in the 
Palimpsest; in Bac. V. ii. 43, Hermann has probably hit the truth 
when he substitutes Noi yap for the necar of the Palatine MSS., 
which appears in interpolated MSS. and the Vulgate as neeas : so in 
Trin. II. iv. 17 we cannot doubt that oechete or oe che te of the MSS. 
has been correctly interpreted by o*x«tqi, and that in Poen. I. i. 9 
lyraeline stands for Xfjpm Xijpoi ; so in Cas. III. vi. 9, 10, the reading 
npaypara pot napt'xtic, piya k aK6v, *Q Zev, rests upon satisfactory traces ; 
in True. V. 36 tpXvapttv may be accepted, but in Pseud. II. iv. 22 the 
xoptr Tovrtp noim of Scaliger, the otuvbv noia of Camerarius, the 
xdipe, otuvov noia of Lambinus, and the x al P* lv Xaplvov volo of Acida- 
lius, although all ingenious, are mere guesses, for the characters in 
the MSS. are so obscure that they cannot be deciphered with any 
approach to certainty. 

8 1 . Ne inconci/iare quid nos porro postulesi\ The word inconciliare 
is found three or four times in Plautus, but is not found in the extant 
writings of any other classical author. Looking to the etymology, 
since conciliare signifies ‘ to join together,’ ‘ to bring into close 
union,’ and hence ‘to act the part of a go-between or broker’ in 

x 2 

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matrimonial and mercantile transactions, we might naturally suppose 
that inconciliare denoted ‘ to separate,’ ‘ to set at variance,’ ‘ to disturb,’ 
a meaning which would suit the passage before us. But it has been 
objected that this interpretation is contrary to analogy, — that although 
in has frequently a negative force when compounded with adjectives 
or participles, it never has this force when compounded with verbs. 
The old grammarians seem to have been in doubt as to the meaning 
of inconciliare ; thus Festus, or rather Paulus Diaconus, p. 107, ed. 
M till., “ Inconciliasti, comparasti, commendasti, vel, ut antiqui, per dolum 
decipere,” where it is supposed that antiqui is intended to indicate 
Plautus. The passages in which the word occurs are the following : 
1. Bac. III. vi. a 1, IHe, quod in se fuit , adcuratum habuit quod posset 
mali Facer e el in me inconciliare capias omnes meas. This is the reading 
of the MSS. Camer. proposes facere el, while R retains facerel and 
reads inconciliare! ; the former connects in me with inconciliare, the 
latter with facerel. It must be observed that the change proposed 
by R is more violent than that introduced by Camer., indeed the 
substitution of facere el for facerel cannot be regarded as a change 
at all — according to either reading, ‘ to set at variance with me,’ ‘ to 
disturb or throw into confusion,’ ‘ to stir up against me,’ would be 
a satisfactory meaning. 2. The line in the Mostellaria, now before 
us. 3. Trin. I. ii. 99, Inconciliastin cum qui manda/us esl tibi, Ille qui 
mandavit, cum exturbasti ex at dibus ? Edepol mandalum pulcre ct cur a turn 
probe! Here the sense given by Paul. Diac., ‘decipere per dolum,’ would 
be more applicable. Goeller renders it, ‘ malam rem ei et damnum 
conciliare.' Lastly, in the Persa, V. ii. 53, inconciliavil appears in the 
printed editions, but the MSS. here are so corrupt that it is hard to 
say whether the word inconciliavil is indicated at all, and therefore 
we can found nothing upon this passage.* On the whole, if we 
admit that inconciliare cannot signify to ‘ disunite,’ there is no reason 
why it should not mean ‘ to unite against,’ ‘ to stir up opposition,’ 
and so * to bring trouble upon any one,’ which will suit the passage 
from the Mostellaria, and hence, ultimately, ‘to injure’ or ‘deceive.’ 
87. Obiei argentum &c.] If we adopt the reading given in our 
text the meaning will be ‘ Order, I beseech you, the mouth of this 
unclean brute to be plugged (gagged) with silver.’ Os is here used 
in its proper signification, but it is frequently employed by Plautus 
to signify ‘the face’ or ‘the whole head.’ Thus Capt. IV. ii. 11, 

* Compare the word incomiliare, Cure. III. 30, and Festus on the 

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NOTES. III. i. 87-109. 


Eminor inter minor que, ne quis mi opstilerit obviam Nam qui opstilerit 
ore sistet : with which compare Cure. II. iii. 5, Nec quisquam sit tarn 

oputentus , qui mi opsistat in via Quin cadat, quin capite sistat 

in via de semi/a, in which it is manifest that ore sis/ere and capite 
sistere are equivalent to each other; so in Amph. I. L 161, S. Illic 
homo me interpolabit , mcumque os finget denuo. M. Exossatum os esse 
oportet quern probe percusseris ; Pers. II. iv. 12, Non here/e si os per- 
ciderim tibi, metuam, morticine ; and Epid. III. iii. 1, Non oris causa 
modo homines aequom fuit Sibi habere speculum, ubi os con/emplarent 
suum ; see also Rud. III. iv. 5 and Mil. II. ii. 56. 

87. illic.] Compare III. i. 78 (82), Quid illuc esl faenus, opsecro, 
quod illic petit ? v. 55 (59), lam, hercle, ego il/unc nominabo. T. Euge, 
strenue ! IV. iii. 3 (ii. 26), Quae i/laec res esl? quid illi homines quae- 
runt apud aedes meas ? 

109. Quid? eas quanti destinat ?] See below, IV. ii. 58 (iii. 35), 
V. i. 64 (ii. 49). The etymology of des/ino is uncertain, although it 
may possibly be connected with sisto and i<rrdv<a. It signifies 1. ‘ to fix’ 
or * fasten down,’ in a direct material sense, as when Caesar B. G. 
III. 14 speaks of funis qui antennas ad malos destinabant : and B. C. 
1 . 27, Has (sc. rates dup/ices) quaternis ancoris ex quatuor angulis 
destinabat, ne fluctibus moverentur. 2. ‘To fix’ in a figurative or 
mental sense, ' to mark out,’ * to determine,’ ‘ resolve,’ * assign,’ as 
in the phrases, Quin cum (sc. Papirium Cursorcm) parem destinani 
animis Magno Alexandro ducem, si arma, Asia perdomita, in Europam 
vertisset, Liv. IX. 16; so Liv. VI. 6, the colleagues of Camillus are 
represented as acknowledging regimen omnium rerum, ubi quid bcllici 
terroris ingrual, in viro uno esse : sibique deslinalum in anirno esse 
Camillo submittere imperium; so also Hor. S. II. iii. 83, Panda esl 
hellebori multo pars maxima avaris Nescio an Anticyram ratio illis 
destine t omnem ; and Virg. /En. II. 129, Composito rumpit vocem e t me 
destinat arae. 3. The word as it occurs in Plautus is generally em- 
ployed in the sense of ‘ to fix upon some object for purchase,’ or ‘ to 
fix the price which one is willing to give for an object,’ hence ‘ to 
bargain for the purchase,’ and hence simply ‘ to purchase.’ Thus 
Rud. Prol. 45, Minis trigin/a sibi pue/lam destinat Datque arrabonem; 
and Pers. IV. iii. 72, Etiam tu Mam destinas ? D. Videam modo Mer- 
cimonium. T. Aequa dicis ; and again, iv. 115, S. Tuo perieulo 
sexaginta hose datur argenti minis. D. Toxile, quid ago? T. Di 
dcaeque te agitant irati, sce/us, Qui hanc non properes destinare. The 
reading in Most. IV. ii. 68 (iii. 35) is doubtful, and also in V. ii. 64 
(49). We have in Non. p. 289, "Destinare dicitur parare. Destinare, 

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emere. Lucilius lib. XXVII : facio, ad lenonem venio, tribus in 
libertakm milibus Destiner.” Cic. Epp. Fam. VII. xxiii. $ 3» when 
speaking of the purchase of several works of art, Quod tibi dcstinaras 
Tpait((o<t>tipov, si te dike tat, habtbis ; sin autem sententiam mutasti, ego 
habebo scilicet. Plautus uses also the verb Praestino, manifestly con- 
nected with the same root as Destino, in the sense of ‘ to purchase.’ 
Thus Paul. Diac. p. 233, ed. Mull., “ Praestinare apud Plautum prae- 
emere est, id est emendo tenere thus Capt. IV. ii. 66, Iubcn an non 
iubes astitui aulas ? patinas elui? Laridum atque epulas foverifoculis fer- 
ventibus ? A Hum pisces praestinatum abire i Epid. II. ii. 90, E. Quasi 
tu cupias liberare fidicinam animi gratia, Quasiquc ames vehementer tu 
illam. P. Quam ad rem isluc referl? E. Rogas f Vt enim praes/ines 
argento, priusquam venial filius ; Pseud. I. ii. 36, Ego eo in macellum 
ut piscium quidquid est pretio praestinem. The word seems to occur 
in no other author until it was revived by Apuleius, who employs 
it repeatedly: Met. I. 5, 24, IV. 15, VII. 9, VIII. 23, 24, IX. 6, 10; 
Apol. 101. See note of Hildebrand on VII. 9. 

hi. arraboni.] See also III. iii. 15 (IV. ii. 15), IV. iii. 21 (iv. 21). 
The word arrabo, which appears also under the shape of arra, is taken 
directly from the Greek appafUiv, which again is taken from a Hebrew 
verb signifying ‘ to promise,’ * to become security.’ Both words are 
frequently found written with an aspirate arrha and arrhabo, but 
these forms probably belong to a period of the language subsequent 
to the age of Plautus. Technically an arrabo was a partial payment 
made by a purchaser when he concluded a bargain, in security that he 
would not repudiate his engagement. The French word les arrhes is 
identical in meaning, and in Scotland the earnest-penny given to a 
servant when hired is called the arks. Thus Rud. Prol. 45, Minis tri- 
ginta sibi puellam des/inat Dalque arraboncm et iureiurando adligat; and 
so again, in reference to the same transaction, II. vi. 71, III. vL 23, 
from which it is evident that when a seller received an arrabo he was 
bound to abide by his bargain. In Poen. V. vi. 22 it is used more 
loosely to denote an object seized as security or compensation for 
a debt, Lena arrabonem hoc pro mina mecum fero ; and in Heaut. III. 
iii. 42 an object (a girl) left as security for money borrowed, Ea 
(sc. filia adulcscentuld) relicla huic arraboni est pro illo argento. In 
Mil. IV. i. 1 1 it is used figuratively : Palaestrio, presenting a ring to 
the soldier, says, Hunc arraboncm amoris primum a me accipe ; and in 
True. III. ii. 22 there is an elaborate joke in consequence of a slave 
having by design or accident said rabonem instead of arraboncm .- 
A. Pcrii ! Rabonem, quam esse dicam hanc belluam ? Quin tu arrabonem 

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NOTES. Ill.-i. m — 144. 159 

diets f S. ar /ado lucri Vt Praenestinis conia cst dconia. There are 
some remarks upon this word in Aul. Cell. XVII. 2, who quotes a 
passage from Claudius Quadrigarius, and adds “ nunc arrabo in sor- 
didis verbis haberi coeptus, ac multo rectius videtur arra, quamquam 
arra quoque veteres saepe dixerunt, et compluriens Laberius." 

1 16. Apsolvt hunc, quaeso, vomitum.\ Unless vomi/us be taken here 
in a general sense to signify ‘ filth,' it must mean ‘ an emetic,’ ‘ some- 
thing causing sickness usually, however, it is employed to denote 
the act of vomiting or the result. Thus Merc. III. iii. 14, Senex hir- 
cosus, tu osculere mulicrem f Viine adveniens vomitum excutias mulieri ? 
and Rud. II. vi. 26, L. Peril, animo male fill coniine , quaeso , caput. 
C. Pulmoneum edepol nimis velim vomitum vomas , i. e. ‘ it is all over 
with me, I am sick, hold my head I beseech you.’ ‘ Very much 
should I like it if you were to retch up your lungs.’ Bothe and 
Ritschl, offended apparently by this use of vomi/us, have proposed 
a correction which is no improvement. Weisc in his index seems to 
explain vomi/us in this passage by argenli numeratio. Does he mean 
‘disgorge the money,’ ‘up with it?’ 

120. Adulescens ] i. e. ‘young man,’ is constantly employed by 
dramatists in addressing and describing a person without reference, 
at least emphatically, to his age. It is not employed when one 
person accosts another ceremoniously, and occasionally, although by 
no means uniformly, implies that the person addressed is in a social 
position somewhat inferior to that of the speaker. It may thus be 
often correctly represented by our phrase * my lad,’ ‘ my man,' or 
‘ my friend.’ In like manner pucr is the common term applied to 
a slave, whatever his age may be ; so in French a waiter is called 
garcon although he may be old and decrepit, and among ourselves 
the same takes place with regard to post-Ayv. In our early writers 
Chi/de is applied to knights and squires, and in the plays and novels 
of the last century child is frequently used by ladies when addressing 
full-grown women of a lower grade. The following examples of this 
us^of adulescens will suffice to illustrate what we have said : As. II. 
ii. 70, III. iii. 44; Epid. I. i. 1, III. iv. 4, 8, 23; Men. II. ii. n, 15, 
III. ii. 29, 33, 41; Pers. IV. iv. 108; Poen. V. v. 28; Pseud. II. ii. 
21; Rud. IV. iii. 4; Trin. IV. ii. 47, 126. 

144. ad unum saxtim.] “Abundat unum,’’ and on Aul. I. ii. 11 
“ Vox unam pleonastice adiecta ut saepius in Plauto,” says Weise, a 
most unsatisfactory explanation, one which ought ever to lie regarded 
with extreme distrust. There can be no doubt that in the older 
forms of the language unus denoted not merely ‘one’ with numerical 

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emphasis, but was equivalent in many cases to the indefinite article a 
or an, which is in reality am or one, and was anciently employed 
just as un, uno, ein, etc. are in modem languages. Plautus will afford 
several examples: in this play, IV. ii. 67 (iii. 44), we have Vnus istic 
servos est sacerrumus ; and IV. iii. 9 (iv. 9), Vnum vidi morluom 
tjferri foras ; so Capt. III. i. 22, unum ridiculum dictum ; Epid. III. iv. 
17, Pol ego magis unum quaero , i. e. ‘I seek (some) one.’ In Trin. IV. 
iv. 11, Curre in Piraeum, atque unum curriculum face, which Weise 
explains by saying “ unum pleonastice ut saepius,” unum is highly 
emphatic, ‘ run to the Piraeus and make one course of it,' i. e. ‘ do 
not halt for a moment.’ In Pseud. I. i. 52 (q. v.), nunc unae quinque 
remorantur minae may signify ‘a matter of five minae,’ but unae is 
here rather equivalent to solae or solum, ‘now the balance of five minae 
alone detains me here ;’ and so Ires unos passus, Bac. IV. vii. 34. 

147. Ducere, Due tare, Circumducere, Per due tare, Per due tor, all 
occur in the same sense in the course of this play. In Pers. IV. 
iv. 85, Omne ego pro nihi/o esse due to quod fuit quando fuit, the MS. 
reading duclo in this sense is an Sir. Xty. \V reads duco. 

III. ii. 10. Tola lurget mihi uxor ] i. e. ‘is all in a ferment.’ 
There is a line in Cas. II. v. 17 which may serve as a commentary, 
Kune in fermento tola est, i/a turget mihi. 

12. cubandum est male. ] The same expression in As. IV. ii. 87, 
Male cubandum est : iudicatum me uxor adducit domum. 

79. Quasi Jl agitator] i. e. ‘like a dun.’ See note on v. 55. 

no. Sibi quisque ruri metit. ] A proverbial expression equivalent 
to ‘every one for himself in this world’ or ‘charity begins at home.’ 
Compare Epid. II. ii. 80, Mihi istic nee seri/ur nec metitur, i. e. ‘I 
have no interest in that matter, it does not concern me.’ 

iii. Redhibere is a technical legal term employed when a 
purchaser returns the article purchased upon the hands of the seller 
on account of some defect. The explanation of Ulpian is perfectly 
distinct (Digest. XXI. 1, $ 21), “ Redhibere est facere ut rursus habeat 
venditor quod habuerit;” and so Festus p. 270, ed. Miill., where 
however the text is somewhat corrupt. The act of returning an 
object under these circumstances was called Redhibitio, and a suit 
brought to compel the seller to receive the object and to return 
the price was Actio Rcdhibitoria , and so Judicium Redhi/orium. Sec 
Digest. XXI. 1, § 18, 48, 54, 60; see also Quintil. I. O. VIII. 3, 
$ 14; Aul. Cell. IV. 2, XVII. 6. Plautus employs the word again, 
Merc. II. iii. 84, Dixit se redhibere si non p/accal, i. c. ‘ lie (the 
purchaser) said that he would return her if she did not give 

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NOTES. III. i. 147 — ii. 141.* 161 

satisfaction.’* In the Vulgate text of Men. V. vii. 49 we find 
redhibebo , but there the true reading is probably reddibo for reddam. 
See Non. s. v. reddibo, pp. 476 and 508. The word is generally used 
in reference to the purchase and sale of slaves, as may be seen by 
consulting the authorities referred to above, and from Cic. de Off. 
III. 23, In mancipio vendcndo dictndane vitia, non ta, quae nisi dixeris, 
redhibeatur mancipium iure civili, sed haec, mendacem esse, aleatorem, 
furacem, ebriosum. 

14 1. pul/iphagus opifex . . . barbarus] i. e. ‘no clumsy porridge- 
eating Roman workman.’ Plautus, when translating or adapting his 
Greek originals, often loves to assume the position of an Athenian 
writer, and to raise a laugh by designating himself and his country- 
men as barbari : of this we have several examples, e. g. As. Prol. 1 1 , 
huic nomen Graece Onagos fabulae, Demophilus scripsil, Marcus vortit 
barbare ; and again, Trin. Prol. 18, Huic nomen Graece est Thesauro 
fabulae, Philemo scripsit, Plautus vortit barbare. In CapL III. i. 32, 
barbarica lege is probably ‘Roman law;’ in the same play, IV. ii. 102, 
Ergasilus swears by Cora, Praeneste, Signia, Frusino, and Alatrium, 
upon which Hegio asks, Quid tu per barbaricas urbes iuras f in Mil. 
II. ii 56, poetae barbaro is Naevius; in Poen. III. ii. 21, and in a 
fragment of the Faeneratrix quoted by Festus s.v. Vapula Papiria , 
p. 372, ed. Mtlll., barbaria is Italy ; in Stich. I. iii. 49, mores barbaros 
are Roman customs. On the other hand, barbarum hospitem, Rud. II. 
vii. 25, is simply ‘a foreign guest;' and there is nothing in the 
phrase or the context which would justify us in asserting that 
barbarico ritu in Cas. III. vi. 19 refers especially to Roman customs. 
In Cure. I. ii. 63, ludii is Ludii, i. e. Lydians, who were not properly 
Greeks, and therefore are termed Ludii barbari. In Bac. I. ii. 13, 
Nimium quam, O Lude, es barbarus Quam ego sapere nimio censui plus 
quam Thalem, I, s/u/tior es barbaro Potitio : barbarus is used in the 
general sense of ‘ illiterate,’ and then barbaro Potitio signifies ‘ that 
ignorant savage, the Roman Potitius.’ The epithet pultiphagus 
(pulhfagus) which is an Sw. Ary. ties down the barbarus to a Roman 
workman, for puls or porridge made of far was the ancient national 
dish among the Roman peasants, as polenta was among the rustic 
Greeks. See Val. Max. II. 5, § 5, and Plin. H. N. XVIII. 8, who, 

* In Forcellini and Freund this is explained to mean, ‘he, the seller, said 
that he would take her back ;’ but this is contrary to the established use of 
the word, and is quite unnecessary, indeed it is inadmissible, for Demea 
replies, nihil istoe opus est Litigare ego nolo voj, — whereas, if the seller had 
agreed to take her back, there was no room for litigation. 


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speaking of far, says, Primus an/iquis Latio eibus, magno argument '0 
in adoreae don is, siculi diximus ; pulte autem non pane vixisse longo 
tempore Romanos manifestum, quoniam el pulmentaria hodieque dicuntur 
. ... Et hodie sacra prisca atque natalium pulte fritilla conficiuntur, 
videnlurque tam puls ignota Graeciae fuissc quam Italiae polenta. 
Respect for a great name must not allow us to hesitate in rejecting 
the explanation of Scaliger, who would make the pultiphagus opifex 
barharus a Carthaginian artificer, because mention is frequently made 
in the Roman writers of carpentry work executed by the Cartha- 
ginians. See notes on Varr. R. R. III. 7. 

IV. i. 5. Exereent sese ad cursuram] i. e. * they train themselves in 
running.’ Cf. Stich. II. i. 34, Simulque ad cursuram meditabor me 
ad ludos Olympiac ; see also As. II. u. 61, I 3 ac. I. i. 34, Merc. I. 10, 
Trin. IV. ii. 164, iii. 9. 

17. Plagigerulus and Plagiger are an. Xry., each being found once 
in Plautus. The latter occurs Pseud. I. ii. 20, Hue adhibete aures, 
quae ego loquar, plagigera genera hominum. Plagipatida, which also 
is a vox Plautina, occurs twice: above, II. i. 9, Vbi sunt isti plagi- 
patidae, ferritribaces viri ; and again, Capt. III. i. 12, Nil morantur 
iam Laconas , imi supselli viros, Plagipatidas, quibus sunt verba sine 
penu et pecunia. 

22. die crastini ] i. e. die crastino, eras. Aulus Gellius, X. 24, 
states that the forms die quarti, quinli, noni, pristini (for pridie), 
crastini, proximi, and the like were employed exclusively by Cicero 
and his predecessors instead of die quarto, quinto, nono, pristine, &c., 
which afterwards came into general use, and that the older combi- 
nation was frequently used by Augustus in his letters. He adds that 
the ancients said indifferently die quarti or quarte, quinti or quinte, the 
words die quarti, &c., being pronounced as one, and regarded as an 
adverb with the second syllable short. He quotes from the Mimiambi 
of Cn. Matius, whom he characterises as ‘ impense doctus,’ two lines 
to prove that die quarto was considered by him equivalent to nudius 
quartus, and arrives at the conclusion that die quarto properly refers 
to past time, and die quarti or quarte to future time. See also 
Macrob. S. I. 4. In Plautus we find, Men. V. ix. 94, Mrs, Vis con- 
clamari auctionem fore? Quodie? Mr. Die septimi. Mrs. Audio fiet 
Menaechmi mane sane septimi ; and Pers. II. iii. 7, Nam her us meus me 
Eretriam misit, domitos boves uti sibi mercarer Dedit argentum : nam 
ibi mercatum dixit esse die septimi. 

24. Postremo .] It is a little difficult to catch the precise force of 
this word in dialogue ; here it seems to be equivalent to ‘ Well, well; 

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NOTES. IV. i. 5— ii. 19. 


be that as it may,’ or ‘ Well, well, at all events,’ generally after a pause 
of reflection before the word postremo, as if the speaker were thinking 
over the position of affairs. So also we may render it in Cist. IV. ii. 
40, Trin. III. i. 12. It may be translated ‘in short’ in As. I. iii. 85, 
Cas. II. vi. 24, III. iv. 19, True. I. ii. 55 (‘to sum the whole’), Trin. 
V. ii. 36, Bac. III. vi. 41 (‘to conclude,’ ‘ to make a long story short’), 
Epid. IV. ii. 21, Trin. III. ii. 36; ‘well, at all events,’ with a 
distinct pause before postremo in Aul. IV. iv. 30, Cist. II. i. 56, Most. 
I. iii. 41; ‘after all’ will give the meaning in Stich. I. i. 52, Merc. 
III. ii. 1 5 ( Verum hercle postremo ut ut est), Epid. V. ii. 43, As. I. i. 35. 
See note of W on Most. IV. i. 24 and his index. 

25. Bucaedae] an air. 'Key. from 60s and caedo. There is no 
doubt, apparendy, as to the reading. Restio is found in this passage 
and in Sueton. Octav. 2. M. Antonius libertinism ei (sc. Octavio') 
proavum exprobrat , restionem , e pago Thurino : ovum argentarium. 
Casaubon, on the above, quotes “ Glossarium : SgomirXinor, resticu- 
larius, restio;" and in Cornelius Fronto De differentiis vocabulorum , 
p. 2201 cd. Putsch., we find “ Restiarium et Restionem. Restiarius qui 
facit : Restio qui vendit.” Restio was the title of one of the mimes 
of Laberius ; thus Aul. Gell. X. 1 7, “ Laberius poeta in mimo quem 
scripsit Restionem and again, XVI. 7, “ Laberius .... in Restione 
calabarriunculos dicit quos vulgus calabarrioncs.” 

35. culcilullam] ‘ a pillow.’ This is the form in which the word 
appears in BCDF (D has culcitulla , F has culcit ullam ), other MSS. 
have cu/cile/lam. It is an <fcr. Ary. Cu/citil/a is quoted by Non. 
(s.v. privum) from Lucil. lib. XXX. Culcitu/ae accedunt privae centon- 
ibus binis. The simple culcita signifies ‘a stuffed cushion’ or ‘bed:’ 
Varro L. L. V. 167, “ Postea quam transienmt ad culcitas, quod in eas 
acus aut tomentum aliudve quid calcabant, ab inculcando culcita dicta;” 
Paul. Diac. p.50, ed. Mtlll.,“ Culcita quod tomento inculcatur appellata." 
In Mil. IV. iv. 42, cu/cilam ob oculos laneam is a ‘woolen pad;’ in 
Cas. II. iv. 28, Stalino exclaims in tragic vein, Si sors autem decollassit, 
gladium faciam culcitam , ‘ my sword shall be my couch,’ ‘ I shall fall 
upon my sword.’ We have culcita plumea in Sen. Epp. 87. 

IV. ii. 19. At enim ne quid captioni mihi sit , si dederim tibii\ So 
below, V. ii. 23 (iii. 23), Enim is/ic captio est; and V. i. 21 (ii. 6), 
Docte atque astute mihi caplandum est cum illoc. Since the verb capere 
is frequently used with reference to the catching of game by the 
hunter or fowler, both the simple verb and its frequentative capto 
and the substantive captio denote ‘ to lie in wait for prey,’ and hence 
‘ to entrap,’ ' to deceive.’ In addition to the examples given above 

Y 2 

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from this play, the following will serve to illustrate the origin of these 
phrases and the manner in which they are used : Capt. III. iv. 1 20, 
Satin me illi hodie scelesti capti ceperunt dolo, where there is a sort of 
pun on capti (prisoners) and ceperunt ; so Bac. V. ii. 88, Lepide ipsi 
hi sunt capti, suis qui filiis fecerc insidias : ite; and Pseud. IV. iii. 11, 
Metuo aulem, ne her us rcdeat etiam dum a foro , Ne capta prat da capti 
praedones fuant ; Epid. III. ii. 23, tarn ipse cautor captus est. Caplo 
signifies ‘to lie in wait for;’ Amph. I. i. 266, Quid me capias, car- 
nufexi i. e. ‘why are you trying to catch me by your questions?’ 
II. ii. 163, Me cap/as, ‘you are trying to ensnare me;’ and in v. 189, 
capto is distinguished from capio, Tu si me impudicitiac capias, non 
poles capere, i. e. ‘if you are endeavouring to lead me into a snare, 
and convict me of unchastity, you are not able to entrap me ;’ and 
in Epid. II. ii. 31, eos captabanl signifies ‘they were watching to 
ensnare them;’ in v.112, Verum, si plus dederis, referam : nihil in ea 
re captio est. So caplio est, True. II. vii. 65, ‘that is not fair;’ and 
As. IV. i. 45, captiones metuis, ‘ you are afraid of having tricks 
played off upon you.’ 

27. Nunc ego me Hlac per posticum ad conger rones confer ami] There 
seems to be no doubt that the word congerrones signifies ‘ jolly com- 
panions,’ ‘mates,’ or something equivalent. It occurs again below, 
V. i. 8, Capio consilium ul senatum congerronum convocem ; and in 
Pers. I. iii. 9, lam pol ilk hie aderit, credo, congerro meus. Non., p. 1 18, 
quotes the line from the Persa and explains it, ‘ ut conlusor meus qui 
easdem exerceat nugas.’ Gerro is found in Heaut. V. iv. 10, gerro, 
iners, fraus, helluo Ganeo, damnosus. Observe also the word gerres 
denoting ‘ sprats’ or some small, worthless fish. The etymology 
is altogether uncertain. Varro, L. L. VII. 55, who also quotes this 
line, says, “ Congerro a gerra et Graecum est, et in Latina cratis.” 
The Greek form with which we are acquainted is yippov, and signifies 
‘ anything made of wicker-work,’ thus answering closely to cratis, but 
the connection with congerro is by no means obvious. Gerrae is used 
several times by Plautus in the sense of ‘ stuff and nonsense,’ ‘ bosh,’ 
‘ trash ;’ e. g. Poen. I. i. 8, Nam tuae b/andiliae mihi sunt, quod did 
sole!, Gerrae germanae, atque edepol \rjpoi \rjptov ; and so gerrae max- 
umae, in Epid. II. ii. 49 : frequently it is simply an exclamation, as in 
Trin. III. iii. 31, and As. III. iii. 10. The word reappears in Ausonius, 
in the preface addressed to Symmachus, prefixed to Eidyll. XI. 
Misi i/aque ad le frivola gerris Siculis vaniora, where by the epithet 
Siculis he evidently alludes to the foolish story told in Paul. Diac. 
(s.v. Gerrae, p. 94, ed. Mitll.) to explain how gerrae, supposing it to 

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NOTES. IV. ii. 27 — iii. 9. 

i fi 5 

be the same with yippa, came to bear the same meaning as nugae. 
The same grammarian supplies us with the word cerrones (p. 40), 
which he interprets by Imes et inepli, repeating the story about the 
Sicilians and the Athenians, and cerrones is evidently the archaic 
form of gerrones, of which congerro is a compound. But a different 
explanation is suggested by Nonius, p. 118, who has “ Gerrae , nugae, 
ineptiae; et sunt gerrae fascini, qui sic in Naxo insula Veneris ab 
incolis appellantur.” In corroboration of this, one of the interpre- 
tations given to the Greek yippov is ulbulov. For the form congerra we 
are referred to Fest. s.v. Sodalis, p. 297, and s.v. Tappulam, p. 363, 
but in both the reading is so doubtful that nothing can be founded 
on it. Fulgentius (p. 566), under the title Quid sit congerro, would 
derive the word from gero, and make it equivalent to ‘robbers,’ 
‘ marauders “ Congcrronts dicuntur qui aliena ad se congregant. 
Vnde et apud Romanos gerrones Brutiani dicti sunt.” But the true 
reading is probably Congtrones, and this word is found in the Vulg. 
text of True. I. ii. 6, Vt seme! adveniunt ad scoria congerones, where 
* thieves ’ is an appropriate translation. 

IV. iii. 9. Puere, nimium dclicatus «] i. e. ‘ you are a great joker,’ 
at least this seems to be the meaning, although this force of 
dclicatus has been little noticed. We find however the phrase 
ddicias facere, in the sense of ‘ to jest,’ * to turn into ridicule,’ in 
several passages of Plautus, e. g. Poen. I. ii. 67, A. Milphio, heus, 
Milphio, ubi es i M. Assam apud fe, eccum. A. At ego clixum volo. 
M. Enimvero, here,facis ddicias, and again v. 83; so Cas. III. i. 14, 
S. Fac habeant linguam tuae aedes. A. Quid ita? S. Quom veniam, 
vocenl. A. Attatae, caedundus tu homo es : nimias ddicias facis. 
S. Quid me amare refer t , nisi sim doctus et dicax nimis ; and Men. II. 
iii. 30, which is exactly parallel to the passage in the Most., M. Vbi 
tu hunc hominem novisti? E. Ibidem, ubi hie me iam diu, In Epidamno. 
M. In Epidamno ? qui hue in hanc urbem pedem A T isi hodie, numquam 
intro tetulit. E. Eia, ddicias facis, Mi Menaechmc. In Rud. II. v. 8, 
where Sceparnio thinks that Ampelisca has hidden herself, he ex- 
claims, Sed ubi tu es, delicata ? Cape aquam hanc sis. Vbi es ? i. e. 
‘ where are you with your tricks ? ’ and this may be the meaning of 
dclicatus in Mil. IV. i. 37, Pr. Placet, uti dicis. Sed, ne istanc 
amittam et haec mutet fidem Vide modo. Pa. Vah dclicatus l quae te tam- 
quam oculos amel / where however I would rather give the meaning 
‘fanciful,’ ‘over scrupulous,’ to dclicatus . In Men. I. ii. 10, Nimium 
ego te habui delicatam, the meaning must be ‘ I have been too in- 
dulgent,’ ‘have humoured you too much.' 

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27. Vide , sis, tie forte ad merendam quopiam devor/eris.'] The 
grammarians who explain this word seem to have relied more on 
what they believed to be its etymology than upon passages to which 
they could refer. Thus Paul. Diac. p. 123, ed. Mull., “ Merendam an- 
tiqui dicebant pro prandio, quod medio die caperetur and in p. 59 
we read, “ Cyprio bovi merendam Ennius sotadico versu quum dixit, 
sigmficavit id, quod solet fieri in insula Cypro, in qua boves humano 
stercore pascuntur.” Non. Marcell. p. 28, “ Merenda dicitur cibus post 
meridiem qui datur. Afranius, Fratris : Interim Merendam occurro : 
ad cenam cum veni iuvat.” Isidor. XX. 2, § 12, “ Merenda est cibus, qui 
declinante die sumitur, quasi post meridiem edenda et proxima cenae. 
Vnde et Antecenia a quibusdam vocantur. Item Merendare quasi 
medio die edere.” Again, XX. 3, § 3, “Merum dicimus, cum vinum 
purum significamus. Nam merum dicimus quidquid purum atque sin- 
cerum est, sicut et aquam meram, nulli utique rei admixtam. Hinc et 
Merenda , quod antiquitus id temporis pueris operariis quibus panis 
merus dabatur aut quod meridicnt eodem tempore, id est soli ac sepa- 
rating non utique in prandio aut in cena ad unum mensam. Inde 
credimus etiam illud tempus, quod post medium diem est, meridiem 
appellari, quod purum sit.” Calpurnius Siculus is the only writer 
who speaks distinctly, and his evidence cannot carry much weight, 
as we know not the period to which he belongs, Eel. V. 60, Verum 
ubi declivi iam nona tcpescere sole Incipiel, seraeque videbitur hora 
merendae, Rursus pasce greges et opacos desere lucos. In Seneca Controv. 
V. 33 > some copies have the word merendarios, which must mean 
‘ beggars who went about collecting scraps,’ but others read merce- 
naries. In Plautus we should conclude that the merenda was taken 
about the time of or soon after the prandium, as Simo a short way 
before speaks of having finished his prandium. 

43. prae quam\ i. e. * in comparison with and so below, V. ii. 25 
(iii. 25), prae quam quibus modis me ludificatus est; and so Amph. 
II. ii. 3, Aul. III. v. 33, with precisely the same meaning. In 
Merc. Frol. 23 the use is, at first sight, different; Nec pol profecto 
quisquam sine grandi male, Praequam res patitur , studuit elegantiae, 
i. e. ‘to a greater extent than is compatible with his means,' which 
means, when a man indulges in show or luxury too great ‘ when 
compared with’ or ‘in comparison with his means.’ The combi- 
nation prae quod is found in Stich. II. ii. 38, I mo res omnes relictas 
habco prae quod tu velis, * no, no, I consider all things as of secondary 
importance in comparison with what you may wish so also prae ul, 
Amph. I. i. 218, 5 . Perii. M. Parum etiam, prae ut futurtim est 

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NOTES. IV. iii. 27—44. 


praedicas, i. e. ‘ what you say is a trifle, in comparison with what will 
befall you;’ so Men. II. iii. 25, with an aposiopesis, Dixin ego istaec 
so/ere fieri ? folia nunc cadunt Prae ut si triduom hoc hie crimus, turn 
arbores in tc cadent , i. e. ‘ the leaves are falling now, but that is a 
trifle in comparison with what will happen if we shall remain here 
for the next three days, for then the trees themselves will fall upon 
you so Men. V. v. 33, Imo modcstior nunc quidem esi dc verbis, praeut 
dudum fuit ; and Merc. II. iv. 2, Pen/heum diripuisse aiunt Bacchas, 
nugas maxumas Fuisse credo, praeut quo pacto ego divorsus distrahor. 
In Epid. III. iv. 85 prae is construed regularly with the ablative of 
a pronoun, Ac me minor is facio* prae i/lo, qui omnium Legum atque 
iurium fic/or, conditor, cluet. 

- prae quam alios dapsiles sumptus facit. ] Although dapsiles appears 
under a corrupt form in BCD,+ it is found elsewhere in Plautus in 
its proper shape, e. g. Pseud. I. iv. 3, Quid nunc aclurus, f>ostquam 
heri/i filio Largitus dictis dapsitis ? ubi sunt ea ? although the passage 
is by no means free from difficulty ; and again, in the same play, 
V. i. 21, Vnguenta atque odores, lemniscos, corollas dari dapsiles ; again, 
in True. I. i. 34, Aut vasum aenum aliquod, aul leclus dapsitis, the 
reading is not doubtful, although some MSS. have laplilis or lep/ilis ; 
and the word occurs again, Aul. II. i. 45, Jslas magnas factiones, 
animos, doles dapsiles. Dapsilis is found also in Columella III. 2, $ 27, 
Spionia (a kind of vine) dapsilis musto ; and IV. 27, § 6, dapsili 
provenJu fatigata vitis ; and also in Apuleius. The adverbial forms 
dapsile, dapsilius, dapsiliter, are quoted by the grammarians from 
Pomponius, Lucilius, and Naevius, and of these dapsile reappears in 
Suet. Vesp. 19. 

44. unus islic servos esl sacerrumus Tranio ] i. e. ‘a cursed scoun- 
drel.’ The force of sacer as here employed is distinctly explained by 
Festus p. 318, ed. Mttll., "■Homo sacer is est quern populus iudicavit 
ob maleficium, neque fas est eum immolari, sed, qui occidit, parricidi 
non damnatur, nam lege tribunicia prima cavetur si quis eum qui eo 
plebi scito sacer sit occiderit, parricida ne sit, ex quo quivis homo 
malus atque improbus sacer appellari solet.” The phrase is given more 
fully in the fragment of a law ascribed to Numa, quoted by Paul. 
Diac, s.v. Aliula p. 6, ed. Mttll., Si quisquam aliuta (i. e. ali/er) faxil, 
ipsos Iovi sacer esto; and so Liv. III. 55, in the law passed B.C. 449 
immediately after the abdication of Appius and his colleagues it was 
enacted, Vt qui tribunis plebis, aedilibus, iudicibus, decemviri's nocuissct, 

* W. reads factum. 

t dapsitties BaC, dapsilties Bb, dapsililes D. 

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1 68 


eius caput Iovi sacrum esset : familia ad acdem Cererts, Liberi , Liber- 
aeque, venum irct, on which Livy remarks, Hoc lege iuris interpretes 
negant quemquam sacrosanctum esse, sed eum qui eorum cuiquam nocuerit 
sacrum sanciri. See also Law of XII. Tables quoted by Serv. ad 
Virg. Ain. VI. 609, and Hor. S. II. iii. 18 1, is intestabilis et sacer esto. 
The theory seems to have been that any man who was solemnly made 
over and devoted to a God was thereby placed beyond the pale of 
human sympathy and protection. It is commonly asserted that an 
individual under these circumstances was sacer dis inferis, but in both 
quotations given above where a God is named it is Iupiter. See 
Macrob. S. III. 7. Sacer in the general sense of ‘ worthless,’ 1 good- 
for-nothing,’ ‘ vile,’ was originally, as might be expected, applied to 
persons only, and this is the case uniformly in Plautus and the earliest 
writers (Bac. IV. vi. 14, Poen. Prol. 90, Rud. I. ii. 69), but Catullus 
applies the epithet to a book, XIV. 1 2, Di magni, horribilem et sacrum 
libellum, and to a rank smell, LXXI. 1, Si quoi, Virro, bono sacer 
alarum obstitit hircus, while the auri sacra fames of Virgil (An. III. 
57) has passed into a proverb. With regard to the use of unus in 
the line before us we have an exact parallel in True. II. i. 39, Sed est 
huic unus servos vio/en/issumus. 

45. is vel Herculi conterere quae stum possiet. ] The wealth of 

Hercules was proverbial among the Romans. 1. He was regarded 
as the guardian of hidden treasures, and those who discovered 
such hoards were wont to ascribe their good fortune to the favour 
of the God; thus Hor. S. II. vi. to, O si urnam argenti fors quae 
mihi monstrel, ul illi Thesauro invento qui mercenarius agrum Ilium 
ipsum mercatus aravit, dives amico Hercule ; and Pers. S. II. 10, 0 
si Sub rastro crepel argenti mihi seria, dextro Hercule. Indeed it 
would appear that, according to popular belief, Hercules was looked 
upon in the same light as those spirits who in Eastern and Northern 
mythology are supposed to dwell beneath the earth, brooding over 
and watching hidden gold; thus Acron explains the allusion in 
Horace, Ideo quia thesauris praeesl, et sunt qui eundem Incubonem esse 
velint, to which we may add the following curious notice in the tract 
known to writers on Roman topography as Curiosum Vrbis Romae.* 
Among the remarkable objects in the Regio XIV, the Transtiberina, 

* The title at full length as it appears in the Vatican MS. is —Incipit 
Curiosum urbis Romae Regionum XIIII cum Brebiariis suis. It will be found 
in Muratori, Thes. Inscrip. T. IV., and is given at the end of the first 
volume of Becker’s Handbuch der Romischen Altherthiimer. See also 
Bunsen, Beschrcibung der S. R. Tom. I. p. 175. It probably belongs to 
the early part of the fourth century. 

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NOTES. IV. iii. 45. 


is placed Herculem sub terram mediant cubankm : sub quern plurimum 
aurum positum esi. 2. But the [tower of the God was by no means 
restricted within the narrow limits indicated above, for we learn from 
Diodorus Siculus and Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who enter into 
minute details, that he was worshipped generally as the bestower of 
wealth, and that those who had accumulated great riches w’ere wont, 
in gratitude or in the fulfilment of a vow, to dedicate to him a tithe 
of all their possessions. It will be seen from the quotations given at 
length below, that both authors carry back the origin of this practice 
to a remote mythical epoch — to the period when Hercules passed 
over into Italy from Spain — and both distinctly state that it still 
prevailed when they wrote. The former states specifically that 
Lucullus, having calculated the amount of his fortune, consecrated 
a tithe of the whole to Hercules, and expended the amount in a long 
series of costly banquets, and this statement is corroborated by 
Plutarch, w'ho relates the same of Sulla and of Crassus, and proposes 
as the subject of one of his Roman Problems (15), Am «' Tip 'HpaieXti 
n«XXoi t£i/ it\uvaiav iftfKaTfvov rat obaias ; These passages are so im- 
portant that they deserve to be quoted. After having narrated the 
hospitable reception of Hercules by the aborigines who had a town 
upon the Palatine, Diodorus proceeds (IV. 21), 'o S' olp 'HpaxXijt 

dnobtfitptpcs rrjp eCpotap To)*' to HaXarioii aittourrtop, npotintp avrols t on 
ptra Tt)v tavrov ptrdaraaip tit Stavt, rois evfcapipois inStKiirivouv ’H/xncXft 
rijp ovatap , avp^i]atTai run fiuiv titSaipopiartpop i£ttp. & ml avpifitj yard 
root vot tpop xfjovovs Sutptipai pi\pt rdtp md* rjpas xpbrtop. noXKobs yap 
'Ptopaitop, oil pdvop tup avppirpovt niiaias KtKnjptptop, aXAa Ktu tup prya- 
\on\ovTtop rtpdt, tv£apipovs iyStKartvatip 'HpaxXfZ, nil ptra rain a yipopipovt 
ivbaipovas, itcStKart boat rue oiy (Tins' ovaut TnXdvrtov TtTpaKiaxiXiup. Atii- 
koXAov ybp a tup Kaff avritv 'Ptapaiotp cr^f Xoy ti nXovaiurarot 2)p, Stanprjad- 
ptpot t ’/ v ISiav ova tap, KariOvat rip Otui naoap rrjp doca-nfi*, ciy toxins notup 
n 1 in^dv mi noXvSandpovt. KartOKtvaaap Si ml Ptopaioi rovru Tip Of a napit 
top Ttfftptp It pop d^toAoyop, ip to popifavat avprtXtip rat «’* rijt StKarr/f 

Bvaias — where, it must be remarked, Diodorus speaks of facts within 
his own knowledge and observation. In like manner Dionysius (A. R. 
I. 40) after recounting the legend of the erection of an altar in honour 
of Hercules by Evander and of the sacrifice of a tithe of his spoils by 
the hero himself, concludes with these words: ‘O Si papas, i<ji oJ rat 
St Karas ini&vatv 'HpaxXrjs, koXiitoi pip bird 'Papaimp M t'y tarns, tan Si 
Boapiat Xtyoptprjs dyopas nXipriov, aytortvopevot ti xat nr dXXos vxu rap 
iirix<t>pti)P. opKOt Tt yap in aiera xai avebrjKai rois PovXopipots fftpaias Tt 
Stanpdrrtadat, mi Stuartvatis xprjpdrap yipttprai av^pat tor f li^iis. Tp 


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Iu'vtoi KaraVKfvJ] iro\v rrjf 6 o(t)f ccrrl KaraSelorepos. So tOO Plutarch, 
\ it. Sullae, C. 35 : f Ai roOvotv r rjs ovtriae arratrrjs 6 ZuXXar rm 'HpaxXrt 

deKurtjy, landaus inmtiro r^j* brjpa voXvreXut, cat roaovro y nffiiTTrj rjP 17 
napaoKtvl) rrjs xprlnt, Start napnXrjOrj Kaff bcatmjy rjpipav us rur norapdv 
Stfta parreurOat, irivurbai S' oivov Iratv TetrtrapaKOvra, *ai naKaidrtpov. And 
he goes on to tell how this banquet lasted for many days. The same 
author again, Vit. Crassi, c. 12, when speaking of the discord between 
Pompeius and Crassus in their first consulship, says that they effected 
nothing worth notice. . . . nXrjv OTt Kpdaaos 'HptutXfi ptyaXrjv dvatar 
rtoijjaaptvos, utrriairt ror tij/iov otto pvpiuv Tpant(iiy, >cai oirov tptrprprtp tit 

Tplprjvov. The form in which these offerings were presented — that of 
costly public banquets — while it exhibited the piety of the donors in 
a shape eminently calculated to extend their popularity, probably 
had some reference to the gluttony ascribed to this deity by the 
Greeks, under the epithet poirfxiyac. (See Preller H. M. p. 653.) The 
appropriate term for a feast of this description appears to have been 
polluctum , a word to which we have already referred when discussing 
pollucibiliter (I. i. 23). 3. The following passages in Plautus refer to 

the practice of offering tithes to Hercules: Stich. I. iii. 80, Haec 
venisse iarn opus est, quantum potest , Vti decumam partem Hcrculi 
poltuceam; Bac. IV. iv. 15, Sed lube t scire, quantum aurum hertis sibi 
dempsit, et quid suo reddidit patri. Si frugi est, Herculem fecit ex 
patre : decumam partem ei Dedit, sibi novem apslulit ; True. II. viL 10, 
Nam iam de hoc opsonio de mina una deminui Modo quinque numos : * 
mi hi detraxi partem Herculaneam ; Stich. II. ii. 62, non vendo logos, 
lam non facio auc/ionem : mihi op/igit heredilas. Malcvoli perquisi/ores 
auctionum perierint: Hercules, decumam esse adauc/am, tibi quam vovi, 
gratulor ; and to these we may add an inscription found near 
Capua:— P. Ateivs. P. L. Reoillvs . Fecit . Sibi . Et . P. Ateio . 
P. L. Salvio . Patron . Pomario . Is. Ter. Hercvli . Decvmam . 
Fecit. Mommsen n. 3578. 

47. amburel miser o ei corculum corbuncu/us. ] Corcu/um occurs in 
Cas. II. vi. 9, C. . . . stimulus ego nunc sum tibi : Fodico corculum : 
adsultascit iam ex metu ; and again, IV. iv. 14, meum corculum, mel- 
liculum, Vercu/um, where it is a term of endearment equivalent to 
‘ sweetheart.' 

IV. iv. 10. lae capiti tuo !\ i. e. ‘ confound you and your jokes!’ 
This is a formula employed when a speaker feels disgusted by being 
made the object of an ill-timed jest. So Vae ae/a/i tune, Capt. IV. 

* Therefore the coin here spoken of must have been a didreicbm. 

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NOTES. IV. iii. 47— V. i. 4. 

17 ' 

ii. 105, Stich. IV. ii. 14 ; Vae capiti tuo , Amph. II. ii. 109, Cure. II. iii. 
35, Men. III. ii. 47, Mil. II. iii. 55; Vae tibi \ Epid. I. i. 26, III. ii. 12, 
As. II. ii. 40, Merc. I. 49; Vae tibi nugator, Mil. IV. ii. 86; Vae capiti 
atque aetati tuae, Rud. II. iii. 44. But vae tibi is employed also' in 
the sense of ‘ confound you ! ’ where there is no question of a jest, 
e. g. Cas. I. 27, III. v. 12, True. II. ii. 2; so Vae i/li, Pers. II. iii. 18; 
to indicate real sorrow, as vae misero mihi, Capt. V. i. 25, True. II. iii. 
21 ; vae miserae mihi, Amph. V. i. 5 ; Vae mihi (terror), v. 28; Vae 
iltis virgis miseris (humorous), Capt. III. iv. 1 1 7 ; Vae misero illi, 
IV. ii. 26. 

V. i. 1. Qui homo timidus erit in rebus dubiis, nauci non erit ; Atque 
equidem, quid id esse dicam verbum nauci, nescio. ] The ignorance of 
Tranio with regard to the real meaning of the word Naucus seems to 
have been shared by the Roman philologists: thus Fest. s.v., p. 166, 
ed. MlllL, “ Naucum ait Ateius Philologus poni pro nugis. Cincius, 
quod in oleae nucis quod intus sit.* Aelius Stilo, omnium rerum puta- 
men. Glossematorum autem scriptores fabae grani quod haereat in 
fabulo. Quidam ex Graeco, quod sit »al eat of^l, levem hominem 
significari. Quidam nucis iuglandis, quam Verrius iuglandamf vocat, 
medium velut dissepimentum.” Festus then quotes the latter of the 
two lines of our text, and other passages from Plautus, Naevius, and 
Ennius. There are one or two other examples of the word in 
Plautus, and one in the line quoted by Cicero from Ennius (De 
Divin. I. 58), Non nauci facio Marsum augur cm. Nauci is found in 
the genitive only, accompanied by non, except in the line quoted by 
Festus from Naevius, in which nauci occurs without the negative. 

4. A bit' ilia per angiportum ad hortum nostrum c/ancu/um .] Angi- 
portus or Angiportum was a narrow lane or passage which separated 
two adjacent houses or blocks of building (insulae), analogous to 
what is termed a close in the older portions of Scottish towns. It is 
thus explained in Paul. Diac. p. 17, ed. Mull.: “ Angiportus e6t iter 
compendiarium in oppido, eo quod sit angustus portus, id est, aditus ad 
portum.” Varro is less distinct, and while he proposes two etymo- 
logies, seems to prefer that which is erroneous: thus L. L. V. § 145, 
ed. Mull., “ Angiportum sive quod id angustum, sivc ab agendo et 
portu;” and again, VI. § 41, “Qua vix agi potest, bine angiportum." 
It must be observed that according to the express testimony of 
Festus (p. 233) portus was anciently used as synonymous with domus ; 
"Portum in XII. pro domo positum omnes fere conscntiunt” (see above 

* M iill. corrects quod oleae nucisque intus sit. 
t In the text iitgulandam, corrected by Mull, iuglandam. 

Z 2 

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note on III. i. 55) ; and so Donat, ad Terent. Adel. IV. ii. 39,' after 
giving one absurd etymology (quasi anguiportus, i.e. angusta et curva 
via), goes on, “Alii, quod inter portus sit locus angustus, hoc est inter 
domos. Nam domos, vel portus vel insulas veteres dixerunt.” 

4, 5. If the reading be correct, these lines contain an anacoluthon, 
indicating the hurry and confusion of the narrator. 

V. ii. 6. Docle atque astute mihi captandum est cum ///or] i. e. ‘I 
must skilfully and craftily lay a trap to ensnare him.’ The construc- 
tion mihi captandum est cum illoc is remarkable. On the force of 
capto see note on IV. ii. 19. 

23. servos pollicitus est dare Suos mihi omnes quacstioni. Tit. JVu- 
gas l numquam cdepol dabit. T11. Dat profecloi\ Cf. v. 29, Imo hoc 
primum volo Quacstioni accipere servos. 

28. Vel hominem iubc aedis mancupio poscere .] Since homincm in 
v. 26 refers to Simo, it might appear harsh to make homincm in this 
line refer to Philolaches, and to translate ‘ order Philolaches to de- 
mand;’ but we may regard hominem aedis as the double accusative 
after poscere, ‘ order (your son) to make a demand upon the man 
(Simo) for the house.’ The emendation posci, proposed by Dousa 
and adopted by Uothe and Weise, is not sanctioned by any MS., and 
is unnecessary. In any case the meaning of the passage is ‘ make 
a demand to have the house legally conveyed under a clear title.’ 
Plautus here, as in many other places, altogether forgets that a Greek 
is speaking who would not employ the technical phrases of Roman 
law. Since houses were Res Mancupi, the Dominium or absolute right 
of property could in ancient times be conveyed to a purchaser by the 
ceremony of Mancupatio only, and hence the phrases mancupio pro- 
mitttre, dare mancupio, accipere mancupio, poscere mancupio. There 
is a good illustration in Trin. II. iv. 19, Minas quadragin/a accepisti 
a Collide, Et Me aedes aps te accepit mancupio. Slaves also were Res 
Mancupi, and when a slave was made over to a new master by 
mancupatio it was held as a guarantee that the seller possessed do- 
minium, or absolute right of property in the slave, and if, under any 
circumstances, it afterwards turned out that he did not really possess 
any such right, then he was bound to reimburse the purchaser.* If 
however the slave was sold without mancupatio, then the buyer made 
the purchase suo pericu/o, at his own risk, and had no recourse upon 
the seller. Thus in the Persa, where the plot turns upon the fraudulent 

* Hence Mancrpi signifies one who becomes security, Cure. IV. ii. 29, 
Ego maoetpem te nibil moror nee lenotiem ahum quemquam. 

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NOTES. V. i. 4. 5 — ii: 32. 


sale of a free Greek damsel to a leno under the pretext that she 
had been kidnapped and brought from the most remote regions of 
Arabia, the terms on which she is offered for sale expressly exclude 
mancupatio (IV. iii. 55), Ac suo periclo it emat, qui earn mcrcabitur, 
Mancupio tuque promitUt, tuque quisquam dabit, and therefore Dor- 
dalus at first objects to the proposal, Nihil mihi opus est Litibus neque 
iricis : quamobrem ego argentum numtrem foras f Nisi manrupio accipio, 
quid eo mihi opus mercimonio ? but when he is at last persuaded he is 
reminded (iv. 40), Prius dico hanc mancupio nemo tibi dabit , and after 
the price has been settled, v. 113, Tuo periculo sexaginia haec datur 
argenti minis ; and when eventually the trick is disclosed he is obliged 
to acquiesce in the loss of his money, glad to escape a prosecution 
for trafficking in free maidens. So in Merc. II. iii. 1 1 2, Charinus en- 
deavours to avoid selling Pasicompsa by urging that he has no legal 
title, Non ego illam mancupio accepi. See Cure. IV. ii. 8, V. ii. 19; 
Bac. I. i. 59 tibi me emancupo , ‘ I make myself over to you absolutely 
and so Mil. I. 23. 

32. Hie ego tibi praesidebo : ne interbitat quaestio ] i. e. ‘lest the 
examination should fall through,’ i. e. ‘should fail,’ where interbitat 
is equivalent to intereat. The simple verb bi/o, which seems to have 
the same force as eo, both as a simple verb and in composition, is 
found once or twice in Plautus. Thus Cure. I. ii. 51, Qui me in terra 
aeque fortunatus erit, si ilia ad me bitet; and Merc. II. iii. 127, Ad 
portum ne bitas, dico iam tibi. C. Auscu/tabilur. Bitat in Mil. IV. 

11. 7 is a conj. emend.; so also bitere in Pseud. I. iii. 23. We find 
also several compounds ; Capt. II. iii. 20, Si non rebltas hue, ut vi- 
ginti minus Dem pro te (rebilas =z redeas) ; III. iv. 72, Namque edepot si 
adbites propius os denasabit tibi (adbites=adibis); Rud. II. vi. 11, Vtinam 
te prius quam oath's vidissem meis, Mato cruciatu in Siciliam ptr bi- 
te res (i. e. perires) ; Stich. IV. ii. 28, Non it, non it, quia tanto opere 
sutides ne ebitat, where e bitat would be admissible; Pseud. III. i. 

12, Eum eras cruciatu maxumo per bitere (per bitere =perilurum esse); 
Poen. V. iii. 44, A. Quid, si earn us Hits otrviam ? H. At nc inter vias 
Praeterbitamus, metuo, where pralerbi/amus would be admissible. In 
all the above passages except two the penultimate of bito must be 
long ; in the two excepted the long quantity is equally admissible, 
and therefore there can be no doubt as to the quantity.* Nonius, 

* There is yet another example in Plautus, viz. abitat, which is quoted 
by Freund as ablto: the line is in Rud. III. iv. 72, Hunc quoque adser-va 
tpsum, ne quo abitat, nam promisimut, which is a Troth. Tetr. Cat., and 
scansion demands that we should pronounce abitat. 

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p. 77, presents the words under the form of beto : u Belert, id est, 
ire:” and quotes from Varro, muliercm foras betere iussit ; and from 
Pacuvius, si ire conor , prohibet betere. There is a second quotation 
from Pacuvius, but it is so corrupt as not to be available. Etymo- 
logists would connect bito or beto with /3 ijfu (iaivw, etc. 

37. Nescis quam meticulosa res si/ ire ad iudicemi\ Me/iculosus, 
1 full of fear,’ from me/us. The word is found again in Amph. I. i. 
137, Nutlus est hoc me/iculosus aeque ; and reappears in the writings 
of Apuleius Florid. I. 2, § 2. Observe that in the Most, the word 
signifies ‘ causing fear,' in the Amph. 1 feeling fear,’ in Apuleius it 
is applied as an epithet of the hare ( leporem meticulosum). 

V. iii. 1. Vbi somnum sepelivi omnem atque obdormivi crapulam. ] 
Crapula , which is identical with the Greek tpaardXri, signifies properly 
the headache and nausea which follow a drunken debauch. Plautus 
employs it again in Pseud. V. i. 35 and in Rud. II. vii. 28 : in the 
latter passage we read, Quin abeo hinc in Veneris fanum , ut edormiscam 
hanc crapulam, whence many edd. substitute edormivi for obdormivi in 
our text. Crapula is found also in Cicero, Livy, and Pliny. The 
adjective crapularius appears in Stich. I. iii. 74, Vel uncliones Graecas 
sudatorias Vendo, vel alias malacas crapularias : * crapulentus and 
crapu/osus occur in late writers only. 

9. De cena facio gratiam ] L e. ‘ thank you, excuse me.’ This was 
the formula when a person wished politely to decline an invitation, 
and is exactly represented by the French je vous remercie and the 
Italian grazia, which, when used in reply to an offer or invitation, 
always signify ‘ no, I thank you.’ The phrase is varied in Men. II. 
iii. 36, E. Eamus intro, ut prandeamus. M. Bene vocas : tarn gratia 
est, i. e. ‘you are very kind’ — ‘(I must decline, but) I am obliged to 
you all the same;’ and so again in Stich. III. ii. 17, Cenabis apud me, 
quoniam salvos advent's. E. Vocata est opera nunc quidem : tarn gratia 
est , ‘ I am engaged, but I am obliged to you all the same;’ in Trin. 
II. ii. 14, Hi mores maiorum laudant, Eosdem lululant, quos collaudant, 
hisce ego te artibus gratiam Facio, neu colas, neu imbuas ingenium : 
i. e. ‘ from following such practices I excuse you.’ 

23. enim is/ic captio est. ] Enim here indicates an aposiopesis. 

We must supply, ‘ no, I thank you, for there is fraud in that pro- 
posal of yours.’ The same words occur in the same sense in Epid. 
V. ii. 36. For the word Captio see note on IV. ii. 19. 

♦ This at least is the reading of the Ambrosian Palimpsest. BCD have 
•vel alias mala castra pullarias. 

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NOTES. V. ii. 37-iii. 47. 


36. illanc aetatem] i. e. ‘ youth so Bac. III. iii. 5, Minus mirandum 
es/, illaec atlas si quid illorum facit, Quam si non facia t : feci ego istaec 
itidem in adu/cscenlia. 

41. neque quit quam succenseo] ‘nor do I retain any lurking grudge 
on any account;’ so Bac. III. iv. 27, Eadem exorabo,Chrusa/o causa mea 
Pater ne noceat, neu quid ei succenseat; and in IV. iv. 39 Mncsilochus 
assures Chrysalus that he had prevailed upon his father . . . Mi ne 
noceat, neu quid ob earn rem succenseat. The full construction is suc- 
censere alicui aliquid or ob aliquant rem, but it is frequently used with 
one case only, or without a case, and frequently signifies simply ‘ to 
be angry.’ Thus As. I. ii. 20, II. ii. 87, 105, iv. 53 ; Bac. III. vi. 4 ; 
Capt. III. v. ii, 22, V. i. 23; Men. V. vii. 58; Merc. II. ii. 46, V. iii. 
15, iv. 52; Mil. III. i. 102 ; Pers. III. iii. 26; Poen. I. ii. 157; Pseud. 
I- v. 56, 57 ; Stich. IV. ii. 20; Trin. V. ii. 40, 42, 60; True. V. 6. 

47. Tranioni remitte, quaeso, bam: noxiam.] Cf. Poen. I. ii. 191, 
Verum etiam tibi banc amittam noxiam unam, Agorastocles, Non sum 

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I . — A DEO. 

This word, as exhibited in some of our best dictionaries, presents 
a somewhat formidable aspect. In that of Freund, for example, what 
with classifications and divisions and subdivisions, the meanings are 
distributed under seventeen or eighteen heads, and no pains have 
been taken to connect them by a common bond. Let us endeavour 
to simplify the matter. 

It cannot reasonably be doubted that adeo is compounded of ad 
and eo. The Roman grammarians, while admitting this etymology, 
were embarrassed by the consideration that ad, a preposition govern- 
ing the accusative, should be followed by an ablative to. Thus Paulus 
Diaconus s. v., p. 19, ed. Milll., while distinguishing adeo the verb from 
adeo the adverb, remarks with regard to the latter — “ idem (significat) 
quod usque eo, non quidem secundum rationem, quia ad praepositio 
accusativis accommodata est, sed vetusta quadam loquendi consuetu- 
dine” — a practice, as Muller observes, similar to that which prevails in 
the words praeterca, proptereA, hacpropter, quoad, adquo* &c. Avoiding 
all etymological speculations as to the form eo, but taking it for 
granted that adeo is made up of ad and eo, it will be necessary, in the 
first place, to examine the meanings of eo. These, although at first 
sight various, may all be reduced to two. 

I. Eo signifying ‘ to that.’ 

II. Eo signifying ‘by that.’ 

I. Eo signifying ‘ to that’ is used directly with reference to place 
in such phrases as eo se recipere coeperunt, i. e. ‘ they began to betake 
themselves thither (to that place) and so eo pervenire, eo reverii, &c. 
— it is used with reference to time in eo usque me vivere vullis donee ; 
cone usque dum ea nascantur ad Casilinum sessurus sum — it is used 

* See Non. Marc. s. v. adquo, p. 76. 
a a 

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generally in to aeeessit, ‘ to that was added.' So eodem may mean 
‘ to the same place’ and ‘ to the same person.’ 

Since to may signify ‘ to that place,’ the place may, in certain 
cases, he regarded as the extreme point or limit of progression, and 
hence, when followed by ut, it frequently signifies ‘ to that (such a) 
point,’ ‘to that (such a) pitch,’ ‘to that (such an) extent,’ &c., as in 
the phrases, urbs to emit ut magnitudine /abort/ sua, ‘ the city has 
increased to that point,’ or ‘ to such an extent ;’ to rent adducam ut, 
&c., ‘ I will bring the matter to that (such a) point ;’ to furoris 
processit, ‘ he advanced to that point (such a pitch) of phrenzy,’ &c. 

From the idea of moving or travelling towards a certain place or 
point, the transition is easy to the notion of ‘ keeping an object in 
view.’ Hence, figuratively, to denotes the direction in which the 
thoughts or actions move, and hence ‘ a purpose, ‘ an intention,’ ‘ a 
design,’ being in this case followed by quo, ut, ne, quin, or the like. 
This is clearly brought out in the expressions — to scripsi quo plus 
auctoritatis haherem — Ultras ad te eo niisi ut — to te non interpellat'd 
ne — non eo hoe dieo quin quae tu vis ego velim el faciam lubens. So 
todem signifies ‘to the same purpose’ in the phrase todem pertinere. 

II. Eo signifying ‘ by that.’ When we read in Livy — Nocte el mitte- 
bantur et perveniebant : eo eustodias hostium fallcbant — to signifies ‘by 
that,’ ‘ by that mode of procedure,’ ‘ by doing that,’ and it serves to 
explain a previous statement. Hence to is frequently equivalent to 
‘ thus ’ or hoe modo, * for this reason,’ ‘ therefore ;’ and when Cicero 
says, /rater es, eo vereor, eo is explanatory, and means ‘ for that 
reason,’ ‘ therefore ;’ and again, dederam triduo ante literas ad te, to 
tro brevior. So eo when joined with a comparative signifies ‘ by that ’ 
in the sense of tanto — eo gravior est dolor, quo culpa maior — and so 
eo magis, eo minus, ‘ by that (so much) the more,’ ‘ by that (so much) 
the less.’ 

This being premised with regard to eo, it will be found, as might 
have been expected, that adeo resembles it very closely in meaning, 
indeed, in many cases, to might be substituted for adeo and vice versa, 
without the sense being perceptibly changed. The different meanings 
of adeo may be ranged under three heads. 

I. Adeo equivalent to praeterea, and signifying simply ‘in addition 
to that.' 

II. Adeo signifying ‘up to that point.’ 

III. Adeo signifying ‘thus,’ ‘in that way,’ ‘therefore.’ 

We shall select some of the most striking examples of the 
multifarious meanings ascribed by Freund and others to adeo, and 

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endeavour to show that the whole can, without violence, be arranged 
under one or other of the above three heads. 

I. Adeo equivalent to ad ea, praeterea, ‘in addition,' ‘besides,’ 
‘moreover,’ ‘also.’* Rud. IV. iv. 122, Qui te Di omnes perdant, qui 
me hodie oculis vidisti tuis , Meque adeo scelestum qui non circumspexi 
centies, i. e. ‘and me also;’ Amph. II. ii. 44, Amphitruo uxorem 
salulat laetus speratam suam, Quam omnium Thebis vir unam esse 
optumam diiudicat , Quamquc adco civet Thebani vcro rumificanl pro- 
bam, i. e. ‘and whom the citizens of Thebes also;’ Eun. I. ii. 124, El 
quidquid huius feei , causa virginis Feci : turn me eius spero fralrem 
propemodum lam repperisse, adulescen/em adco nobi/em, i. e. ‘ for I 
hope that I have discovered her brother, a young man moreover of 
good family;’ Andr. III. iii. 47, Tuie adco iam eius verba audies, 
‘ and you yourself moreover,’ ‘ more than that, you with your own 
ears shall hear his words ;’+ Hec. II. i. 42, Tuos esse ego illi mores 
morbum magis quam ullam aliam rem arbitror Et merito adco, nam, Ac., 
L e. ‘ and with good reason too.’ Such seems to be the force of adco 
in a fragment of the Medea Exsul of Ennius, quoted by Probus on 
Virg. Eel. VI. 31, luppiter, tuque adeo summe Sol, qui omnes res inspicis, 
Le. ‘thou Jove, and thou also Sol, high above all;' and in the invo- 
cation at the beginning of the first Georgic, where the poet, after 
addressing the gods of the sky, of earth, and of ocean, turns his 
prayer to Caesar (v. 24), 2 'uque adeo quern mox, ‘ and on thee also 
do I call.’ We may, perhaps, place under the same head, Virg. Eel. 
IV. 11, Teque adeo, dee us hoc aevi, te consule, inibit, Pollio : el incipient 
magni procede re menses, i.e. ‘and in addition to all the other propitious 
combinations of this happy epoch, the boy will enter upon his career 
in thy consulship, O Pollio,’ &c. Virg. Eel. II. 25 is more doubtful ; 
Nec sum adeo in/ormis, which we may translate, ‘ and besides, I am 
by no means unshapely,’ but we may refer this example to the next 
section, an ellipse being implied, ‘ and I am not so (to such an extent) 
ugly (as to make me repulsive).’ 

II. Adeo equivalent to ‘ up to that point or limit,’ ‘ to that (such a) 
degree or extent,’ ‘ to that (such a) pitch or pass,’ meanings, as 

* Freund says that adeo occurs in this sense in the comic writers only. 
He quotes two examples— Pseud. I. ii. 80, where, according to my view, it 
signifies ‘thus,’ ‘in this way,’ and Most. III. i. 101 (97), where, whatever 
it may denote, it cannot possibly mean ad baec or praeterea. See note 
on the passage. It will appear from the quotations which we shall give 
that adeo in this sense is found not only in the comic writers, but in the 
tragedies of Ennius and in Virgil. 

t Here Donatus says “ jrap«\«rni adeo, modo ct abundat." 

A a 2 

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explained above, belonging to to when it means ‘ to that.’ Adto in 
this sense is sometimes used absolutely ; it is frequently followed by 
ut, by adverbs of time as dum, donee, and in combination with usque. 

1. Absolutely, in Heaut. I. i. 61, Postremo adto res rediit, adules- 
ten/ulus Saepe eadem et graviter audiendo vic/us tsl, i. e. ‘ at last the 
matter came to this point;’ Phor. I. ii. 4, G. Amo It, et non neclexisse 
habeo gratiam. P. Praesertim ut nunc sunt mores, adto res redit. Si 
guts quid reddit, magtta habenda est gratia, i. e. ‘ things now-a-days 
have come to such a pass ;’ V. vii. 39, I in malam rem hint cum istac 
magnificentia. Fugitive : etiam nunc credis te ignorarier A ut tua facta 
adcoP i. e. ‘ to such an extent.’ 

2. Adto followed by ut, signifying ‘as:’ Epid. IV. i. 38, Ilk earn 
rtm adto sobrit el frugal iter Adcuravit, ut alias res est inpense in- 
probus, i. e. ‘ to the same extent (or, in the same degree) as he is in 
other matters utterly good-for-nothing,' ‘ he was praiseworthy in this 
matter to the same extent as he i6 the reverse in other matters;’ 
Andr. I. v. 10. Adeone homincm esse invenustum cut infelieem quemquam 
ut ego sum / ‘ lives there the man hateful to Venus and unfortunate to 
such an extent as I am 1’ 

3. Adeo followed by ut, signifying * that :’ Capt. Prol. 65, Ego 
faciam ut pugnam inspcctet non bonam Adeo ut speclare posted omnts 
oderit, ‘to such an extent that;’ Bac. II. iii. 49, Adeone me fuisse 
f ungum ut qui illi crederem l * to think that I should have been such 
a mushroom (blockhead) that I believed him,’ ‘ a blockhead to such 
an extent that,’ &c. ; Andr. I. i. 93, Si. Forte unam adspicio adules- 
centulam P'orma — So. Bona fortasse. Si. Et voltu, Sosia, Adeo modesto, 
adeo venusto, ut nihil supra; Hec. II. i. 24, Iampridem equidem audivi, 
cepisse odium tui Philumenam, Minumeque adeo mirum : et, ni id fecisset, 
magis mirum forel : Sed non credidi adeo ut etiam totam hanc odisset 
domum. The first adeo means ‘ so far,’ ‘ to that extent,’ adeo ut in the 
next line ‘ to such a degree that,’ or ‘ to such an extent that.' 

4. Adeo followed by usque, dum, donee, &c. : Bac. III. iv. 10, Adeo 
ego illam cogam usque ut mendicet mens f/ater, ‘ I will press (my gifts) 
upon her even to the extent that I will make a beggar of my father ;’ 
Merc. Prol. 77, Adeo dum, quae turn habere/, peperisset bona, ‘ up to the 
point (of time) when,’ &c. ; and so III. iv. 72; Amph. I. ii. 10, Adeo 
usque satie/a tern dum capiet f rater Illius, quam amal ; Andr. IV. i. 38, 
numquam des/i/it Instare, ut dicercm me esse ducturum patri ; Suadere, 
orare, usque adeo donee perpulit. 

We have usque adeo quoad in Cic. pro Sest. XXXVIII. § 82, and 
usque adeo quo. ‘up to the point where,’ in Cato R. R. XL. $ 13. 

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1 8 1 

5. Again, adeo ut, like eo ut. frequently refers to an object kept in 
view, a design, a purpose : Rud. V. iii. 31, dandum hue argentum est 
probum, Id ego continuo huic dabo , adeo me ut hie emittat matiu, i. e. 
‘with the intent that;’ Stich. V. iv. rg, Atque adeo ut tu scire possis, 
factum ego tecum divide, ‘ and with the intent that you may be able to 
trust in my sincerity,' &c.; Aul. III. ii. 27, Adeo ut tu meant scnlentiam 
iam iam noscere possis, i. e. ‘ to the intent that you may be able to 
become acquainted forthwith with my views,’ »fec. ; IV. x. 8, Fateor 
peccavisse. et me cu/pam commeri/um scio, Id adeo te oralum advenio 
ut animo aequo ignoscas mihi. The combination here is somewhat 
more complicated, but this may be designed to express the confusion 
and agitation of the speaker ; the general meaning is, ‘ I have come 
with the intention of entreating your forgiveness.’ 

III. Adeo equivalent to eo modo, ea ratione, is used for the most part 
with an explanatory force, * in that way,’ ‘ thus,’ ‘ such being the 
case,’ * therefore,’ ‘ then.’ 

When adeo is translated by ‘therefore’ or by ‘then,’ the former of 
these is not to be regarded as necessarily denoting a strict logical 
deduction, nor the latter as denoting with emphasis a particular point 
of time, but both are used like the Greek olv to indicate a sequence 
of events, or the continuation of an action or of a narrative, as when 
we say, ‘ after many dangers therefore Hannibal descended from the 
Alps into the plains of Italy,’ ‘ let reason then at her own quarry fly,’ 
‘we first leave childhood behind us, then youth, then the years of 
ripened manhood, then’ &c. There is properly an adverb of place, 
then of time, but they are not unfrequently regarded as equivalent. 
Thus in the Gospel of St. John, cap. ii. 18, the words aneeftibqcrait 
a!v ol 'lovdaioi are translated in our authorized version, ‘ then answered 
the Jews and said unto him,’ but in Wiclifle’s Bible, ‘ therfor the 
Jewis answerden and seiden to him ;’ and this brings us round to 
what may be regarded as the original etymological meaning of adeo, 
viz. a dea, praeterea, ‘ besides,’ ‘ moreover.’ 

The meanings of adeo which belong to head III. must be 
illustrated by several examples, for they have in many cases em- 
barrassed lexicographers and commentators, and have led to useless 
complications, or, not seldom, to the despairing remark, "adeo 
abundat,” i. e. ‘ means nothing :’ Epid. V. ii. 38, P. Dedin tibi minas 
triginla ob filiam ? E. Fateor datas, Et eo argento illam me emisse 
amicam fili fidicinam. Pro tua filia : istis adeo te tetigi triginla minis, 
‘in that way,’ ‘thus,’ eo (hoc) modo; As. II. iii. 22, Libanus having 
given a minute description of the personal appearance of Saurca, the 

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mercator exclaims, Non potuit pictor rectius describere eius formam, 
Atqiu htrcle ipsum adeo conluor , quassanti capita inccdit, ‘ and, by 
Hercules, I see the man himself as you describe him’ ( adeo=eo modo 
quo) ; Hec. IV. iv. 68, Cut tu opsecutus, facis huic adeo iniuriam, 
‘ yielding to her, you in this way do wrong to your own wife ;’ and 
so Epid. II. i. 2; Amph. I. i. 98, Hoc adeo hoc commemini magis, quia 
illo die inpransus fui, ‘ this event, in this way, upon this account, have 
I described the more minutely because on that day I went without 
my breakfast;’ Aul. IV. ii. 15, Mulsi congialem p/enam faciam tibi 
fideliam, Id adeo tibi faciam, return ego mihi bibam, ubi id fecero, ‘ the 
cup will I thus compound in honour of you, but I will drink it in 
honour of myself;’ Cure. V. iii. 1, Argentariis male credi, qui aiunt, 
nugas praedicant, Nam et bene et male credi dico , id adeo hodie ego 
expertus sum, ‘ and thus have I found the matter to be this day by 
experience;’ Aul. II. iv. 12, Cuius ducil filiam ? S. Vicini huius 
Euclionis e proxumo, Ei adeo opsoni hint dimidium iussit dari, where 
adeo=‘ thus,’ ‘for this reason;’ Poen. I. ii. 56, speaking of females 
of the lowest class, Aliseras, schoeno delibutas, servicolas sordidas, Quae 
tibi olant s/abu/um, slalumque, sellam et sessibu/um mcrum, Quas adeo 
haud quisquam umquam liber tetigit, neque duxit domum, ‘ whom, 
thus,' ‘ for that reason ;’ Stich. I. iii. 59, Quot adeo cenae, quas defleri, 
mortuae ! and v. 62, Prae maerore adeo miser atque aegritudine 
Consenui, — in both cases adeo=‘ thus,’ ‘in this way,’ hoc modo; and 
so also in Eun. II. ii. 16, Hoc novom est aucupium : ego adeo hanc 
primus inveni viam, and then follows a description of the novom 
aucupium; Epid. I. i. 51, F.pidicus having extracted from Thesprio 
the fact that Stratippocles had paid a large sum for a female captive, 
Thesprio goes on, Id adeo argentum ab Danisla apud Thebas sumpsit 
faenore In dies minasque argenti singular numis : here adeo may be 
regarded as serving to continue and connect the details of the story, 

‘ and that money then ;’ or adeo may refer to the terms upon which the 
money was borrowed, ‘ and that money he obtained from a money- 
lender thus ( hoc modo), upon condition of paying a numus a-day for 
each mina ;’ Andr. II. vi. 7, S. Num illi molestae quidpiam hae sunt 
nuptiae. Propter huiusce hospitae consueludinem ? D. Nihil, hcrcle : aul, 
si adeo, biilui est aut tridui Hacc sollicitudo, ‘ no, he does not mind 
it at all, or if he feels at all thus, if he has any feeling of this sort, 
the annoyance will be an affair of two days, or three (at most) ;’ Cas. 
V. iv. 22, Si umquam posthac aut amasso Casinam, aut occepso modo 
Ne ut earn amasso, si ego umquam adeo posthac tale admisero ; here 
adeo seems to explain or connect. ‘ if ever then,’ ‘ if ever, I say.’ 

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Heaut. I. i. 1, Quamquam haec inter nos nuper notitia admodum est hide 
adeo quod agrum in proxumo hie mercatus es; here adeo is explana- 
tory, ‘arising in this way;’ and in the same sense v. 57, Nulla adeo 
ex re istuc fit, nisi ex nimio olio, ‘ from no other cause do matters go 
on thus,' ‘in this way;’ Amph. Prol. 72, Sive adeo aediles perfidiose 
quoi duint, ‘ or whether in this manner (i.e. from influence, and not on 
account of merit) the aediles have corruptly bestowed the prize on 
any competitor;’ Merc. V. iv. 33, Si, hercle, scivissem, sive adeo ioculo 
dixisset mihi Se illam amare, ‘ if he had thus (to this effect) spoken to 
me in jest;’ True. IV. iii. 1, Egone tibi male diram, aut tibi adeo mate 
velim / ‘ is it possible that I should abuse you, or wish you evil after 
this fashion Hec. IV. i. 9, Vir ego tuus sum f Tun virum me, aut 
hominem depulas adeo esse, ‘ am I your husband f do you regard me 
as your husband ? or, (treating me) in this way, do you behave 
towards me as to any ordinary man?’ Andr. IV. iv. 20, D. Adeone 
videmur vobis esse idonei In quibus sic inludatis ? C. Veni in tempore. 
D. Proper a adeo puerum toller e hinc ab ianua : here the first adeo 
signifies ‘ to such an extent,’ the second ‘ then’ or ‘ therefore,’ and 
expresses impatience, ‘ make haste, then, can’t you.’ 

Nunc adeo is a very common combination, and in this phrase adeo 
must be generally translated * therefore’ or ‘ such being the case Mil. 
II. ii. 4, Nunc adeo edico omnibus, ‘now then,’ ‘now therefore,’ ‘now, this 
being the case;’ Merc. II. ii. 57, Quin mihi quoque etiam est ad porlum 
negotium. Nunc adeo ibo illuc, ‘ now therefore,’ ‘ now, such being the 
case;’ Rud. III. iv. 23, Do tibi argentum! Nunc adeo ut scias meam 
sententiam, ‘ I give you money ! now therefore,’ &c. ; and adeo three 
lines lower down may also be translated ‘ therefore,’ or ‘ such being 
the case.’ So As. III. i. 29, Men. I. ii. 11, Pseud. I. ii. 52, True. II. 
ii. 12, Andr. IV. iv. 36. 

Less common is adeo quasi: Heaut. V. i. 12, C. Quid ait ? 
Gaudcre adeo coepit quasi qui cupiunt nuptias, ‘ he began to rejoice 
in the same manner as those ( eo modo quo) who are eager for,’ Ac. ; 
here adeo might be referred to our second head, ‘ to the same extent,’ 
‘ in the same degree as if he were one of these,’ &c. 

We find also numquam adeo quin: Adel. II. ii. 13, Credo istuc 
melius esse : verum ego numquam adeo astutus fui Quin, quidquid 
possem, ma/lem auferre polt'us in praesenlia, ‘ I never attained to such 
a pitch of cunning as to refrain,’ &c. 

The following deserve attention : Amph. I. ii. 4, lam ille illuc ad 
herum quom Amphitruonem advenerit, Narrabit servom hinc sese ex 
foribus Sosiam Amovisse. Ille adeo ilium mentiri sibi Credet, neque 

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credit hue profectum ut iusscrat : here adeo is explanatory, ‘ in this 
way,’ ‘ thus,' ‘ thus it will come to pass that Amphitruo will believe 
that Sosia is telling him a falsehood.’ Bac. 1 V. viL 30, Turn libertatem 
Chrusalo largibere Ego adeo numquam accipiam : here adeo continues, 
connects, and to a certain degree explains the narrative, ‘ upon that 
you will generously bestow freedom upon Chrysalus ; I then (there- 
after, upon that), you understand, will refuse to accept it.’ So Mil. 
IV. iv. 35, I lie iubebit me ire cum ilia ad portum : ego adeo, ut lu scias 
Prorsum Athenas pro/inus abibo tecum : this example closely resembles 
the preceding, ‘ he will order me to go along with her to the harbour, 
I then (thereafter), you understand, will depart with you,’ &c. ; True. 
IV. iii. 73, Ceterum uxorem, quam primum potest, abduce ex aedibus. 
Ego adeo iam illi remittam nuntium adfini meo : precisely similar to 
the two preceding. 

We believe that the examples quoted above, if carefully ex- 
amined, will enable a young scholar to give a satisfactory explanation 
of adeo in the writings of the Latin Classics, to whatever period they 

II ,—DVM. 

Bum is strictly an adverb of time, and may be regarded as in all 
cases equivalent to one of two English words. 

I. ‘ Now,’ ‘ at this present time.’ 

II. ‘ While,’ applied generally to time, with its compounds ‘ whilst,’ 
‘until,’ ‘till’ (while-es, unto- while, to-while ?). 

I. Bum signifying ‘now:’ Trin. V. ii. 1, Ncque fuit , ncque erit, 
neque esse quemquam hominum in terra dum arbitror, ‘ nor do I 
believe that there is at this present time on earth,’ where, however, it 
must be remarked that in terra dum is an emendation of Camerarius, 
for the MSS. exhibit interdum, which is not intelligible ; Epid. III. iii. 
7, Vet quasi egomet qui dum fill causa coeperam Ego me excruciare 
animi , * I who at this very time had begun iv. 68, P. Vbi habitat 
(sc. Acropolistis) ? F. Postquam libera est, ubi Habitet dum , incerto 
scio, ‘ where she may be living now, at this time, since she became 
free :’ here again the text exhibits variations. 

In the following examples we have etiam dum in negative propo- 
sitions, ‘ not even now,’ ‘ not even yet,’ ‘ not even now at this present 
time:’ True. II. ii. 66. Tristis exit: baud convenit etiam hie dum 
Phronesium, ‘ not even now has he had an interview with Phro- 
nesium ;’ Pseud. IV. ii. 2, nihil etiam dum harpagavit praeter cuathum 
ct can/harum, ‘ nothing even at this present time (i. e. as yet) has 

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he stolen except,’ &c. In Merc. II. iii. 14, 15, we have a double 
dum, signifying ‘ now ’ and ‘ now again,' like tnodo .... modo or 
nunc .... nunc , Dum scrvi met per placet mihi consilium , Dum rursum 
haud placet. 

Very frequently dum is subjoined to the imperative, and in that 
case may always be rendered by ‘now;’ thus Most. III. i. 144 (14 1), 
pulta dum fores , ‘knock at the door now;’ v. 149 (146), evoca dum 
aliquem , ‘call some one out now;’ V. i. 56 (ii. 41), aspice dum contra 
me, ‘look me now in the face.’ So Heaut. II. iii. 8, Abi dum; Rud. 
V. ii. 45, Accede dum hue ; Men. II. iii. 35, Accipe dum hoc ; Andr. I. 
i. 2, Ades dum; Stich. I. i. 9, Sed hie, mea soror, adsis dum, ‘ come 
beside now for a while; Rud. III. v. 6, el passim Age dum; Bac. IV. 
iv. 93, Adscribe dum; Rud. IV. iv. 133, Capedum ; Men. II. i. 40, 
Cedo dum mihi hue marsupium; Trin. IV. ii. 126, Cede dum istuc 
aurum mihi; Hec. V. iii. 5, Die dum; Rud. IV. iii. 84, Fac dum ex 
te sciam, ‘ come, tell me now ;’ Cas. III. i. 9, Heaut. III. ii. 39, Facito 
dum memineris, ‘ see now that you recollect ;’ Rud. III. v. 7, lube 
dum ; Cas. II. vi. 32, Mane dum ; Bac. IV. vi. 24, Mane dum parumper; 
True. II. vii. 67, Sine dum; or with me interposed, Most. V. ii. 22 
(iii. 22), Sine me dum istuc iudicare, ‘permit me now at present;’ 
Men. II. iii. 27, Sed sine me dum hanc compeltare ; ii. 73, 'Face dum 
parumper; Rud. III. v. 17, Tange dum, ‘touch them now’ (if you 
dare). So Qut dum signifies ‘how now?’ ‘how so?’ ‘why so?’ and 
is generally introduced when an explanation is required : thus 
Most. II. ii. 20, Quid vosi insanin estis ? T. Qui dum? ‘ how now?’ 

i. e. 'what do you mean by that?’ See also III. ii. 44, V. i. 58 
(ii. 16); As. III. iii. 30; Bac. III. iii. 62; Epid. II. ii. 114; Men. 
I. ii. 51; Trin. I. ii. 129; True. IV. ii. 19; Eun. II. ii. 42; Hec. 
III. i. 39. 

Dum signifying ‘now’ is frequently subjoined to other adverbs; 
thus Most. I. ii. 39, Primum dum, ‘ first of all now,’ ‘ to begin now ;’ 
and so Rud. Prol. 32, Trin. I. ii. 61. In Pseud. II. iv. 40, Nec dum 
exiit ex aedibus, ‘ nor (even) now has he gone out of the house,’ ‘ nor 
as yet ;’ and in much the same sense, nihil etiam dum, in Pseud. IV. 

ii. 2 ; hand etiam dum, in True. II. ii. 66. See also Mil. IV. ii. 2, 
Eun. III. v. 22. 

Non dum properly signifies * not now,’ and so ‘ not yet.’ 

Ne dum, which generally implies a comparison, is, for the most 
part, used elliptically ; thus Heaut. III. i. 43, Satrapes si siet Amator, 
numquam subferre cites sump/us queal, Ne dum tu possis, ‘ if a Persian 
potentate were her lover, he would never be able to support her 

B b 

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extravagance, (therefore) do not you now imagine that you are able.’ * 
Eho dum die mihi, ‘ hearken now, tell me,’ in Eun. II. iii. 68 ; Andr. 
III. v. io. Vix dum is ‘scarcely now.’ Dum in inter dum belongs 
rather to the next head, ‘ between whiles,’ &C. 

II. Dum signifying ‘ while.' 

The meaning of ‘ while ’ is variously modified. 

1. ‘While’ often signifies ‘at the time when,’ ‘during the time that 
thus in English, ‘ while you are reading I shall take a walk Andr. I. 
v. 3 1 , Dum in dubio esl animus , paulo momento hue vel iltue inpellitur, 
‘while (at the time when) the mind is in a state of hesitation ;’ Eun. II. 
iii. 49, Dum haec diet'/, abiit hora; rogo num quid vtlit, ‘ while (during 
the time that) he was saying these things, time slipped away ;’ Epid. 
III. iv. 65, Condueta veni ut fidibus cantarem seni Dum rem divinam 
faceret, ’ while (during the time that) he might be offering sacrifice ;’ 
and so Pseud. V. i. 33, dum enitor. 

2. ‘While’ is employed when an event is represented as resulting 
from the time spent or pains bestowed in doing something else : thus 
in English, ‘ while attending to the affairs of others I sacrificed my 
own interests,’ where ‘while’ implies ‘in consequence of’ or ‘in con- 
sequence of the time I spent ;’ Andr. V. i. 3, Dum studeo opsequi tibi , 
paene in/usi vi/am filieu ; Adel. V. vii. 1, Oecidunl me quidem dum nimis 
sane/as nuptias Student faeere; Phor. I. ii. 26, Seni fidelis dum sum, 
scapulas perdidi; V. ii. 2, Nostrapte culpa facimus, ut malos expediat 
esse, Dum nimium diet nos bonos studemus et benignos. 

3. ‘While’ meaning ‘till’ or ‘until.’ Whether we accept or reject 
the etymology of Horne Tooke, who regards till as to white, and 
until as unto while, there can be no doubt that in the earlier forms 
of our language ‘while’ was used as equivalent to ‘until:’ thus, Then 
he commanded her to be bounden to a wylde horse tayle by the here 
0/ her hedde, and so to be drawen whyle she was dede; and in some 
provincial dialects such phrases as I will stay while evening are said 
to be still current.f For instances of dum in this signification, see 
Rud. II. ii. 22, Nunc quid mihi melius est, quam ilico hie opperiar, 
herum dum venial ; Trin. I. ii. 133, Lupus opservavit dum dormitaret 
canes; Eun. III. iii. 28, At tu apud nos hie mane Dum redeat ipsa; 
Andr. II. i. 28, Saltern aliquot dies Pro/er, dum proficiscor a/iquo, ne 
videam; Heaut. IV. iii. 39, Vnus est dies, dum argentum eripio: pax: 

* Ne has this force without the addition of dum, e.g. Aul. III. ii. 20, 
Cas. V. iv. 23. 

t Sec Horne Tooke, Diversions of Purlev, Part I. chap. 9, p. 342, 
Cd. 1829. 

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nihil amplius. The following combination is unusual : Heaut. III. ii. 
32, Et nunc quid expectat, Surd an dum hinc denuo A heal, quom 
tolcrarc huius sump/us non quea! ? ‘is he waiting until.’ 

Perhaps, wherever dum, standing alone, signifies ‘until,’ there may 
be an ellipse of usque or some such word, and tliis is sometimes 
supplied; Pers. I. i. 53, Vsque tro domi dum excoxero lenoni malum , 
'up to the time when;’ Merc. Prol. 77, Adeo dum, quae turn habere t, 
peperisset bona, ‘ he said that he had persevered in this course, up to 
the time when (until) he had acquired the property of which he was 
then in possession.’ See this line quoted above, under adeo (p. 180). 

4. ‘While’ indicating duration of time, ‘as long as,’ ‘ so long as,’ as 
in English, ‘ I shall love him while he lives,’ i. e. * as long as he 
lives;’ True. II. i. 23, Dum habeat turn ame/; ubi nihil habcai, alium 
quaeslum coepiat; Rud. II. vi. 73, Quid, slul/e, ploras ? tibi quidem edepol 
copia es/, Dum lingua vivet, qui rem so/vas omnibus; Eun. IV. v. 2, 
A/a t! data hercle verba mihi sun/ : vici/ vinum quod bibi; Ac, dum 
adcubabam, quam videbar mihi esse pulcre sobrius ! Pos/quam surrexi, 
tuque pes, neque nuns satis suum officium faci/, ‘ as long as I was 
reclining at table;' Heaut. V. v. 14, Haec dum incipias gravia sun/, 
Dumque ignores, ubi cognoris,facilia ; the first dum may be rendered 
‘until’ or ‘while,’ the second ‘so long as.’ 

Dum when used in this sense is sometimes preceded by tantisper, 
and thus is closely connected with ‘until;’ True. Prol. 11, Athenae 
is/ae sun/o, i/a u! hoc est proscenium, Tan/isper dum transigimus hanc 
Comocdiam ; Heaut. I. i. 54, Ego ie nuum esse did tan/isper volo, 
Dum quod te dignum est facies ; and so again, v. 93, Decrevi tantisper 
me minus iniuriae, Chreme, meo gnato faccre, dum fiam miser; and so 
paulisper dum, Cic. pro Mil. 10. 

In like manner usque adeo sometimes precedes dum; Eun. IV. vi. 4, 
Vsque adeo ego illius ferre possum ineptias et magnifica verba, Verba 
dum sin/; vtrurn enim si ad rem conferenlur vapulabi/. 

For oilier examples of dum signifying * as long as,’ see Eun. V. 
iv. 12; Phor. V. viii. 41; Heaut. II. iii. 104, IV. iii. 36, V. i. 78; 
Andr. III. iii. 24, V. i. 13. 

5. It frequently happens that when ‘while’ means ‘as long as,’ a 
condition is implied, and hence the transition to ‘ provided that’ is 
easy : thus when we say, ‘ while the child is obedient he will not be 
punished,’ it is much the same as ‘ provided that the child be obe- 
dient’ &c. Dum is common with this force, and is in this case always 
followed by the subjunctive ; Pers. I. iii. 66, Quaeso , hercle, me quoque 
e/iam vendas, si lube/, Dum saturum vendas, ‘ provided always that you 

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sell me with a well-filled stomach;’ Trin. IV. ii. 137, Dum ille nt sis, 
quern ego esse nolo, sis, mea causa, qui lube! ; Andr. IV. i. 53, Ego, 
Pamphile, hoc iibi pro servitio debeo, Conari manibus, pedibus, noc/esque 
el dies, Capitis pcriculum adire, dum prosim libi, ‘ provided only that I 
can be of service to you and so in V. i. 6, Dum ejficias id quod cupis. 

With modo, Eun. II. iii. 28, Hanc tu mihi vel vi, vel clam, vet precario 
Fac tradas ; mea nihil refer t dum potiar modo ; and so again, Adel. 
III. ii. 15, Dum i/las ulciscar modo. In Heaut. IV. iii. 36, 37, Nam 
dum amicam hanc meant esse credet, non committct filiam. Tu fortasse 
quid me fiat parvi pendis, dum illi consu/as the first dum signifies ‘ as 
long as,' strictly with reference to time ; the second dum signifies 
‘ provided that.’ Other examples of dum signifying 1 provided that,’ 
in Cas. Prol. 76; Merc. Prol. 83; Epid. III. ii. 12, V. ii. 14. In 
Pers. IV. iv. 105, D. Vin mea esse ? V. Dum quidem ne minis diu tua 
sim, volo, dum quidem is ‘ provided always that.’ In Merc. II. iii. 53, 
D. Vsquene valuisti f C. Perpetuo rede dum quidem illic fui, dum 
quidem is ‘ as long, at least, as.’ 


Although Etiam, in Plautus, appears at first sight to bear several 
meanings differing widely from each other, it will be found that it is, 
in very many instances, equivalent to the English ‘ even now,’ and 
perhaps we ought in all such cases to resolve etiam into its component 
parts and write them separately, as et iam. It must be borne in mind 
that the force of ‘ even now’ is variously modified according to the 
general sense of the passages into which these words enter. Thus, 

1. ‘Even now’ signifies ‘at this present time,’ ‘directly,’ ‘without 
delay,’ in such phrases as ‘ the battle is even now going on,’ ‘ I must 
leave you even now,’ and the like. 

2. With a negative ‘even now’ may signify ‘yet,’ ‘as yet,' ‘up to 
this time,’ in such phrases as ‘ even now the boy cannot write,’ ‘ even 
now I have never employed him in such work.’ 

3. The expression ‘ is the man even now awake ?’ may imply ‘ is 
the man, having been for some time awake, still awake?’ and hence it 
appears that ‘ even now’ may indicate that things are continuing with- 
out interruption in the same state in which they have been for some 
time previously. So, when we say ‘ he is even now beating his 
slave,’ or * he is even now mocking me,’ these words may indicate 
that the person spoken of is continuing an action previously com- 
menced — that he is inflicting fresh punishment or heaping up fresh 

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ridicule, and thus the idea of addition is connected with ‘even now,’ as 
it is with ‘still’ and ‘yet,’ in such phrases as ‘give me still (or yet) 
another volume,' that is, a volume ‘in addition to’ those previously 
given. All these words may denote the repetition of an action, and 
hence etiam atque etiam means ‘ again and again.’ 

4. But the expression ‘is the man even now awake?’ may imply 
‘is the man, having been for some time asleep, yet awake?’ and 
hence ‘ even now ’ may indicate that things having continued in one 
particular state for some time, this state has been or is likely to be 
interrupted. Questions such as the above are frequently put with 
some degree of surprise or impatience, and this is often rendered 
emphatic in English by the introduction of a negative. Thus, ‘ is the 
man not even now awake?’ ‘is the man not going even now to hold 
his tongue ? ’ and hence ‘ even now ’ is often equivalent to ‘ at last.’ 

We may proceed to give examples of etiam under each of the 
above heads. 

1. ‘Even now,’ ‘at this present time,’ &c. ; Amph. I. i. 47, Sed quo 
modo cl verbis quibus me decet fabularier, Prius ipse mecvm etiam volo hie 
meditari, i. e. ‘even now, at this present time;’ Aul. IV. iv. 6, Verbera- 
bitissume, etiam rogitas f non fur, sed trifur , ‘ do you even now heap 
questions on me when I have detected you in the very act of trying 
to rob me?' Most. III. i. 19, Etiam fatetur de hospite ? ‘does he even 
now (after being accused by you) confess about his guest ?’ Pers. IV. 
iii. 72, Etiam tu Warn destinas ? D. Vidcam modo Mercimonium, ‘are 
you going to buy her even now — on the spot?’ In both of the last 
quoted examples we should in English have inserted a negative : 
‘does he not even now confess?' and ‘ ar'nt you going to buy her 
on the spot?’ V. ii. 66, D. Malum vobis dabo. T. At tibi nos dedi- 
mus dabimusque etiam. D. Hei nates pervellit ! It is evident from the 
exclamation of Dordalus that the threat of Toxilus was instantly exe- 
cuted. I would therefore translate, ‘we have brought misfortune ui>on 
you, and we will do the same even now ’ or ‘ directly,’ rather than 
render etiam by ‘ again’ or ‘ in addition.’ Cas. II. viii. 86, Stalino says 
to Olympio, ‘ be off with you (abi), I do not wish money to be spared, 
purchase liberally,' and then adds, with reference to abi, Nam mi hi 
vicino hoc etiam convento est opus, ‘ for I must have a meeting with this 
neighbour of mine even now (directly).’ Pseud. I. v. 153, Pseudolus, 
addressing his audience, says, ‘ I dare say you suppose that I have 
promised to perform all these achievements merely to keep you 
amused, and that I have not really any intention of carrying them 
out,' Non demulabo : atque etiam \j/uod\ certum sciam, Quo sim facturus 

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pa do, nil eliam scio, ‘ I will not shrink from my engagement, and (yet 
with reference to) that which at this present moment I know will as- 
suredly come to pass, I do not know at this present moment (as yet) 
how I shall bring it about.’ Such seems to be the meaning of this 
difficult passage. The first of the two lines appears under a different 
form in almost every different edition. We have inserted quod, with- 
out which the line cannot be scanned, but in other respects have 
adhered to the best MSS., which do not exhibit any variation. 

2. ‘ F.ven now’ with a negative, ‘ as yet,’ ‘ up to this time ;’ Pers. I. 
iii. 48, Numquam edepol quoiquam eliam utendam dedi, ‘ never as yet,' 
‘never up to this time have I’ &c. ; II. ii. 49, Sophoclidisca says to 
the boy Paegniuin, Tu quidem haud eliam es octoginta pondo, ‘not yet do 
you weigh six stones ;’ IV. iv. 4, Toxilus having asked Dordalus if he 
had not been struck by the wisdom displayed by the maiden as soon 
as she opened her mouth, the leno replies coolly, Haud potui etiam 
in primo verbo perspicere sapientiam, ‘ I have not been able as yet, on 
hearing the first word she uttered, clearly to discern her wisdom.’ 
Sometimes, to make the meaning more clear and emphatic, adhuc is 
added: thus Amph. I. i. 92, Numquam etiam quicquam adhuc verborum 
es l prolocutus per/>eram, “ not one word even now (as yet) up to the 
present moment has he uttered contrary to truth.’ 

3. ‘ Even now,’ implying that an action is continued without inter- 
ruption. This is distinctly expressed in Amph. II. i. 21, Rogasne, 
improbe, eliam qui ludos facis me? ‘you who are even now (still) 
making game of me,’ ‘continuing to make game of me;’ in I. i. 213, 
Mercury says to Sosia, At menliris etiam, ‘you are lying even now,’ 
‘ you are continuing to tell falsehoods,’ having previously said compo- 
si/is mendaciis advenisti ; As. V. ii. 73, At etiam cubat cut ulus ! Surge, 
amator, i domum, ‘ but that old cuckoo is even now (still) roosting 
there,’ ‘is continuing to roost there;' Cas. II. vi. 16, lam dudum, 
hercle, fabulor. C. Pol lu quidem, atquc etiam facis , ‘ I have been 
prating here ever so long.’ ‘ There’s no mistake about that, and you 
are doing so even now,’ ‘ you are continuing to prate ;’ Bac. IV. iv. 
93, M. Loquerc porro. C. Adscribe dum. M. Etiam loquere, where 
etiam loquere is the same as loquere porro, ‘ go on,’ ‘ continue.’ Other 
examples of etiam in this sense may be found in Amph. I. i. 225; As. 
II. ii. 61; Capt. III. iv. 24; Cure. I. iii. 40; Men. IV. iii. 23, V. i. 10; 
Merc. IV. iv. 23; Mil. III. i. 45; Pers. V. ii. 46; Trin. II. iv. 171. 

Etiam implies addition in such combinations as the following : 
Mil. V. 8, Cario says to his master, lam in hominem involo ? to which 
Periplectomenes replies, Into, eliam prius verberetur fuslibus, ‘ no, not 

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yet, let him first be beaten even now again,’ ' beaten in addition to 
the beating which he has already received so in v. 25, Verberetur 
etiam, post tibi amittendum censeo ; and again, in v. 31, Vtrbtrone 
etiam antequam amittis ? Capt. Prol. 53, Sed e/iam est paua's vos quod 
monitos voluerim, ‘ but there is something even now,’ ‘ something in 
addition;’ and the same again in As. I. iii. 79; Most. V. ii. 11 (iii. 11), 
Verbero, e/iam inrides ? • (not satisfied with betraying me) do you in 
addition laugh at me, you scoundrel?’ Pers. IV. iv. 117, Heus tu ! 
etiam pro vestimentis hue decern accedunt minor, ‘ ten minae in addition, 
for the lady’s wardrobe;' Men. V. v. 23, Mane modo : etiam perconla- 
bor, ‘ I will question him yet further,’ ‘ I will put additional questions 
to him ;’ Trin. V. ii. 1 2, Sed mancam etiam opinor , ‘but I ought, I think, 
to wait even now,’ i. e. ‘ to wait longer,’ ' to wait an additional time,’ 
‘to continue to wait;’ and so Men. I. ii. 63, III. ii. 68; As. I. i. 27, 
L. Age, age, usque exscrea. D. Etiamne ? L. Quaeso here/e usque 
ex penitis faucibus. D. Etiam. L. Amplius. L. ‘ Come, come, spit 
still.’ D. ‘What, more?’ L. ‘Spit, I beseech you, from the very 
depths of your gullet.’ D. ‘More still?’ L. ‘Yes, more.’ Bac. IV. 
iv. 41, C. Quid vis curem ? M. Vt ad senem etiam alteram facias 
viam, ‘ that you construct yet a second road by which you may gain 
access to the old man,’ ‘ a new road in addition to the former;’ Aul. 
II. iv. 46, Tun trium literarum homo Me vituperas? fur, etiam fur 
trifurcifer, ‘ thief, and more than thief.’ 

Etiam , from this notion of addition, may occasionally be rendered 
by ‘ yes.’ In Amph. I. iii. 46, Amphitruo says to Alcumena, numquid 
vis? Ai. Etiam, ut actutum advenias. Am. ‘You wish nothing 
further, do you?’ Al. ‘Yes, I wish also,’ ‘I wish this in addition.’ 
Pseud. I. iii. 119, C. Iuravistin te i/lam nulli venditurum nisi mihi? 
B. Fateor. C. Nempe conceplis verbis. B. Etiam, consultis qunque, 

* yes, and more than that.’ There is a remarkable example in Most. 
IV. iii. 7 (iv. 7), T. Kum quid processit ad forum hodie novi? S. Etiam. 
T. Quid tandem ? S. Vidi eeferri mortuom. T. ‘ Nothing new upon 
Change to-day, was there ?’ S. ‘ Yes, there was,’ where etiam stands 
by itself for ‘yes, there was,’ at least this is more natural than the 
interpretation ‘ even now something new did happen.’ 

4. ' Even now,’ implying that an action which has continued for 
some time has been or is likely to be interrupted. Etiam with this 
force is generally found in interrogatory clauses, and the full force 
must, in most cases, be brought out in English by the addition of 
a negative. Thus in Most. II. i. 36, Callidamates having again 
drop|x*d over into a drunken sleep, Philematium, endeavouring to 

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rouse him, bawls into his ear, Eliam vigil, >s ? ‘ are you (not) going 
to wake up even now, (yet)?' In As. I. i. 95, Demaenetus having an- 
nounced to Libanus, Ego to ad forum , nisi quid vis, instead of walking 
away still lingers, upon which Libanus urges him, / ! ttiamne am- 
bulas ? ‘be off with you! are you (not) going to mizzle yet?’ so Most. 
IV. ii. 28, 29 (iii. 5, 6), etiam apt r is .... ttiamne aptris ? ‘are you 
(not) going to open the door even now, yet, at last ? are you (not) 
going to open the door yet, I say?’ so Pers. II. iv. 4, etiam respicis, 
v. 7, ttiamne dicis ; Bac. V. ii. 48, etiam redditis ; Pers. I. iii. 72, 
Cure. I. L 41, Trin. II. iv. 113, etiam tacts or ttiamne tacts, ‘are you 
(not) going to hold your tongue even now,’ ‘ yet,’ ‘ at last ;’ Cure. I. 
iii. 33, etiam disparlimini, ‘ are you (not) going to separate yet,’ * even 
now;’ Rud. II. v. 12, etiam acceptura es urnam hanc, ‘are you (not) 
going to take this jar at last?’ We have the imperative in Most. IV. 
ii. 3 (i. 27), etiam respice, ‘look round at last, won’t you.’ 

Occasionally we find one etiam closely followed by another, each 
exhibiting a different modification of meaning: thus in Amph. I. i. 
220, Sosia bawls for help, Proh fidem! Thebani cives ! M. Etiam 
clamas, carnufex ? i. e. ‘ do you dare, in addition to the rest of your 
villainy, to shout for help against me?’ but a few lines lower down, 
v. 225, M. Etiam muttis i S. Iam tacebo : signifies 1 are you even now, 
still, venturing to murmur;’ so in As, I. i. 95, a portion of which we 
gave above, D. Ego to ad forum nisi quid vis. L. I, etiamne am - 
but as ? D. Alque a ml in etiam i L. Ecce. L. ‘Be off, are you not 
away yet?’ ‘And, do you hear this besides?’ L. ‘Well’ &c. See also 
Pers. V. ii. 46. 

Sometimes nunc is added to etiam to give additional emphasis : 
thus Amph. I. i. 173, Lassus sum hercle e navi, ut vectus hue sum, 
etiam nunc nausea, ‘ even now, at this present time, I am sick ;’ Cas. 
III. v. 50, Sed etiamne habet Casino, etiam nunc, gladiumi ‘but has 
Casina still got, even at this present time, a sword?’ Mil. IV. viii. 29, 
Etiam nunc sa/uto te, Lar familiaris, priusquam to, ‘ and now once 
more I greet thee,’ having previously rendered this homage ; Men. I. 
ii. 48, M. Concede hue a foribus. P. Fiat. M. Etiam concede hue. 
P. Licet. M. Etiam nunc concede audacter ab leonino cavo; and so 
exactly Aul. I. i. 16, Apscede — etiam nunc — etiam nunc — etiam — 
Ohe ! Illic astalo. In both passages etiam signifies ‘further,’ ‘an 
additional space,’ and etiam nunc is ‘ further still.’ Amph. V. i. 30, 
Scin me tuum esse herum Amphitruonem i B. Scio. A. laden eliam 
nunc . 3 B. Scio, ‘ even now when you look again steadily.’ In True. 
I. ii. 104 we have etiam iam nunc : Earn tu edepol nos/er es etiam iam 

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1 93 

nunc , Dinarche, where is added in order to give the utmost possible 

emphasis : ‘ for we consider you as ours, Dinarchus, even now at this 
very time, critical as the conjuncture is.' We have ctiam atque chain 
nunc in Aul. IV. ii. 7, conveying the idea of intense anxiety; Vide, 
Fides , ctiam atque ctiam nunc , salvam ut aulam aps tc au/eram, ‘ again 
and again now in this hour of peril do I implore thee.’ Etiam 
tunc ; Rud. III. vi. 8, Etiamne in ara tunc sedebanl mulieres Quom ad 
me profectus ire ? Etiam dum; Mil. IV. ii. 2, Dissimulabo , bos quasi 
non vidcam, neque esse hie etiam dum sciam, ‘ even now at this present 
time.’ See also True. II. 66, baud . . . etiam . . . dum. 

Etiam is not seldom subjoined to quoque : Pers. I. iii. 65, Quaeso hercle 
me quoque etiam vendas, si lubet, ‘ sell me also even now,’ ‘ on the spot 
Merc. II. ii. 56, Quin mihi quoque etiam est ad portum negotiant, ‘ why, 
for that matter, I also even now have business at the harbour ;’ Amph. 
Prol. 30, Atque ego quoque etiam qui low's sum filius Contagione mei 
patris metuo malum, ‘ I also even now;’ True. I. i. 77, Cum ea quoque 
etiam mihifuit commercium, ' with her also, even now (i. e. already, on 
a previous occasion) I have had dealings.’ Other examples of quoque 
etiam in Amph. Prol. 81, II. ii. 85, 1 2 1 ; Epid. II. ii. 50, IV. ii. 19; 
Men. V. ix. 98; Poen. Prol. 40; True. IV. ii. 18. 

Quoque and etiam sometimes occur in the same clause, but not 
linked together, and in this case may qualify different words. Thus 
in Amph. I. i. 125, where Sosia is speaking of the miraculous length 
of the night, Earn quoque edepol etiam multo haec vicit longitudine 
where etiam may be connected with multo; so II. ii. 70, etiam tu 
quoque; and so As. II. iv. 95; III. ii. 21, etiam tua quoque malefacta; 
Cure. I. ii. 40, etiam mihi quoque ; Pseud. I. iii. 119, quoted above; 
i. 120, etiam matrem quoque; Trin. IV. iii. 41, illis quoque abrogant 
etiam /idem. In As. I. iii. 79 we have etiam priusquam ; in Cist. II. iii. 
43, etiam prius, Sed illaec se quamdam aiebat mulierem Suam benevolcntem 
convenire etiam prius, ‘ even now before fulfilling her promise to me.' 

Etiamnum is found in the text of some cdd. of True. II. vi. 53, but 
rests upon no MS. authority: again, in v. 58, the words etiamnum mali 
pendit , although the reading of the Palatine MSS., are on all hands 
regarded as corrupt. In Men. III. ii. 15, Ibo, etiamnum re/iquiarum 
spes animum oblectat meum, the true reading is probably eliamdum. 

It is not easy, however, in every case to determine with certainty 
the precise force of etiam, or to fix on the word which it qualifies : 
thus when, in Cure. I. iii. 16, Planesium says to Phaedromus, 
Pl. Tene me, amp/ec/ere, ergo. Pit. Hoc etiam est quamobrem cupiam 
vivere, I cannot agree with Weise that etiam qualifies cupiam vii'ere : 

c c 

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“ Hoc est, quare adhuc (etiam) cupiam vivere,” but rather, ‘ this is 
an additional motive for making me desire to live.’ In the same 
scene, Plancsium having used the word odium in reference to Pali- 
nurus, he, in wrath, rejoins, v. 34 , Quid ais, propudium ! Tun etiam 
cum noctuinis oculis 4 odium ’ me vocas i where the meaning may be 
‘ do you, even now (standing there before us), with those owl-eyes of 
yours, call me an abomination?’ (With respect to the use of the 
word odium in this passage, we may observe that although we can 
talk in English of a person being 1 a love,’ we can scarcely term 
any one 4 a hate,’ probably because we have no familiar personifi- 
cation of Hate.) 

I V.— 7,1/0. 

Imo or Immo (for the etymology and orthography are alike uncer- 
tain 4 ') occurs very frequently in the dramatic writers, and no word is 
more likely to puzzle a young scholar, in consequence of the conflict- 
ing opinions expressed by lexicographers, grammarians, and commen- 
tators. According to some high authorities imo properly signifies ‘no,’ 
according to others ‘yes,’ according to others cither ‘yes’ or ‘no.’t 

I feel no difficulty in asserting that wherever imo occurs in the 
dramatists it always denotes dissent on the part of the speaker from 
some statement made, or from some opinion or idea enunciated 
previously. This dissent, however, comprises every modification, 
from a direct and vehement contradiction to a slight correction of 
or improvement upon what has been said, such correction or im- 
provement tending, in many cases, not to overthrow but to strengthen 
and confirm the assertion to which it refers. 

There is no doubt that imo may sometimes be translated fairly 
by ‘yes,’ but in those cases only where, according to our idiom, ‘yes’ 
is intended to rebut a negation, and is in reality equivalent to ‘on 
the contrary.’ Thus, when A says to 13, ‘ You can sing.’ B. ‘ No 
I cannot.’ A. ‘ Yes you can’ — ‘ yes’ is intended to contradict the 4 no’ 
of B, and really means, ‘ on the contrary, you can sing, what you say 
is not true.’ In what follows we shall give a series of examples for 

* E.g. Schellcr and Freund would connect it with imus, Doederlein 
with fVv/Kof. Mr. Long (in Cic. Verr. Act. II. i. 1) considers that it 
stands for in modo. 

t Sec the dictionaries of Korccllini and Freund, the grammars of Rams- 
horn, Zumpt, Madvig and Key; the note of Long on Cic. Verr. Act. II. 
i. 1, and of Macleane on Juvenal XVI. 9. Ramshorn says distinctly that 
imo is to be rendered “ bald durch Jo wold bald durch O nein." 

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J 95 

the purpose of illustrating the doctrine laid down above, and we shall 
endeavour to include several passages which might, at first sight, 
appear inconsistent with the view which we have taken of the true 
force of into. 

It will be observed that such words as hercU , edepol , vero, enimvero , 
etiam, &c., are not unfrequently combined with imo to render it more 

I. Imo frequently signifies plain ‘ no,’ more or less forcible 
according to circumstances; frequently it conveys a direct contra- 
diction equivalent to ‘ the very reverse is true,’ and this contradiction 
is often indicative of strong emotion on the part of the speaker. On 
the other hand, imo may imply merely a polite disclaimer or gentle 
remonstrance, in which case it may be rendered by ‘ nay’ or ‘ nay, 
say not so.’ 

1. Plain ‘no;’ Adel. IV. iii. 13, H. Egomet narrabo quae mihi di.xti. 
M. Imo , ego ibo. II. Bene facis, 1 no, I will go in person ;’ Andr. I. 
i. 2, St. Adesdum, paucis te volo. So. Dictum pula, Nempe ut curentur 
rede haec. Si. Imo, aliud. So. Quid est f ‘no, a different matter;’ 
Hec. V. iii. 10, B. Parmeno, obporlune te obfers : propere curre ad 
Pamphilum. P. Quid eof B. Die me or are ut venial. P. Ad te ? 
Imo, ad Phi/umenam, * no, not to my house, to the house of Philu- 
mena;' Cure. II. iii. 44, P. Pernam, abdomen, sumen, suis glandium. 
C. Ain tu omnia haec ? In carnario fortasse dicis ? P. Imo, in lane thus. 
C. ‘You mean perhaps that all these dainties are in the larder?’ 
P. ‘ No, not at all, upon dishes ready to be served up ;’ Andr. III. ii. 
41, D. Postremo id mihi da nego/i : tu /amen idem has nuptias Perge 
facere i/a ut facis : sed id spero adiuturos deos. S. Imo abi intro, ibi me 
opperire, et quod parato opus est para, where imo is ‘ no,’ in reply to 
id mihi da negoti; v. 10, P. Ehodum, bone vir, quid a is ? viden me 
tuis consiiiis Miserum inpeditum esse ? D. At iam expediam. P. Ex- 
ptdies ? D. Certe, Pamphile. P. Nempe ut modo. D. Imo, melius 
spero. Pamphilus says bitterly, ‘ I suppose you will get me out of 
this scrape after the same fashion you did just now.’ D. ‘ No, no, 
better this time, I hope ;’ Heaut. V. i. 62, Quid hoc, quod volo, ut ilia 
nubat nostro ? nisi quid est Quod mavis. C. Imo, et gener et adfines 
placent : here imo is in reply to the supposition implied by the words 
nisi quid est quod mavis, viz. that Chremes was not satisfied with the 
alliance, ‘ no, by no means, both the son-in-law and his relations are 
agreeable to me.’ 

2. Repudiating an idea or proposal in anger; Andr. V. iii. 15, 
Sed quid ego ? ear me excrucio ? cur me macero ? Cur meant senec/ulem 

C C 2 

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huius soilin' to amentia ? An ut pro huius peccatis ego sulplicium sub/eram i 
Imo habeal, valeal, viva t atm ilia, ‘ no, rather than suffer such misery, 
let him have her,’ &c. ; and so in Heaut. V. i. 55, Chremes in wrath 
rejects the proposal of Menedemus regarding his son, Imo, abcat 
mul/o ma/o quovis gentium, ‘ no, let him go to the mischief rather 
and again, Phor. IV. iii. 38, G. Quid l nimium quantum libuit. C. Die. 

G. Si quis darel Talentum magnum. C. Imo malum hercle, ‘ give him 
a talent? No, give him damnation rather 1 ’ 

3. Contradiction, with various degrees and kinds of emphasis. 

(a) Direct contradiction: in Most. III. ii. 80 (77), Tranio having 
told Simo that Theuropides had been informed that the architectural 
arrangements of Simo's house were so skilful that those who lived 
in it could enjoy shade all day long, Simo replies, Imo edepol vero, 
quom usquequaque umbra est , tamen Sol semper hie esl usque a mani ad 
vesperum, ‘ no, the very reverse of what you state is the truth,’ &c. ; so 
Heaut. IV. iii. 27, C. Et scilicet iam me hoc voles patrem exorare, ut , 
celet Senem rostrum. S. Imo, ut recta via rem narret ordine omnem, 
'no, on the contrary,’ &c. ; Hec. III. v. 13, P. Quidquid est id quod 
reliquit, pro/uit. L. Imo, ob/uit, ‘ no, on the contrary.’ 

(b) Earnest contradiction : Epid. III. iv. 48, Periphanes having 
purchased by mistake a fulicina on the supposition that his son was 
in love with her, the Miles endeavours to make him comprehend that 
he had not got hold of the right person, then Periphanes, who is still 
obstinate, urges, P. Equidcm hcrcle argentum pro hac dedi. M. Stulte 
datum Rcor, atque pcccatum largiter. P. Imo, haec ea est, ‘ no, I tell 
you, this is the very person.’ 

(c) Vehement contradiction : Capt. III. iv. 34, //. Quern rides, cum 
ignoras: ilium nominas quern non rides. A. Imo, isle cum sese ait, qui 
non est, esse, et qui vero esl negat, ‘ no, I tell you, he is telling a false- 
hood,’ &c. 

(d) Stern prohibition and contradiction: Bac. I. ii. 37, L. Tu 
arnicam kabebis ? P. Quom ridebis turn scies. L. Imo, neque habebis, 
nec sinam : i/urus sum domum, 1 no, I tell you, you shall not have 
one, nor will I suffer it.’ 

(e) Jeering contradiction : Cure. I. iii. 11, Pn. Est lepida. Pa. Ni- 
mis lepida. Pn. Sum Dcus. Pa. Imo, homo non magni preti. ‘I am a 
God,’ exclaims Phaedromus in his rapture. ‘ No,’ rejoins Palinurus, 

• nothing of the sort, you are a mean man of no great worth.’ 

(f) Kindly contradiction : Capt. V. i. 12, H. Phi/ocrales, numquam 
referre gratiam possim satis Proinde ut tu promeritus es de me et filio 
men. P. Imo poles Pater, et poteris, et ego potero, ‘ nay, not so, father.’ 

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(g) Courteous contradiction: Capt. IV. ii. 77, II. Egone f E. Tute. 
II. Turn lu mihi igitur herus es. E. Imo, bene volens, ‘ no, not your 
master, your well-wisher.’ 

4. Remonstrance : Phor. IV. iii. 34, D. Quis te islaec iussit loquif 
C. Imo non potuit melius pervenirier Eo quo nos volumus. Imo refers 
to the angry tone assumed by Demipho, * nay, you ought not to 
blame me upon that account, for in no way could the point we have 
in view be better reached so also in Heaut. IV. v. 49, C. Hand 
faciam. S. Imo , a/iis si licet, tibi non licet : 0 nines te in lauta et bene 
acta parte putanl. C. Quin cgonut iam ad earn deferam. S. Imo, filium 
lube potius : the first imo is used in a tone of complimentary remon- 
strance, ‘ no, no, you must not act thus, such tconduct would be 
inconsistent with the high reputation you enjoy;’ the second imo is 
simply ‘ no, no, a better plan will be to desire your son to convey it.’ 
Again, II. iv. 20, Sure, vix sub/ero. Hoccine me miserum non licere meo 
modo ingenium frui ? S. Imo, ut patrem tuum vidi esse habitum, diu 
etiam duras dabit, i. e. ‘ nay, be not so impatient, for as far as I have 
seen the temper of your father he will yet for a long time make it 
hard lines for you;’ Andr. V. i. 2, C. Satis pericli coepi adire : orandi 
iam finem face, Dum s/udeo opsequi tibi, pene inlusi vitam filiae. S. Imo 
enim nunc quam maxume aps te postulo atque oro, Chrcme, ' nay, say not 
so, for now above all,’ &c. ; Heaut. V. ii. 29, C. Inrides in re tanla, 
neque me quicquam consi/io adiuvas i S. Imo, et ibi nunc sum, et usque 
id egi dudum, dum lotquitur pater, ‘ nay, say not so, you wrong me,' &c. 

5. Polite disclaimer: Phor. II. ii. 23, G. Non potest satis pro merilo 
ab illo tibi referri gratia. P. Imo enim nemo satis pro merito gratiam 
regi refer!, ‘ nay, not so, for no one in my position (i. e. a parasite) 
can ever show sufficient gratitude to his protector.’ 

6. Deprecating the anger of another: Heaut. II. iii. 108, 5 . Con- 
caluit, quid vis f C. Redi, redi. S. Adsum, die, quid est? Iam hoc 
quoque negabis tibi p/acere. C. Imo, Sure, Et me, et meum amorem et 
famam permitto tibi, ‘ nay, speak not so, Syrus.’ 

II. Imo is used to correct the statement of a speaker, or to qualify 
or modify some expression which he has employed, and which is 
regarded by the other speaker as inaccurate or inappropriate, such 
qualification or modification being frequently introduced for the pur- 
pose of strengthening the phrase to which it applies. It will be seen 
from some of the examples which follow that in order to catch 
the full force of imo it is necessary to attend closely to the train 
of thought passing through the minds of those who support the 
dialogue, and occasionally to fill up gaps. 

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l y 8 


1. Correction of a positive blunder: Cist.' II. i. 37, A. I tuque me 
luno regina el lovis supremi film, 1 toque me Sa/urnus pot runs eius. 
M. Kms tor , pater. A. I toque me Ops opulenta Utius avia. At. Imo, 
mater quidem , ‘ no, no, Ops was his mother, not his grandmother 
here the correction of the first mistake is introduced by Ecastor. 

Simple correction: Cist. II. iii. 22, P. An, amabo, meretrix ilia est, 
quae illam sus/ulit ? L. Imo meretrix fuit. The last words must not 
be translated ‘yes, she was,’ but the emphasis depends upon the 
change of tense from the present est to the past fuit. Phanostrata 
asks, ‘ what, tell me, I beg, is that woman who brought hint up an 
hetaera?’ to which Lampadius replies, ‘no, she is not, but she was: 
she is an old woman now.’ 

The use of imo in the following passage must be ranked under this 
head; Eun. III. i. 17, Thraso is boasting of the confidence reposed 
in him by the Rex whom he served, and goes on, T. Turn me con- 
vivam solum abducebat sibi. G. Hui ! Regem elegantem narras. T. Imo 
sic homo est Perpaucorum hominum. G. Imo nullorum arbitror, Si 
tecum vivit : here, in each case, imo introduces a correction : G. ‘ You 
describe a king fastidious in the choice of his associates,’ to which 
Thraso, all unconscious of the contemptuous irony of Gnatho, replies, 
T. ‘ Nay (you must not suppose that he has many associates), such 
as he is towards me (although treating me with the highest distinc- 
tion), he is one who bestows his friendship on very' few men,' on 
which Gnatho remarks aside, ‘ nay, (say rather) on none at all, if he 
lives with you,’ the emphasis being on nullorum hominum, ‘ on none 
who deserve the name of men, if you are a sample of his favourites.’ 

2. Again, imo is often used to correct and improve some expres- 
sion, the correction frequently consisting in the substitution of a 
strong word for a weak one; Eun. IV. vii. 41, T. Quid nunc agimus ? 
G. Quin redeamus : iam haec tibi aderil supplieans Vitro. T. C redin ? 
G. Imo eerie, novi ingenium mulierum : here imo certe does not mean 
‘ yes, assuredly,' but imo is introduced with reference to the word 
credin, which implies a certain degree of doubt. The true translation 
is, therefore, T. ‘Do you believe that?’ G. ‘(Believe it!) no, no, 
(‘ believe’ is too weak a word,) I am sure of it;’ Phor. I. it. 95, 
D. Non mullum habet Quod del forlasse. G. Imo nihil, nisi spem meram, 
which we must render, D. ‘Perhaps he has not much to give.’ G. ‘No, 
(‘mullum’ is not the word,) he has nothing;’ Eun. II. iii. 36, C. Is, 
dum sequor hanc, fit mihi obviam. P. Incommode, hercle. C. Imo enim- 
vero infeliciter, Nam incommoda alia sunt dicciu/a, Parmeno. Imo refers 
to incommode. ‘No. ‘ incommode ’ is not the word, you should have 

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said ‘ infeliciter' Adel. V. viii. a, D. Ego vtro iubeo , et in hoc re, el 
a/iis omnibus Quam niaxunte unam facere nos hanc familiam, Colere, 
adiuvare, adiungere. A. Ila quaeso, pater. M. Ilaud atiter censco. 
D. I mo hercle i/a nobis decet : here into indicates an exception taken 
to the word censco as too feeble : M. ‘ My sentiments are the same. 
D. ‘ Nay, (‘ censco’ is not the word, this is not a matter of opinion or 
sentiment,) it is our duty ;’ Eun. V. ii. 33, C. At nunc dehinc spero 
acternam inter nos gratiam Fore, Thais : saepe ex huiusmodi re quapiam 
et Mato principio magna familiaritas Confiata est : quid si hoc quis- 
piam voluit Deus ? T. Equidem pot in earn partem accipiiu/ue et volo. 
C. Imo i/a quaeso : here into refers to the words accipio et volo as 
contrasted with the more earnest quaeso. We may thus paraphrase 
the passage : T. ‘ Assuredly I am ready to view the matter under this 
aspect (i. e. as intended by the Gods to establish ‘ ae/enut gratia’ 
between us) and I am willing that such may be the result.’ C. ‘ Nay, 
(‘ready and willing’ are not the words) I implore the Gods that this 
may came to pass.’ 

When imo is employed to correct and strengthen, it may frequently 
be translated by 1 nay, more ;’ Adel. III. iv. 36, H. I lunc abduce, 
rind, quaere rent. G. Imo hercle extorque, ‘ nay, more (take stronger 
measures still), wrench the truth out of him by torture;’ Eun. III. v. 
14, A. Karra is/uc, quaeso, quid siet. C. Imo ego te opsecro hercle ut 
audios, 1 nay, more, (not only will I tell you as you request, but) I 
implore you to listen Phor. V. viii. 58, K. Satis libi est? P. Imo 
vero pulcre discedo et probe Et praeter spent : here imo refers to salt’s : 
‘ nay, more than that (not only am I content, but) I come off glo- 
riously and beyond my expectations ;’ Heaut. IV. viii. 1 1 , AI. Erravi: 
res acta : quanta de spe decidi I C. Into, haec quidem, quae apud me 
est, Clitophemis est Arnica, ‘nay (that is not all), more than that;’ so 
in Phor. V. viii. 54, into means ‘nay, more, I have not done yet;’ 
Aul. IV. x. 51, L. Filiam ex te tu habes. E. Imo, cccillam domi : 
here, at first sight, we might suppose that imo was equivalent to 
simple ‘ yes,’ but the true force is ‘ nay, more than that, not only 
have I a daughter, but she is there in my house even now ;’ Hec. V. 
iv. 29, Pamphilus (?'. 26) enjoins silence uj>on Bacchis {tuque opus est 
adeo muitito), who replies, Imo etiam hoc qui occultari facilius credos, 
dabo, ‘ nay, more, (not only will I keep the secret) but I will supply 
you with information,’ &c. See other examples of into etiam in 
Andr. IV. i. 31, 50, ii. 25, Phor. V. vi. 37, in all of which ‘ nay more' 
is the proper translation. 

This force of imo is well developed in the Bacchides II. ii. 27. 

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Pistoclerus having pointed out to Chrysalus the residence of Bacchis, 
the latter exclaims, Vt isluc est Itpidum / proxumae viciniat Habitat: 
it quidnam meminil Mnesilochi i P. Rogas? Jmo unice unurn p/urumi 
pendit. C. Papae! P. Into ut cum , credis , miser a a mans desiderat ! 
C. Saturn isluc. P. Imo, Chrusale, hem, non tantutum Vmquarn inter - 
mittit ternpus quin cum nomine/. C. Panto hercle melior Bacchis. 
P. Imo . . . C. Imo, hercle abiero Potius. P. Hum invi/us rcm bene 
gestam audis herii which may be translated, C. * How jolly that is 1 
she is actually living next door — and docs she retain any recollection 
of Mnesilochus ?’ P. ‘Do you ask? Nay, more, not only does she 
remember him, but she prizes him as one without a rival.’ C. ‘ You 
don't say so !' P. ‘ Nay, more, how eagerly does she (do you believe 
me?) pining in love long for him absent!’ C. ‘That’s capital!’ 
P. ‘ Nay, more, she never suffers any time, however short, to elapse 
without speaking about him.’ C. ‘ So much more to the credit of 
Bacchis.' P. ‘ Nay, more,’ . . . — but here Chrysalus getting bored 
by the repetition of imo interrupts Pistoclerus with — ‘ Nay, more, I tell 
you that I'll take myself off rather than listen to any more of your 
‘ Nay mores.’ ’ 

Imo may also be translated by ‘nay, rather’ when used to correct 
a statement which might give rise to a false impression, or when 
advice is given at variance with some previous proposal ; Phor. III. 
ii. 19, P. O fortunatissime Antipho ! A. Egone f P. Cui quod amas 
domi est : Nec cum huiusmodi umquam usus venit ut conflictares malo. 
A. Mihin domi est i imo, id quod aiunt, auribus teneo lupum: Nam ne- 
que quomodo a me amittam invenio, neque uti retineam scio, ‘ (there is 
no cause to congratulate me,) nay, rather, I may apply to myself the 
proverb, I have hold of a wolf by the ears (I have caught a Tartar);’ 
Adel. V. iii. 55, D. . . . rus eras cum filio Cum primo lucu ibo hinc. 
M. Imo de node censeo, ‘ nay, rather, I advise you to go at nightfall.’ 

Sometimes a whole sentence must be supplied mentally in order to 
bring out clearly the force of imo; thus Andr. III. iii. 15, C. Sed si 
ex ea re plus mali est quam commodi V/rique, id oro te, in commune ut 
consulas, Quasi ilia tua sit, Pamphi/ique ego sim pater. S. Imo i/a volo, 
itaque postulo ut fiat, Chreme : here imo refers to the tone of entreaty 
assumed by Chremes, and especially to the word oro, ‘ it is unneces- 
sary for you to use words of entreaty as if my wishes were different 
from your own; no, no, on the contrary, ita volo, i/a postulo ;’ so also 
IV. i. 1, Hoccine est credibile aut memorabite, Tanta vecordia innata 
quoiquam ut siet, Vt mail's gaudeant atque ex incommodis Alter ius sua ut 
comparent commoda P Ah! Idne est rerump imo id est genus hominum 

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pessumum In denegando modo quis pudor paululum adesl, ‘ is it really 
true, (you will ask, that there are such persons. Yes, there are, but 
bad as these are whom I have described, they are not the worst sort 
of people:) no, the worst are those who’ &c., and then he proceeds 
to characterize a class. 

III. In certain cases imo may be translated ‘ yes,’ but this happens 
only when imo is used in reply to a negative proposition, and where 
‘yes’ is in reality equivalent to ‘on the contrary;’ Aul. III. vi. 9, 
E. Neque, pol, Megadore, mihi tuque cuiquam paupcri Opinione melius 
res structa est domi. M. Imo esl, et Di faciant uti siel, &c. : here imo 
contradicts the negative proposition introduced by tuque, ‘yes it is 
(i. e. on the contrary, it is, &c.) Bac. II. iii. 81, N. Sed vos nihilne 
adtulistis inde auri domum ? C. Imo, etiam, verurn quantum adtulerit 
nescio : here imo refers to nihil, ‘ have you not brought any gold 
home from thence?’ ‘Yes, we have (i. e. on the contrary, we have), 
even now, but how much I know not;’ Hec. II. i. 31, Y. Non mea 
opera, neque pol culpa evetiil. L. Imo maxume : here imo refers to 
non . . . neque, ‘ yes, (i. e. on the contrary) it did, in the highest degree ;’ 
Adel. II. ii. 39, A 1 . Num quid vis quin abeam ? Imo hercle hoc quaeso, 
Sure : ‘You don’t want anything, do you, to hinder me from going 
away?’ S. ‘Yes, (on the contrary, I do want something,) I have to 
beg of you’ &c. ; Hec. V. iv. 35, Pam. Nescis, Parmeno, Quantum 
hodie profueris mihi, el ex quanta aerumna exlraxeris. Par. Imo vero 
scio: neque hoc inprudens feci : ‘ You don’t know'.’ ‘ Y’es, (on the con- 
trary',) I do know very well :’ or we might translate, ‘ no, I am not 
ignorant, I do know well ;’ Cas. II. vi. 30, Stalino, Chalinus, and 
Olympio are wrangling before proceeding to cast lots : A. Quod 
lonum atque forlunatum mihi sit. O. Ita vero et mihi. C. Non. O. Imo 
hercle. C. Imo mihi hercle. Stalino having prayed that the result 
may be fortunate for himself, Olympio adds, ‘ be it so, and for me 
also,’ upon which Chalinus interposes, ‘ no (not for you) ;’ Olympio 
retorts, with reference to the non of Chalinus, ‘ yes, (on the contary,) 
for me, I say,’ and then Chalinus, ‘no, not for you, but for me:’ 
here, in the same line, we may translate the first imo by ‘yes’ and 
the second by ‘ no,’ but there is, in reality, no inconsistency, for in 
each case imo is employed to contradict the preceding speaker. 

In the following passage imo conveys dissent from the form in 
which the preceding speaker expresses himself, but assent to the 
substance of his proposal ; Epid. II. ii. 95, E. Vbi erit em)>la, ul 
aliquo ex urbe amoveas: nisi quid lua Secus sentenlia est. P. Imo, docle, 
Epidicus says, ‘ this is the plan which I recommend,’ and then adds 

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politely, ‘ unless your opinion is in aught at variance with mine,’ to 
which Periphanes replies, ‘ no, (I do not differ from you, on the con- 
trary) you have contrived cleverly.’ 

Imo si scias is a combination in which into is said to have some- 
times the force of ‘ yes’ used as a direct affirmative. But if we 
examine carefully the passages referred to, it will be found that they 
have not been interpreted correctly: thus Eun. II. iii. 61, Parmeno 
is describing to Chaerea the gift presented to Thais, C. Quis is est 
lam potens cum tanto munere hoc f P. Miles Thraso Phaedriac rivalis. 
C. Duras fratris partes praedicas. P. Imo enim si scias quod donum 
huic dono contra compare!. Turn magis id dicas : C. ‘According to what 
you state my brother has a hard part to play.’ P. * No, no, (it is 

too soon for you to speak of that, what I have mentioned is a 

mere trifle,) for if you were to know what gift your brother is 
providing in opposition to this gift, you would have better grounds 
for saying so.’ ‘Yes’ is, at first sight, the natural translation of 
imo in this passage, but cnim is introduced to explain why Parmeno 
says ‘no’ when ‘yes’ might have been expected. Exactly similar 
is Heaut. III. iii. 38, 6'. Pessuma haec est meretrix. C. Iia videtur. 
S. Imo si scias. Vah t vide quod inceptet /acinus, ‘ nay, (it would be 
time enough for you to say so,) if you were to know all;’ and 

again, IV. v. 22, C. Probe. S. Die sodes. C. Nimium inquam. 

S. Imo si scias, Sed porro auscutta quod supercst fallaciae, ‘ nay, (not 
so fast, say not so yet,) if you were to know all (you might say so), 
but listen,’ <fcc. 

The following passage from the Andria, IV. ii. 25, presents con- 
siderable difficulty, and is quoted as an example of imo signifying 
plain ‘yes.’ Davus having announced to Pamphilus and Charinus 
that he had hit upon a scheme which would extricate the former from 
his embarrassments, Pamphilus asks (v. 22), P. Quid facies ? cedo. 
D. Dies mi hi hie ut sit satis rereor Ad agendum: nc vacuom esse me 
nunc ad narrandttm credos , Proinde hinc vos amotimini : nam mi hi 
impedimento estis. P. Ego hanc visam. D. Quid tu ? Quo hinc te agis f 
C. Vcrum v is dicam ? O. Imo etiam Narrationis incipit mihi inilium. 
C. Quid me fietf It will be seen that Davus declares that he has so 
much to do that he has no time for explanations, and tells the young 
men to take themselves off, as they are in his way. On this Pam- 
philus says that he will go and pay a visit to Glycerium ; Charinus 
lingers, and Davus turning to him sharply asks, ‘ and whither are you 
going ?’ Charinus, instead of making a short direct reply, asks, Verum 
vis dicam. Davus from these words anticipates that the young man 

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is about to begin a long story to which he has no time to listen, 
replies quickly, ‘ certainly not and then adds testily, ‘ even now (at 
this critical time) he is entering upon some history or other.’ The 
punctuation ought to be, Into : etiam narrationis incipit initium. 
The common punctuation is Imo etiam : and the translation given is 
‘yes, certainly:’ which is manifestly altogether inconsistent with the 
impatient haste of Davus. 


Although Modo does not present the same complications as Adeo, 
we nevertheless find the discussions with regard to this word overlaid 
with perplexing and useless distinctions and refinements. 

The fact is that modo employed as an adverb has two, and not 
more than two, separate meanings, which are represented in English by 

I. ‘Only’ or ‘ provided only.’ 

II. ‘Just now.’ 

These have no obvious connection, although in reality the second 
is only a particular case of the first, but both flow directly and easily 
from the proper signification of modus. We shall examine them 

I. Mode signifying ‘ only' or ‘ provided only.’ The primitive 
meaning of modus is ‘a measure,’ and hence ‘a definite quantity’ 
of any object.* Thus modo conveys the idea of something definite, 
bounded, and therefore limited; Most. I. iii. 43, Nihilo ego, quam 
nunc tu, amata sum, atque uni modo gessi morem, ‘ I devoted myself to 
one person only,’ or, in other words, ‘ I limited my affections to a 
single lover ;’ Pseud. I. iii. 30, Putin ut semel modo, Ballio, hue cum 
lucro respicias, ‘ once only,’ ‘ limiting yourself to this single occasion ;’ 
ii. 88, Tu aulern quae pro capite argentum mihi iam iamque saepe numeras, 
Ea pacisci modo scis, sed quae pacta es non set's solvere, ‘ you know only 
how to make a bargain, but do not know how to keep it/ ‘your 
knowledge is limited to making a bargain;’ As. II. ii. 8, Aetatem velim 
servire Libanum ut conveniam modo, ‘ I would be content to remain 
a slave for ever could I only meet Libanus,’ ‘ provided only,’ ‘ with 
this limitation;’ Phor. I. ii. 9, D. Quid istuc est i G. Scies Modo ut 
tacere possis, ‘ provided only,’ ‘ with this limitation, that you can hold 
your tongue;’ Cic. de Off. III. 19, § 77, Huic igilur viro bono, quern 
Fimbria etiam, non modo Socrates noverat, ‘ an acquaintance with whom 

* Cf. modiuj, modulus, modular, moduleimen. 

D d 2 

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was not limited to Socrates but extended to Fimbria also Cic. de 
Div. I. 39, § 36, Nemo aliter philosophus sensit, in quo modo esse t 
auctoritas, ‘ provided only he were a man of weight.’ Cicero wishes 
to qualify the expression Nemo philosophus as too comprehensive, and 
to limit his assertion to those whose names carried auctorilas with 
them. Cic. de Senect. VII. § 22, Manent ingcnia senibus, modo per- 
manent studium et industria, ‘ provided only here again modo fixes 
a limit to the proposition manent ingenia senibus, which would not be 
true unless thus restricted. Phor. I. ii. 17, is senem per epistulas 
Per/exit, modo non monies auri pollicens, ‘ only not promising,’ ‘ pro- 
mising everything short of whole hills of gold,’ ‘ the only limit to his 
promises was’ &c. This is the Greek pAvov Avxi Cf. Tibull. I. i. 
25. Modo is frequently used after an imperative, in dialogue, when 
a certain amount of impatience or indignation is implied : so As. V. 
ii. t9, Pace modo, ‘only hold your tongue,’ ‘I limit my request to 
this,’ ‘ all I ask is, hold your tongue;’ Men. IV. i. 4, Quin tu taces . . . 
sequere hac modo, ‘ only follow me,’ ‘ I limit my request to this,’ 1 all 
I ask is;’ Rud. III. iii. 29, Sedete hie modo; Men. I. iii. 32, Propera 
modo; Trin. II. iv. 182, Quin tu i modo ... 1 modo . . . quin tu i modo 
. . . abi modo . . . i modo ... 1' modo ...» modo . . . i modo, i modo, i 

II. Modo signifying ‘just now’ or ‘this moment.’ Modus, as 
stated above, signifies generally ‘ a measure,’ specially it denotes ‘ a 
measure of time,’ ‘ an unit of time,’ and is employed with reference 
to the unit of time immediately preceding an event ; or, during which 
an event is taking place ; or, immediately following an event. So in 
English we say, 1. he was here just now, this moment, this instant; 
2. he is here just now (this moment, this instant) ; 3. he will be here 
just now, this moment, this instant. 

1. Past time: As. V. ii. 76, D. Iam opsecro, uxor. A. Nunc 
uxorem me esse meministi tuam ? Modo quom dicta in me ingerebas, 
odium, non uxor, eram; Andr. I. ii. 2, Ita Davom modo timere sensi, 
ubi nup/ias Futuras esse audivit. 

2. Present time: Adel. III. i. 1, S. Opsecro, mea nutrix, quid nunc 
fiet ? C. Quid fiat rogas ? Rede edepol spero. S. Modo dolor es, mea tu, 
occipiunt primulum : —on which Donatus observes, “Evidenter hie modo 
temporis praesentis est adverbium." On Hec. III. v. 8 the same 
grammarian remarks, “ Difficile invenitur praesentis temporis modo." 

3. Future time: Andr. III. iv. 15, Domum modo ibo. We fre- 
quently find a double modo, in which case the first signifies ‘ at one 
moment,' the second ‘at another moment,’ and hence ‘sometimes 

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. . . sometimes:’ so Eun. IV. iv. 47, modo ait , modo negat, ‘at one 
moment he says “ yes,” and the next moment he says “ no.” ’ In 
the poets and later writers various adverbs are substituted for the 
second modo, such as nunc, aliquando, interdum, ac statim, car pc, non- 
numquam, rursus, See., but these constructions are hardly to be found 
in the dramatic writers. 


Every one has felt that in animated conversation or eager discussion 
the thoughts of a speaker not unfrequently outstrip the powers of 
utterance, and hence single words or even whole clauses are sup- 
pressed, and must be supplied by the hearer. 

The same thing happens in vehement declamation, sometimes 
unintentionally and sometimes designedly on the part of the orator, 
and, generally, such an omission may naturally take place whenever 
a speaker is, or wishes to appear to be, under the influence of great 
eagerness or strong passion. The words which indicate a chasm of 
this kind, in the dramatic writers, are for the most part nam and 
enim, which serve to introduce an explanation of some difficulty 
suggested by what goes before, although the connecting link must 
often be mentally supplied. 

I. Nam. Amph. Prol. 104. Mercury, in the Prologue to the Am- 
phitruo, seeks to startle the audience by announcing that Jupiter will 
appear in person on the stage, and take part in the action of the play. 
He then informs them that the scene is laid in Thebes, proceeds to 
give an account of Amphitruo and Alcumena, and tells us how the 
former had some time previously gone forth in command of the Theban 
army to war against the Teleboans: Is (sc. Amphitruo ) priusquam 
hinc abiit ipsemet in txcrcitum, Gravidam Alcumcnam uxortm fecit suam. 
Nam ego vos novisse credo iam ut sit pater meus, Qttam liber harum rerum 
multarum siet, Quantusque amator quom quid complacitum est \semel : Is 
amare occepit Alcumcnam clam virum, — where the nam ^introduced 
most abruptly, and we must supply the train of thought somewhat 
after this fashion : ‘ having mentioned the beautiful Alcumena, you 
will no longer feel any surprise that Jupiter should be mixed up with 
this business, for, I doubt not, you are all by this time well aware of 
what sort of person my father is,' &c. ; True. IV. iv. 3, Blitea et lutca 
est meretrix, nisi quae sapit in vino ad rem suam. Si alia membra vino 
madeant, cor sit saltern sobrium. Nam mihi dividiajsl, tonstricem meam 
sic mulcatam mate, ‘ I am led to make this remark, for I am annoyed,’ 

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&c. ; Poen. V. iii. i, G. Quis pultal ? M. Qui te proxumus est. G. Quid 
vis ? M. Eho Novistin tu illunc tunicatum hominem, qui siet? G. Nam 
qucm ego adspicio t Proh supreme Iupiler ! here great wonder is 
expressed, ‘ can I believe my eyes 1 I am amazed, for whom do I 

II. Enim. Enim is more common under such circumstances, and 
this use of the word has, in very many cases, been overlooked by 
commentators, who, in such examples as those which follow, assert 
that enim is equivalent to enim vero, assuming that enim vero is equi- 
valent to the simple vero , and may signify merely ‘truly’ or ‘indeed,’ 
being little better than an expletive. But we maintain that in the 
earlier writers enim vero always signifies * for in truth,’ as enim always 
signifies ‘ for,’ and that both are uniformly employed to introduce an 
explanation. Frequently the blank is very easily supplied, an affirma- 
tion or negation only being suppressed : thus Pers. II. v. 16, 6". Quia 
boves bini hie sunt in crumcna. T. Emitte sodes, ne enices fame , sine 
ire pastum. S. Enim metuo ut possim in bubilem reicere ne vagentur, 
‘ nay, not so, for I am afraid that I shall not be able to drive them 
back again to their stall, and that they will stray ;’ Most. III. iii. 23 
(IV. ii. 23), Tr. Quia tibi umquam quicquam , postquam tuus sum, ver- 
borum dedi ! T/i. Ego enim cavi rede, ‘ no, you have not, for I have 
been well on my guard.’ 

Sometimes the suppressed clause is less simple, but, in general, it 
may be very easily deduced from the context: thus Epid. V. i. 41, 
A. Accipe argentum hoc, Danista : hie sunt quadraginta minae, Si quid 
erit dubium inmutabo. D. Benefedsti: bene vale. S. Nunc enim tu 
mea es : here, in all probability, the enim is explanatory of an action 
or gesture — Stratippocles having paid the money proceeds to lay 
hold of the slave whom he had purchased, and upon her shrinking 
back he exclaims, ‘ I have a right to take possession of you, for you 
are now my property ;’ Bac. IV. iv. 51, M. Nunc quid nos vis facere ? 
C. Enim nihil, nisi ut ametis inpero : ‘ Now what do you want us to 
do?’ ‘ Be easy as to that, for I bid you do nothing except’ Ac. Cas. 
II. iv. 1, S. Qui ilium Di omnes Deaeque perdant ! C. Te uxor aiebat 
tua Me vocarc. S. Ego enim vocari iussi, ‘ she said truly, for I ordered 
you to be called Pers. IV. iv. 59, T. Sequere me : adduco hanc, si 
quid vis ex hac percontarier. D. Enim volo te adesse, * by all means 
will I question her now, for I wish you to be present ;’ Most. V. ii. 
11 (iii. 11), Tu. Verbero, etiam inrides? Tr. Quian me pro te ire ad 
ceruvn autumn ? Th. Non enim ibis, ego ferare faxo, ut meruisti, in 
crucem, ‘ you need say nothing about going to supper, you shall not 




go, I will cause you to be carried to quite another place — to the 
gibbet;’ so v. 23, 77 /. Maxume accipito hanc ad te litem. Tr F.nim 
istic captio esl, ‘ by no means ’ or ‘ no, I thank you, for there is a 
trick in that and the same words are repeated in Epid. V. ii. 36 ; 
Men. II. i. 25, Mrs. Molestus ru sis: non tuo hoc fict modo. Mrs Hem, 
Illoc enim verbo esse me servant scio, ' I am done for by that expression, 
I am reminded that I am a slave;’ Cas. II. vi. 19, C. Quid esl? 
S. Dicam enim, mea mulsa : ‘ What does all this mean ?’ ‘ Listen (or, 
soyez tranquille), for I will tell you, my sweet one;’ Trin. V. ii. 8, 
C. Esl i/a ut tu diet's: sed ego hoc nequco mirari satis, Eum sororem 
despondisse suam in lam fortem familiam, Lusi/eli quidem Phillonis filio. 

L. Enim me nominal. C. Familiam optumam obcupavit. L. Quid ego 
cesso hos conloqui ? Lysiteles has not yet shown himself, but is listening 
to the conversation of Charmides and Callicles : on hearing his own 
name he makes a step forward — ‘ I had better appear, for he names 
me,’ and in the next line expresses himself more fully, Quid ego cesso, 
&c.; I. ii. 23, C. Vin commutcmus ? tuam ego dticam et tu meam i Faxo 
hand lan/illum dederis verborum mihi. Jlf. Numquam enim tu, credo, 
mihi inprudenti obrepseris, ‘ do not crow so loud, for I don’t believe 
that you will ever catch me asleep.’ The text however is not certain. 
The MSS. have all namque enim, for which Camerarius substitutes 
numquam enim, Ritschl nempe enim, others neque enim; Pocn. IV. ii. 
32,./!/. Habe rem paclam. S. Si futu rum esl, do tibi operant hanc. 

M. Quomodo ? S. VI, enim, ubi mihi vapulandum esl, tu corium sub/eras : 
here enim refers to the words si /uturum esl. Syncerastus agrees to 
aid Milphio, si f uturum esl . . . ‘if what I stipulate for is promised . . .’ 
Milphio asks for an explanation, Quomodo ? ‘ how, what mean you, 
what do you require ?’ and Syncerastus replies, 1 1 shall aid you if my 
terms are complied with ; and I say this, for I bargain that when I 
am to be beaten you are to supply the hide (your own) to be wal- 
loped,' i. e. ‘I am ready to help you if you relieve me from all risk 
of the consequences.’ 

In the following passage enim, at first sight, is equivalent simply to 
‘indeed’ or ‘truly;’ Most III. i. 24 (20), Tranio having heard, to 
his consternation, that Theuropides had met the man who sold the 
house and had questioned him about the truth of the pretended 
murder, exclaims, Mctuo tie technae meae perpetuo perierint. 'Tu. Quid 
tutc tecum i Tr. Nihil enim : sed die mihi. The difficulty here arises 
solely from defective punctuation. We ought to write, Tu. Quid lute 
tecum ? Tr. Nihil — enim — sed die mihi. Theuropides perceiving that 
Tranio, absent and distracted, was talking to himself, says sharply. 

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Quid tute tecum? ‘what’s that you’re muttering to yourself?’ Tranio 
starts and replies in confusion, Nihil, ‘ O nothing, I was speaking 
for . . .’ and then breaks off abruptly in order, before committing 
himself, to ascertain exactly what Theuropides had heard from the 
seller. The broken sentences are a mark of confusion and em- 

On the same principle we explain Cas. II. vi. n. The sortitio 
which is to decide the fate of Casina is about to take place in the 
presence of Stalino and his wife Cleostrata. Stalino who, for his own 
ends, is eager on behalf of Olympio, says, .S'. Adpone hie si/ellam, 
sortes cedo mihi : animum advortite Atque ego censui aps te posse hoc me 
inpetrare, uxor mea, Casina ut uxor mihi daretur, et nunc etiam censeo. 

C. Tibi daretur ilia ! S. Mihi enim — ah ! id non volui dicere, Dum 
mihi volui huic dixi : atque adeo dum mihi cupio perperam Iamdudum 
hercle fabulor. C. Pol tu quidem: atque etiam /act's. Stalino is so 
eager and agitated that he becomes thoroughly confused, and un- 
awares discloses the real state of his feelings. He begins by saying, 
‘ I thought, my dear wife, that I might have obtained from you this 
favour, that Casina should be made over as a wife to — ,’ and then 
mihi slips out instead of Olympioni. On this Cleostrata very naturally 
exclaims in wonder, ‘She given to you!’ Stalino, carried away by 
his excitement, does not at first perceive his blunder, and continues, 
‘ yes, to me, for — ,’ and then, becoming aware of what he had said, 
interrupts himself, ‘ no, no, I did not mean to say that,’ and then, in 
his terror, he gets hopelessly involved, and plunges deeper and deeper 
at every step. We ought therefore to punctuate, C. Tibi daretur 
ilia l S. Mihi, enim — ah l id non volui dicere, Dum mihi volui huic 
dixi, atque adeo dum mihi cupio — perperam Iamdudum, hercle, fabulor, 
&c., making another abrupt stop after cupio, where Stalino becomes 
sensible that he is still floundering, and endeavours to get out by- 
adding, ‘ by Hercules, I have been talking nonsense for some time.’ 
To this Cleostrata dryly assents, ‘yes, you have been and you are 
still talking nonsense.’ 

III. Quia enim. The combination Quia enim seems to be represented 
correctly by the idiomatic English phrase ‘for why,’ signifying ‘because;’ 
Cas. II. vi. 33, C. Quid tu id curas ? O. Quia enim metuo ne in aqua 
summa natet; Amph. II. iii. 34, A. Qui tibi istuc in menlem venit? 
S. Quia enim sero advenimus; Mil. IV. ii. ir, Pa. Quo argumento ? 
Pv. Quia enim loquitur laule et minume sordide; True. IV. ii. 19, 

D. Non ego nunc intro ad vos mittar ? A. Quidum quant miles rnagis ? 
D. Quia mint plus dedi. In all of the above quia enim introduces 

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a direct answer, accompanied by an explanation, to a direct question, 
and may be translated ‘ because.’ 

It will be unnecessary to examine the following passages at length. 
We shall merely give the references, and suggest the clauses to be 

Amph. I. i. 175. Mercury, in order to play upon the fears of 
Sosia, pretends to be groping about doubtfully in the dark : ‘ I cannot 
be mistaken, certe mint’ Sec., and then in the next line but one he 
continues, ‘ there is no doubt about it, hinc enim,’ &c.; Aul. III. v. 26, 
* I have a just claim, enim mihi quidem,’ &c. ; V. i. 4, ‘I cannot be 
mistaken, certo enim,’ &c. ; Bac. III. iii. 53, Lydus having exclaimed 
(». 51), Forlunalum Nicobulum qui ilium produxit sibi ! is interrupted, 
but continues in the next line but one, ‘ well may I say so, hie enim,’ 
but in fact it is not absolutely necessary to supply anything ; Capt. 

III. iv. 36, ‘ you expect to be believed, I suppose, lu enim repertus,' &c.; 

IV. ii. 80, ‘just so, non enim,’ &c. ; Cas. II. v. 15, ‘she is in a fine 
rage, negavi enim,’ &c., see v. 17; III. i. 11, Stalino having quoted 
a line from Naevius, Alcesimus replies, Meminero, on which Stalino 
sneeringly rejoins, ‘doubtless you do, nune enim It ,’ &c.; Men. I. ii. 52, 
the parasite exclaims, ‘ what do I say ? you may be easy upon that 
score,’ or ‘ it is quite unnecessary to ask such a question, id enim,’ See. ; 
Mil. II. v. 19, Sceledrus is in a state of bewilderment, Palaestrio asks, 
Quid me/uis f on which Sceledrus, Enim — ne nos perdiderimus uspiam, 

‘ I am afraid, for I fear lest,’ &c. ; iii. 12, ‘ no, no, non enim,’ Sec.; III. 
i. 215, ‘be easy, ego enim,' See.) IV'. ii. 27, ‘you need say no more, 
enim cognovi,’ Sec. ; Most. III. ii. 143 (1 4 1 ), it is scarcely necessary to 
supply anything here, ‘ the pillars are good enough if coated with 
pitch,’ non enim, Sec., ‘for the workmanship is excellent;’ Pers. II. ii. 
54, Sophoclidisca, in answer to a question, says, ‘ what’s your busi- 
ness?’ to which Pacgnium retorts, ‘I’ll let you see that it’s my business, 
enim non ibis . . . nisi,’ Sec; True. I. ii. 27 , 1 would punctuate At, enim 
amabo, sine me ire quo eas, and not At enim, amabo Sec. ; II. ii. 54, 
enim refers to what Stratilax liad said previously, ‘ I shall report your 
proceedings to the old gentleman, ... for he is one who,’ Sec. 

IV. Enim rero. The words enim vero signify ‘for in sooth,’ and serve 
to explain or illustrate some preceding statement. It is often neces- 
sary, as in the case of the simple enim, to supply a connecting clause, 
but this is, for the most part, easy and obvious; Capt. Prol. 22, Hie 
nune domi servit suo pa/ri, nee scit paler, Enim vero Di nos quasi pilas 
homines habenl, ‘ this may appear strange, but need not excite otlr 
wonder, for in sooth the Gods toss us men about as if wc were balls 

E C 

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in their hands;’ III. iv. a, H. Quo ilium nunc homintm proripuisse 
for as st dicam tx aedibus f T. Nunc tnim vtro ego occidi: tun! ad It 
hoslts, Tyndari, quid loquar ? 1 what will become of me ? for now in 
very sooth I am undone: the enemy is upon thee, Tyndaris !’ v. 75, 
A. Verum si quid metuis a me, iube me vinciri, volo, Dum istic itidem 
vinciatur. T. /mo, enim vero, Hegio, Istic qui volt vincialur, ‘ nay, not 
so, for in truth this would be unfair ; let him be cast into chains who 
is willing;' and v. 94, H. Quid tu ais f T. Me tuum esse servom, et 
te meum herum. H. Haud istuc rogo. Fuistin liber f T. Fui. A. Enim 
vero non fuit, nugas agit, ‘ it is false, for in truth he was not, he is 
deceiving you ;’ Cas. II. viii. 39, Chalinus overhears the conversation 
between Stalino and Olympio, and discovers the plan of the old man 
with regard to Casina; he then exclaims, Nunc pot ego demum in 
reclam redii semilam, Hie tpsus Casinam deperit : habeo viros : the 
dialogue goes on between Stalino and Olympio, and further dis- 
closures are made, upon this Chalinus, Enim vero hue aures magis 
sunt adhibendae mihi, lam ego uno in saltu lepide apros capiam duos, 
‘ I must keep quiet, for in truth I must employ my ears rather than 
any other members;’ Cure. I. iii. 19, Enim vero nequeo durare quin ego 
herum accusem meum, ‘ I must interfere, for in truth I can no longer 
refrain,’ &c.; Men. V. ii. 9a, A 1 . I bo adducam qui hunc hinc lo/lanl et 
domi devincianl, Priusquam turbarum quid facia t amplius. M. Enim 
vero nisi Occupo aliquid mihi consilium, hi domum me ad se auferent, * I 
must take some decided step, for in truth unless I am before-hand in 
forming some plan for myself,’ &c. We need not examine Cist II. 
i. 43, for the discourse of Alcesimarchus is designedly incoherent; he 
is raving. Amph. I. i. 109, Mercury declares his intention of be- 
fooling Sosia, Quando imago esl huius in me, certum est hominem eludere. 
Et enim vero quoniam formam cepi huius in me et slatum, Decet et facta 
moresque huius habere me similes item, ‘ and so I ought to do, for in 
sooth since,’ &c. ; v. x 88, M. Ain vero i S. Aio enim vero. M. Ver- 
ier 0, mentiris nunc iam, ‘say you so in truth?’ S. ‘I do say so, 
for in very sooth . . .’ and then he is interrupted by Mercury, who 
does not permit him to finish ; II. ii. 89, A. Verum tu magnum malum 
habebis, si hie suum officium facit : Ob istuc omen, ominalor, copies quod 
te condecct. S. Enim vero praegnanti oportet et malum et malum dari, 

‘ you say well, for in truth,’ &c., and then he proceeds to pun upon 
md/um and malum; v. 1 26 , A m. Tun’ me fieri advenisse din's ? A l. Tun' 
te abisse hodie hinc negasf Am. Ncgo enim vero, et me advenire nunc 
primum aio ad te domum, ‘ I do deny it, for in very truth I must deny 
it;’ v. 139, A. Secede hue tu, Sosia, Enim vero illud praeter alia mira 

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miror maxume, 1 1 am perplexed, for in truth,’ &c.; As. III. iii. 97, 
P. Amandone exorarier vis te, an osculando f L. Enim vero utr unique, 
‘ not by either singly, for in truth I desire both.’ The above exam- 
ples comprise the whole of the references to enim vero in the index 
of Weise. We may add Capt III. iv. 60 : Aristophontes, provoked 
beyond endurance by Tyndaris, exclaims, Enim vero iam nequeo con- 
lineri, ‘ I must fly at the fellow, for in truth I can no longer restrain 

V. Verum enim. Eun. IV. vi. 3, Vsque adeo ego illius ferre possum 
ineptias ei magnifica verba, Verba dum sin/, verum enim si ad rem con- 
ferentur, vapulabit, ‘ I can endure his folly and grandiloquent words 
provided they are words only, but there my forbearance ends ; for, to 
tell the truth, if he shall attempt to put in practice what he says, he 
shall be trounced.’ 

VII.— Q VI. 

Most. I. i. 55, Qui sc is, i. e. ‘how do you know?’ 

The use of Qui for quomodo or qua rations in direct questions is 
familiar to us from Horace, who employs it repeatedly in that sense,* 
as do Cicero and Persius. When the word is used in this manner 
many grammarians call it an adverb, but it is in reality an old form 
of the ablative of quis, and it stands for the ablative of the relative 
in all genders. 

Thus it is masculine in Most. V. ii. 38 (iii. 38), Faenus, sor/em, 
sumptumque omnem qui arnica \empta\ est; and so Cas. III. vi. 21, 
Most. I. iii 109, III. ii. 26, Pseud. I. iii. 115, Trin. I. ii. 92, 95, 
III. ii. 61, Eun. IV. vii. 9. 

It is feminine in T rin. III. ii. 50, Turn igitur tibi aquae erit cupido 
genus qui res tinguasluum ; and so As. III. i. 36, ii. 43, Most. I. iii. 
101, Trin. I. ii. 98, III. ii. 52, Rud. II. vii. 74, Andr. II. iv. 5. 

It is neuter in Most. III. L 7, Danis /a adcst qui dedit argentum faenori 
Qui arnica est empta; and so Pers. IV. iv. 41, Indie a minuno dalurus 
qui sis, qui duci queal, ‘name the lowest price at which you will 
dispose of her, at which she may be taken away by the purchaser,’ 
pretio being understood, which occurs frequently in die preceding 
lines. In the same scene, v. 109, Turn tu pauca in verba confer: qui 
datur, tanti indica; cf. Merc. II. iv. 20, Hec. V. L 23. 

* E.g. S. 1 . i. 1, iii. 138, II. ii. 19, iii. 108, 241, 260, 275, jii , vii. 96, 105, 
Epp. I. vi. 42, xvu 63, Ad. Pis. 462. 

F. e 2 

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Quicum is the ablative singular masculine in Cas. II. v. 9, Most. II. 
ii. 86 (85), Poen. III. vi. 3, Eun. IV. iv. 31, Heaut. I. ii. 4, IV. i. 2, 
Phor. V. L 32 ; and so quicumvis, Stich. IV. ii. 47. 

Quicum is the ablative singular feminine in Trin. IV. ii. 3, Stich. 
IV. i. 41, 42, Adel. III. iv. 31, IV. vii. 32. 

Qui in the ablative neuter is frequently equivalent to ‘ wherewithal ;’ 
thus Trin. II. iv. 160, Nam qui vivamus nihil est; I. ii. 151, Occlus/i 
linguam , nihil est qui respondeam ; True. II. vii. 24, Valeo ct venio ad 
minus vatentem , rt melius qui va/eal fero; Eun. III. ii. 34, Nam herclt, 
nemo posset, sat seio, Qui haberet, qui par aret alium, hunc perpeti ; other 
examples in Trin. Prol. 14, II. ii. 73, III. ii. 27, 74, Phor. V. ii. 5. 

This form of the ablative is found in some compounds also, e. g. 
quivis, in Adel. II. iii. i, Aps quivis homine, quom est opus, heneficium 
adcipere gaudeas ; quiquam, in As. IV. i. 9, neque cum quiquam alio 
quidem; and Pers. IV. iii. 8, Nee satis a quiquam homine accepi ; 
aliqui, in Most. I. iii. 18, Ergo hoc oh verbum te, Scapha, dona bo ego 
hodie aliqui; and True. V. 30, 31, Quamquam ego tibi videor slullus, 
gaudere aliqui me volo: Nam quamquam es be I la, malo tuo es, nisi tecum 
aliqui gaudeo ; cf. Mil. IV. iv. 45, Stich. I. ii. to. 

It being thus established that qui is an ablative, and that it may 
be used elliptically, we now readily understand how qui, standing for 
quo modo or qua ratione, is employed in direct questions. This use 
of the word is so common in the dramatists that examples may be 
easily accumulated, e. g. Andr. I. i. 26, III. ii. 21, 22, Merc. I. 71, 
Most. IV. ii. 7 (i. 30), III. i. iii (107), Rud. I. iii. 37, Stich. II. i. 29, 
Trin. I. ii. 50, II. ii. 49. Qui set's, which we have in our text, occurs 
several times in the Andria alone, e. g. II. i. 2, ii. 15, III. iii. 33, 43. 

Sometimes no verb follows, and then qui is equivalent to ‘ how 
so?’ thus Phor. V. vii. 22, P. Satin superbe inluditis me d D. Quid 
P. Rogas d and so Andr. V. iv. 51, Eun. IV. vi. 7. 

Sometimes qui is followed by cedo, as Andr. I. i. 123, Qui, cedod 
or by dum, as Most. II. ii. 20, T. Quid ros, insanin estis d Tit. Qui 
dumd ‘how now?’ ‘what do you mean?' and again III. ii. 44, Hec. 
III. i. 39: or by iam, Stich. I. i. 37, Tace sis ! cave sis audiam ego 
isfuc. Cave, posthac ex te. P. Nam qui iam d ‘for why?’ ‘how now?’ 
asking an explanation. Cf. Rud. I. ii. 63, II. vi. 38, 54. In Eun. I. 
ii. 4 1 we find Qui isltic d 

But qui is used as equivalent to quo mode, ‘ how,' ‘ in what way,' 
where there is no direct question; thus Heaut. II. iii. 121, At hoc 
demiror qui tarn facile potueris Persuadere i/li; and so Trin. IV. iii. 43, 
Hoc qui in mentem vencrit mihi, reipsa modo commonitus sum ; and 

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Andr. II. i. 7, Ah! quanto salius est, te id dare operam qui is turn amorem 
ex anitno amovcas tuo. For other examples see Most. II. i. 41, Trin. 
I. iL 126, Andr. II. i. 34, 35, Eun. V. iii. 2, n, Ileaut. III. i. 83, 
Hec. II. iii. 6, III. i. 8, V. iv. 29, Phor. I. ii. 8o, II. iii. 49, 51, V. vi. 
15, 49; to which we may add Merc. II. i. 34, Conlubilum est il/ud 
mihi nescio qui visere, i. e. nescio quo modo, ‘ somehow or other.’ 

Qui is used in a direct question not only as equivalent to quo modo, 
quo ratiotu, but also for the simple cur or quart ( perch/); Cure. II. 
ii. 27, Htus Phatdrome, txi, txi, exi, inquam , ocius. P. Qui is/ic clamo- 
rem tollis ? Merc. II. iv. 18, E. Visnt cam ad portum ? C. Qui potius 
quam voles? E. Atque eximam Mulierem pretio ? Qui po/ius quam 
auro expendas ? see also Rud. III. ii. 25, Stich. I. ii. 4, Trin. I. ii. 40. 

As in the case of quo modo, qui may be used for cur or quart 
when there is no direct question, and is in this case equivalent to 
propter quod; thus Poen. I. ii. 64, Quid habetis qui mage inmor tales 
vos credam esse quam ego stem; True. III. i. 19, Quid is/uc a/ienum 
est, amabo, mi Strabax, Qui non extemplo intres : but in this last ex- 
ample we might regard qui as the nominative. 

In like manner as quit or qui in the nominative is occasionally 
equivalent to aliquis, so qui in the ablative is employed for atiquo modo 
or ullo modo; thus Rud. III. iv. 31, Eateor, ego trifur cifer sum: tu es 
homo adprime probus. Num qui minus hasce esse oportet liberas ? ‘ I 
confess it, I am a triple-dyed scoundrel ; you are a man among the 
foremost in worth ; but ought these damsels to be in any way less 
free on that account?’ again, True. II. i. 27, Probus est amator, qui 
relic tis rebus rem perdit suam, At nos male age re praedicant viri sole re 
sccum, Nosque esse avaras: quaeso num qui male nos agimus tandem ? ‘I 
should like to know, do we, after all, in any way treat them ill ?’ In 
the above examples qui is preceded by num, but this is not the case 
in Trin. I. ii. 83, Quin eum restituis ? quin ad frugem corrigis ? Ei 
rei operant dare te fuerat aliquanto aequius, Si qui probiorem facere 
possis, ‘If, in some way or other,' (or, ‘ in any way,’) ‘ you may be 
able to make him more respectable.’ 

Not only is qui used as the ablative singular of the relative, but 
there are a few passages in which, according to the natural and 
obvious construction, it must represent the ablative plural quibus ; 
thus Stich. II. i. 20, Sed tandem, opinor, aequius est herarn mihi esse 
supplicem, Atque ora/ores mitlere ad me, donaque ex auro, et quadrigas 
Quivehar: nam pedibus ire non queo; Rud. I. ii. 35, Quin lu in pa/udem 
is, exsiccasque ar undines Qui per tegam us villam, dum sudum est; IV. iv. 
66, Cistellam is/ic inesse oportet caudcam in isto vidulo , Vbi sunt signa 

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qui parentes noscere haec possit suos ; with which compare II. iii. 59, 
A. Quia leno a demit cistuiam ei, quam habebat , ubique habebat Qui suos 
parentes nosetre posset: earn veretur Ne perierit. T. Vbinam ea fuit 
cisleltula? A. Ibidem in navi Conelusit ipse in vidulum, ne copia esset 
eius Qui suos parentes noscerel ; compare also Cist IV. ii. 48, //. Dis- 
perii miser a : quid ego meat herae dicam ? quae me opere tan to Servare 
iussil, qui suos Silcnium parentes Facilius posset noscere, where the 
antecedent to qui is cistcllam cum crepundiis (v. 43), or simply cistdlam 
( v . 46). If we read with all the best MSS. in As. II. iii. 135, Viginti 
argenti commodus minus, huius quidem main', it might appear that qui 
was here equivalent to quas, but in this, and perhaps in some of the 
preceding examples, it may be held that qui—ut, 'in order that.’ 


Quin occurs perpetually in the dramatic writers, and modifies the 
clauses with which it is combined in so many different ways that it 
demands close attention. We may perhaps class the different mean- 
ings under three heads. Of these, two are simple and distinct, but 
the third is somewhat complicated. 

1. Quin is employed in direct interrogations, in which case it is 
followed by the indicative, and is equivalent to cur non. We may 
fairly regard quin here as representing qui non or qui ne. (On qui 
see preceding Excursus.) Quin is not unfrequently followed by the 
second person of the imperative, but in this case it has in reality 
the force of a direct interrogation, as we shall point out below. 

2. Quin is employed in negative propositions, or in propositions 
in which a negation is implied, as equivalent to ut non, and is followed 
by the subjunctive. Here quin, in most cases, represents qui non, 
i.c. ut is non. 

3. Quin is employed very frequently in dialogue to introduce an 
explanation of some statement or remark made previously, either by 
the speaker himself or by the person with whom he is conversing. 
It must be borne in mind that a speaker may repeat the remark of 
another in different words, for the purpose of ascertaining that he 
has correctly understood the remark in question, seeking an ex- 
planation, as it were; or he may repeat a remark previously made 
by himself, for the purpose of making his meaning more clear, thus 
giving an explanation, and all this may be done without emotion, 
or with an expression of anger or of impatience, and the emotion may 
in many cases be indicated by the tone of the speaker, and hence not 

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EXCVRSVS \’ll\.—QVm. 


meet the eye in a written conversation. Again, the speaker may 
affirm what has been said, but with a qualification ; this qualification 
may be such as to strengthen the remark previously made, or it may 
call in question the accuracy of a portion of the remark, and the 
qualification may in certain cases be so important as to amount to 
a contradiction. 

The force of quin, when explanatory, may generally be rendered 
by one or other of the English expressions ‘ well, then,’ ‘ why, I tell 
you,’ ' but,' ‘ nay,’ ‘ nay, for that matter,’ but the full force would in 
many cases be conveyed by the tone or gestures of the speaker. It 
will be seen from some of the quotations that quin and imo are 
occasionally equivalent. 

What we have said will be more easily understood from the 
following examples. 

1. Quin equivalent to cur non in a simple direct interrogation 
followed by the indicative: Most. I. iii. n, Quin iu te exornas mori- 
bus lepidis quom lepida lota es? Trin. III. iii. 73, Quid nunc s/as ? quin 
te hinc amoves el te moves ? Merc. I. 77, 78, Eho tu, eho Iu, quin cavis/i, 
ne earn viderel, verbero? Quin, scelesU, aps/rudebas, ne earn conspicerel 
pater? The last example is specially remarkable because it is said 
to be the only passage in Plautus in which quin, in the sense of cur 
non, is followed by a past tense. 

Sometimes the question is put in an indignant tone; e. g. Trin. I. 
ii. 81, Quin eum restituis ? Quin ad frugem corrigis ? or denotes im- 
patience, as Men. IV. ii. 75, Quid id est? quid faces ? quin dicis quid 
sit? or conveys a remonstrance or entreaty, Pers. III. i. 69, Quin tu 
me duct's, si quo duc/urus, pater ? Vel tu me vende, vet face quod tibi 
lubet ; and so Men. V. vii. 11, Epidamnienses, subvenite, cives l quin 
me mitlitis? 

Quin is frequently followed by the imperative, and in this case the 
expression may always be regarded as elliptical ; thus Most. I. iii. 1 6, 
Quin me aspice et contempla, is equivalent to A spice et contempla me, quin 
aspicis ? i. e. ‘ look at me, why don’t you look ? ’ and so again, v. 30, 
Quin mone, quaeso, si quid erro . . . A/one, qttaeso, quin mones ? i. c. 
‘advise me, I beg, why don’t you?’ In III. i. 45 (41) we have a 
good example, in the same line, of quin in a direct interrogation, and 
also followed by the imperative; D. Quin tu istas minis tricas ? 
T. Quin quid vis cedo. Quin followed by the imperative may imply 
encouragement; thus Adel. IV. ii. 4, C. Perii! S. Quin tu animo 
bono es, i. e. ‘cheer up, can’t you?’ and in the previous scene, v. 17, 
Quin otiosus es, ‘be easy, can’t you?’ There is an ellipse of the 

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2 I 6 


verb in Stich. IV. ii. 12, E. E depot te vocem lubenter , si sufxrfiat locus. 
G. Quin lu : stans optrusero atiquid stremu : E. ‘ I would willingly 
invite you if there was a place vacant.’ G. ‘ Why not (invite me then) : 
I shall cram down something vigorously, although standing here we 
may supply vocas, making it a direct question, or voca, ‘ invite me 
then, why don’t you?’ 

2. Quin equivalent to ut non in negative propositions : thus Most. 
I. ii. 68 (62), Non videor rnihi Sarcire posse aedes meas, quin lotae 
Perpetuae ruant , quin cum fundamento Perierint ; Andr. I. ii. 1, Non 
dubium est quin uxorem notit filius; so Trin. III. ii. 14, nee depellor 
quin; Men. II. i. 28, nequeo continere quin; Trin. III. iii. 2, non potest 
fieri quin ; Most II. ii. 5, baud causa est quin, &c. 

The same takes place occasionally in interrogative sentences where 
a negation is implied but not directly expressed ; thus Men. V. ix. 85, 
Numquid me tnorare, quin ego liber, ut iussis/i, cam ? i.e. ‘ you are not 
going to hinder me, are you?' so Adel. II. ii. 39, Numquid vis quin 
abeam ? i. e. ‘ you don’t want anything, do you, to prevent me from 
going away?’ Cist. I. i. 119, Numquid me vis, mater, intro quin cam? 
Eun. V. viii. 13, Numquid, Gnatho, tu dubitas quin ego nunc perpetuo 
perierim ? 

In the above examples the negative character of the sentence is 
clearly indicated by numquid, but in most cases we rely on the general 
sense of the passage ; thus Heaut. I. ii. 1 9, Quid reliqui est quin habeat 
quae quidem in hontine dicuntur bona? i. e. nihil reliqui est; so Eun. I. 
ii. too, quant toco Rem votuisti a me tandem quin perfeceris? i.e. nut/am 
rent votuisti ; and Phor. III. iii. 3, Jtane hunc patiemur, Geta, Fieri 
miscrum qui me dudum, ut dixti, adiuvit comiter, Quin, cum opus est, 
beneficium rursum ei experiemur reddere ? i.e. ‘surely we will never 
suffer’ &c.; and Andr. III. iv. 2 1, Quid causae est quin hinc in pis/rinum 
recta proficiscar via? i.e, nul/a causa est; and exactly parallel, Rud. 
III. iv. 53, Quid causae est quin virgis te usque ad saturitatem saueiem? 
in Poen. I. i. 55 quid tu dubitas quin means ‘you cannot doubt but 
that;’ and on the same principle we explain Trin. II. iv. 187, O paler, 
Aequom videtur, quin quod peccarim . . . potissumum rnihi id opsil? i.e. 

‘ is it not just that’ &c. 

The following is less distinct: Eun. IV. vii. 41, T. Quid nunc 
agimus ? G. Quin redeamus, iam haee tibi aderit supplicans Vitro, 
where we may explain the construction either by supposing an 
ellipse, nulla causa est quin redeamus, or by considering redeamus as 
an imperative, ‘let us return, why should we not?’ 

In like manner quin is employed in sentences where prevention 

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or prohibition are expressed or implied ; thus Most. I. iii. 46, Vix 
comprimor quin involem illi in oculos stimulairici, , i. e. ‘I can scarcely 
restrain myself from’ &c. ; and, exactly parallel, Eun. V. ii. 20, Vix 
me contineo quin involem in Capillum; so Epid. III. iv. 1, Cave praeter- 
bi/as ullas aedes quin roges, Senex ubi habitat Periphanes Platenius ; 
and Trin. I. ii. 67, Est atque non est mihi in manu, Megaronides : 
Quin dicant, non est : merito ut ne dicant, id est, i. e. prohibere quin 

3. Quin, followed by an indicative, is sometimes explanatory or 
affirmative; Epid. II. iii. 1, Nullum esse opinor ego agrum in agro 
Attico, Aeque feracem quam hie est nosier Periphanes ; Quin ex occu/lo 
atque opsignato armario Decutio argenti tantum quantum mihi lube/, 
where quin is introduced to explain the metaphor employed in the 
two preceding lines, ‘why, I tell you,' or, ‘for you see;’ Rud. III. iv. 62, 
L. Ignem magnum hie faciam. D. Quin ut humanum exuras tibi, where 
quin is equivalent to videlicet. Daemones pretends to interpret or ex- 
plain what Latrax had said, ‘ for the purpose, I presume, of offering 
a sacrifice to the dead in honour of yourself,’ i. e. ‘ in order to burn 
yourself;' Cist. I. ii. 1 ,Idem mihi magnae quod parti est vi/ium mulierum. 
Quae hunc quaeslum facimus : quae ubi saburratae sumus, Largiloquae 

extemplo sumus : plus loquimur quam sat est. 

Quin ego nunc, quia sum onusta mea ex senlenlia, Quiaque adeo me 
complevi flore Liber i, Magis libera uti lingua conlubilum est mihi. The 
old woman remarks that persons of her class, when well ballasted 
with liquor, forthwith become talkative, and talk more than is con- 
venient ; she then proceeds to disclose a piece of secret history, and 
interrupting herself goes on, quin ego, ‘ why, for example, I at this 
time, having got a heavy cargo of wine on board, to my heart’s 
content, feel inclined to use my tongue more freely than is expe- 
dient.’ In Cas. II. iv. 6 we have quin twice in the same line in 
different senses ; C. Quin, si ita arbitrare, emittis me manu i S. Quin, 
id volo, where the first quin is equivalent to cur non, the second is 
explanatory, ‘ why, I tell you, I am willing to do that.’ 

Quin may frequently be rendered by ‘ why, I tell you,’ or ‘ why, to 
be sure,’ when the speaker manifests eagerness, impatience, or in- 
dignation. Eagerness: Heaut. IV. iv. 15, 6". Perii hereto ! Bacchis, 
mane, mane: quo miltis is lane? quaes 0, lube maneat. B. I. S. Quin 
est paratum argentum. B. Quin ego maneo, ‘ stop, stop, bid her stop ;’ 
‘why, I tell you, the money is all ready,' where the first quin is spoken 
in eager excitement, and the word is repeated in mockery by Bacchis, 
‘ then, I tell you, I stop.’ Impatience : Men. V. iv. 4 ; the physician 

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asks with what malady the patient to whom he had been called is 
affected, on which the old man replies testily, Quin ea te causa Juco 
ut id dicas mihi, * why, I tell you, I am taking you to him for this 
very reason, that you may tell me what his malady is.’ Impatience 
and indignation: Men. V. viii. 2, Mus. Men hodic tisquam convenitse te, 
audax, audcs diccre, Postquam advorsurn mihi imperavi ut hue venires P 
Mbs. Quin modo Eripui, ‘ met you ! why, just now I rescued you.' 
Great indignation: Cas. II. ii. 22, Vir me habet pessumis dcspicatam 

modis . . Quin mihi anciUuiam ingratis pos/u/at, 

quae mea est, Quae meo educata sumptu est, villico suo se dare, * why, he 
even goes the length of insisting,’ &c. 

Quin is affirmative in Merc. II. iii. 77, Hercle, quin tu recle dicis et 
tibi adsentior ego, ‘ by Hercules, but thou sayest well :’ we have the 
same phrase again, V. iv. 47, Men. II. iii. 74, and, slightly varied, 
in V. ix. 33, liercle quin tu me admonuisli recte, et habeo gratiam. 
It denotes strong affirmation in Poen. IV. ii. 86, .S’. Pro/ecto ad in- 
citas lenonem rediget si eas abduxerit. M. Quin prius disperibit,faxo, 
quant unam ealeem civerit. ha paratum est, ‘ but I am determined 
that he shall be utterly destroyed before he shall have made a single 
move : I have taken measures to that effect.’ 

Frequently quin is not a simple affirmative, but adds something 
which gives greater force or emphasis to the question or remark of 
the preceding speaker; thus Most. II. ii. 25, Tu. An tu tetigisli hat 
aedes P Tu. Citr non langerem ? Quin pultando, inquam, paene confregi 
fores, ‘ not only have I touched the door, but, more than that, I tell 
you that I have almost smashed it to pieces by battering it ;’ so Cas. 
III. i. 7, S. Fac vacent aedes. A Quin, edepot, servos, ancitlas, domo 
Cerium est omnes mittere ad te, i. e. ‘ not only will I see to that, but, 
more than that, I have resolved’ &c. ; Men. V. iv. 7, S. Magna cum 
cura ego ilium curari volo. M. Quin suspirabo plus sexcen/ies in die : 
Jta ego ilium cum cura ego magna curabo tibi. The commentators have 
missed the sense of this passage ; there is a pun on the double 
meaning of cura, which may signify, as in English, either simply 
‘diligence’ or ‘mental anxiety:’ S. ‘I wish him to be cared for with 
great care.’ M. ‘ Why, for that matter, I will heave sighs of care 
more than six hundred times a day, so great shall be the care with 
which I will take care of him for you.’ 

When quin is used in this sense it is sometimes followed by etiam; 
thus Most. II. i. 74, [ Herns] iussit maxumo Opere orare, ut patrem 
atiquo aps/erreres modo IVe introiret aedis. T. Quin etiam illi hoc 
dicito Facturum it! ne etiam aspicere aedis audeat, i. e. ‘ tell him that 

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I will not only scare his father from entering the house, but, more 
than that, that I will deal with him in such a manner that he will 
not venture even to look at it, but’ &c. ; so Men. V. ii. 55, S. Male 
facit, si istuc facil ; si non /acit, tu mate /act's. Quae insontem insim tiles. 
M. Quin etiam nunc habet pal/am pater , El spinther, quod ad hanc 
dctuleral : nunc, quia rescivi, re/ert, i. e. ‘ not only do I not falsely ac- 
cuse him of having carried off my property, but, more than that, at this 
very time he has in his possession a dress and a broach,’ &c., where, 
however, etiam may, if we please, be connected with nunc. We have 
the expression still more fully in Eun. IV. iii. 3, Quin etiam insuper 
scelus, &c. 

The form of quin in the following passages may be conveyed by 
the words ‘ well ’ or ‘ nay,’ ‘ for that matter, assuredly,’ and it serves 
to introduce an explanation of the feelings or actions of the speaker : 
Adel. IV. vii. 14, after Demea has reproached his brother for his 
indifference and indulgence in the matter of Aeschinus and Pam- 
phila, Micio asks — M. Quid /aciam amplius ? D. Quid /acias ? si non 
ipsa re istuc tibi dole t, Simulare eerie est hominis. M. Quin iam vir- 
ginem Despondi : res compos i/a esl : fiunt nuptiae : Dempsi melum 
omnem : haec magis sunt hominis, * nay, for that matter, (in so far as 
my duty as a right-minded man is concerned,) I have already settled 
the marriage of the maiden with my son ; the affair is arranged ; the 
wedding is in progress:’ here quin introduces an explanation and 
conveys, perhaps, a tone of indignation, ' why I tell you ;’ Andr. IV. 
ii. 20, P. Scio quid concre. D. Hoc ego tibi pro/ecto effectual reddam. 
P. Iam hoc opus est. D. Quin iam habeo. C. Quid est? * well, then, 
for that matter, I have already a scheme;’ Heaut. IV. iii. 23, Clinia 
is discussing with Syrus how the real state of affairs may best be 
concealed from his father — C. Nam quo ore appellabo pa/rem ? Tenes 
quid dicam? S. Quidni? C. Quid dicam? quam causa m ad/e ram ? 
S. Quin, nolo menliare. Aperte, i/a ut res sese habet, narrato, ‘ nay, for 
that matter, I do not want you to tell a lie,’ ‘ do not suppose that I 
want you here quin is explanatory, as Syrus wishes to guard against 
a misapprehension; Merc. III. iv. 43, C. Deos apsentes testes me- 
moras : qui tgo istuc c redam tibi ? E. Quin tibi in manu est, quod 
credas : ego quod dicam id mihi mea in manu est, * well, for that matter, 
you have the power of believing what you*p!ease ; I have the power 
of saying what I please;’ Most. III. i. 86 (82), Vide, num moratur ? 
D. Quin /cram, si quid datur, ‘ nay, for that matter,’ or * assuredly, 
you may be sure of this, that’ &c. ; Heaut. V. i. 71, Id mirari te 
simulate, ct ilium hoc rogitalo simul, Quamobrcm id /aciam. M. Quin 


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ego vero quamobrem id facias nescio, ‘ why, for that matter, in sooth, 
1 do not know why you are doing that.’ 

Sometimes the qualification introduced by quin is so strong that it 
must be translated ‘nay, on the contrary:’ Trin. IV. ii. 87, C. Lube t 
audire, nisi moles/um est. S. Quin discupio dicere : here quin refers to 
the foregoing molestum — 1 (disagreeable I) nay, on the contrary, I am 
most eager to tell you ;’ Merc. I. 43, Egon’ ausim tibi usquam quic- 
quam /acinus fahum proloqui ? Quin iam priusquam sim elocu/us, scis, 
si menliri volo, ‘ do you think it possible that I would dare to tell 
you a falsehood ? No, on the contrary, before I open my lips, you 
know’ &c. ; Most. IV. ii. 38 (iii. 15), P. Nam nisi bine bodie emi- 
gravi/, aut heri, certo scio Hie habitare. T. Quin sex menses iam 
hie nemo habitat, ‘ why, on the contrary, I tell you,’ &c. ; Merc. II. 
ii. 54, L. Ad portum propero : nam ibi mihi negotium est. D. Bent 
ambulato. L. Bene valeto. D. Bene sit tibi : here Lysimachus quits 
the stage and Demipho continues, Quin mihi quoque etiam est ad 
portum negotium, Nunc adeo ibo i/lue : Demipho replies to his own 
thoughts as it were, ‘ dare any one suppose that I am going to remain 
here ? No, on the contrary, I also have business at the harbour, 
and therefore I will now repair thither.’ 

The use of quin in the following passages may, at first sight, cause 
some embarrassment, but they may be referred to one or other of 
the classes examined above: Stich. IV. ii. 44, G. Quid igitur ? 
E. Dixi equidem in earcerem ires. G. Quin, iusseris, Eo quoque ibo, 
‘ well, then,’ 1 nay, for that matter,’ or simply ‘ but, if you give the 
order, I shall go even thither’ (to prison) ; where quin qualifies eo 
quoque ibo. Many editors read si iusseris, but si is not found in the 
best MSS., and is unnecessary, in so far as the construction is con- 
cerned, the perfect of the subjunctive being frequently employed to 
indicate an hypothesis ; thus luv. S. III. 77, omnia novit Graeeulus 
esuriens, in caelum, iusseris, ibi/: Trin. II. ii. 60, Non eo hoc dico quin, 
quae tu vis, ego velim et faciam lubens, ‘ I do not say this for the 
purpose of implying that I am not willing to accommodate myself 
to your wishes, and to do cheerfully what you desire,’ where quin is 
equivalent to ul non; Merc. II. iii. 93, the father and son are disputing 
about Pasicompsa, Demipho says, Viginli minis, opinor, posse me i/lam 
vendere. C. At ego si velim, iam dantur septem et viginli minae. D. At 
ego . . . C. Quin, ego, inquam ... D. At nescis quid dicturus sim, tace: 
quin here marks an eager interruption — Demipho says, ‘ But I (would 
give).’ C. ‘ No, but I, I tell you, (would give more) ;’ IV. iv. 25, 
D. Palam istaec fiunt, te me odisse. L. Quin nego, ‘ no, no, I deny 

EXCVRS VS VI 1 1 . — Q VI N. 


it Fers. I. i. 40, Qua confidentia rogare tu a me argentum tantum 
audes Impudcns ? quin si egomet lotus veneam, vix recipi potessit Quod 
tu me rogas, nam tu aquam a pumice nunc postulas : here a contra- 
diction is implied — ‘ why (far from having such a sum at my disposal), 
if I were to be sold bodily, bag and baggage,’ &c. ; Eun. II. i. 6, 
Phaedria having given an order to Parmeno which calls forth a sort 
of reproof from the slave, Phaedria adds, Ne istuc lam iniquo patiare 
ammo. Pah. Minume : quin effeclum dabo, ‘ do not be so much 
distressed by that piece of extravagance.’ Pah. ‘ By no means : on 
the contrary, I shall carry out your wishes;’ Trin. II. iv. 63, 
L. Oculum ego ejfodiam tibi Si verbum addideris. S. Hercle, quin 
dicam tamen : here we may suppose an ellipse of non deterrebis me 
quin dicam, or, if we regard dicam as the future, we may translate 
‘nay, but speak I will, in spite of your threats;’ Merc. IV. iii. 25, 
Lysimachus is being cross-questioned by his wife, and knows not 
what answ'er to give; Dorippa repeats her interrogation, D. Quin 
dicis ? L. Quin si liceat . . . D. Dictum oportuit, ‘ why do you not 
speak out?’ upon which Lysimachus in his embarrassment catches 
up the quin, ‘ nay, for that matter, if you would let me,’ . . . — there 
was probably a pause of hesitation between quin and si liceat, which 
ought to be indicated by the punctuation, Quin ... si liceat . . . ; 
Eun. V. ii. 63, Quin, Pythias, Tu me servalo : quin may seem here 
to imply expostulation or remonstrance, ‘ nay, come now, Pythias, 
help me,’ but we may regard it simply as a case of quin followed 
by the imperative, ‘save me, Pythias, why do you not aid me?’ 
Heaut. III. iii. 20, C. Sure, pudct me. S. Credo, neque id iniuria. 
Quin mihi molestum esf, ‘ I well believe that you are ashamed, and 
you have good reason. Why, 1 tell you (more than that) that even 
I am annoyed by this business,’ with a strong emphasis on I; IV. 
v. 5 1 , Chremes, convinced by the arguments of Syrus, agrees to pay 
the money to Bacchis, Quin egomet iam ad earn deferam, ‘ well, then, 
not only am I willing to pay the money, but, more than that, I shall 
carry it to her in person ;’ Phor. V. viii. 25, Ego, Nausislrala, esse 
in hac re culpam meri/am non nego, Sed earn, quin sit ignoscenda, ‘ I do 
not deny that guilt has been incurred in this matter, but I do deny 
that the guilt has been such ( eam=ta/em ) as to be unpardonable,' 
where quin is equivalent to ul non. If, with many MSS., we read ea, 
we must place a comma or hyphen after sed — ( nego culpam esse 
la/em) ul ea non sit ignoscenda, but in this case the ellipse is some- 
what violent. 

The examples given above, although numerous, by no means 

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exhaust the delicate modifications of meaning conveyed by quin, but 
enough has been said to guide the student in his investigations. 
We may conclude by quoting a passage from the Casina III. iv. 
9, seqq. in which quin is used in a wrangle, and, except in the first 
line, where it is equivalent to cur non, must be rendered by ‘ why, 
I tell you’ and ‘nay, more than that:’ A. Quin tu suspendis tep 
Nempe lute dixeras, Tuam arccssi/uram esse hinc uxorem meant. 
S. Ergo arcessivisse ait sect, el dixisse te Earn non missurum. A . Quin 
ea ipsa ultro mihi Negavit eitts operant se morarier. S. Quin ea ipsa 
me adlegavit, qui is tain ar cesser em. A. 1 Quin’ nihili facio. S. Quin me 
perdis. A. Quin bene est. Quin ctiam diu ntorabor : quin cupio tibi. 
Quin aliquid aegre facere, quin faciam lubens. Numquam tibi hodie 
‘ quin' erit plus quant mihi. Quin her c/e di le per dan! postremo quidem. 

IX.— VT. 

We shall confine our remarks to those uses of this word which, 
although not peculiar to the dramatic writers, occur more frequently 
in dialogue than in ordinary composition. 

The different meanings of Vl may be conveniently arranged under 
two heads. 

I. Vl signifying ‘how,’ ‘as,’ ‘when,’ meanings which may easily 
be deduced from each other, and may in many cases be represented 
by quo modo, or co modo quo or modunt quo, quant, quantum, quanto, 
qualis. In this case ut in direct propositions is generally followed 
by the indicative mood. 

II. Vt signifying ‘ that’ or ‘ in order that.' This meaning also 
may be deduced from ‘ how,’ but the transition is not so obvious. 
In this case ut is followed by the subjunctive mood. 

I. Vt signifying ‘ how,’ * as,’ ‘ when.’ 

1. Vl, ‘how,’ indicating a simple direct interrogation, as in the 
English phrases ‘how does she look?’ ‘how are you?’ ‘how goes 
it?’ Merc. II. iii. 56, D. Sed quis ais? ecquam lu advexli tuae matri 
ancillant Rhodo ? C. Advexi. D. Quid ? ea ut videtur mulierp 
C. Non edepol mala. D. Vt morata est P C. Nul/am vidi melius ntea 
sen tent ia, ‘what sort of appearance has the woman?’ ‘how does she 
look?’ ‘how is she in disposition?’ or ‘how is she in manners?' 
(i.e. ‘is she well-bred?’) so Most. III. ii. 28, Rud. V. ii. 17, ut vales ? 
‘how arc you?’ and True. II. vii. 23, quid agis, uti vales ? Pers. IV. 
iv. 5, ut niocnitum muro tibi visum est oppidttm P Rud. II. ii. 6, quid 
agitisp ut peri/isP where ut peritis is a pleasantry wiig vnopolw, ut 

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valetis being expected; As. III. iii. 1 15, ut tu incedis ? ‘ what kind of 
stepping is that?’ When the question is direct, ut is followed by the 
indicative, as in the above examples, but in a dependent clause it 
is, of course, followed by the subjunctive: Aul. I. iii. 29, Rogitant me 
ut valeam, quid agam, quid rcrum geram. 

2. Vt, ‘ how,’ indicating emotion, the character of the emotion 

being determined by the circumstances of the case or by the words 
with which it is combined, as in English, ‘how he struggles I’ ‘how 
he runs!’ ‘how his eyes sparkle!’ Thus we have (a) Eager interest 
and excitement : Rud. I. ii. 66, Homunculi quanti estisl ticcli ut natant! 
and v. 82, Viden alteram ill ami ut fluctus eiecit for as ! (b) Alarm: 
Men. V. ii. 76, 77, 80, Viden tu i/li oculos virerei Vt viridis exoritur 
co/os Ex temporibus atque f route ! Vt oculi scintillant! vide l . . . 

. . . . Vt ptindiculans oscitatur ! Quid nunc faciam, mi filer i 

(c) Admiration: True. II. iv. 3, Ver vide ! Vi Iota floret ! ut olel ! ut 
nitide nilet ! As. III. ii. 35, Vt adsimulabat Sauream med esse l quam 
facete ! and so Cas. II. iii. 25, ut cito commentalus es/l Poen. V. iv. 27, 
ut sapit ! ‘ how wise she is 1’ Bac. IV. viii. 57, ut iurai! ‘ how famously 
he swears I’ (d) Merriment: Mil. IV. ii. 74, Vtludo! . . Vt subleclo 
os! (e) Indignation: Cas. II. iii. 30, Vnde is, nihilii ubi fuistii ubi 
lustralus ? ubi bibisli f Id est, mecaslor : vide ! palliolu/n ut ruga / 1 and 
so Pseud. II. iv. 17, ut paratragoedat carnufex l ‘how the hang-dog 
struts and rants!’ Rud. III. vi. 31, viden me l ut rapior ! (f) Joy: 
Stich. III. ii. 12, Epignome, ut ego te nunc conspicio lubens ! Vt prae 
laetilia lacrumae pracsiliunt mihi ! (g) Ironical sneer : True. II. ii. 25, 
Rus tu mihi obprobras ? ut nacta es* hominem quern pudeal probri ! 
* dost thou flout me with the country- ? how successful you are in 
finding a man who is ashamed of the taunt 1’ 

3. Vt, ‘ how,' in the sense of ‘ to what extent,’ ‘ to what degree ’ 
(quam), ‘how much’ (quantum), as in English, ‘how good he is,’ 
‘how I love him:’ Amph. V. i. 51, Sed puer ille quern ego lavi, ut 
magnus est et mu/lum valet l i. e. ‘how high he is, and how strong!’ 
Men. I. iii. 7, Vt ego uxorem, mca volup/as, ubi te aspicio, odi male ! 
i. e. ‘how I detest my wife I' Rud. Prol. 10, Is nos per genles alium 
alia disparat, Hominum qui facta, mores, pietatem et fidem Noscamus, ut 
quemque adiuvet opulentia, i. e. ‘to what extent;’ Capt. II. ii. 41, Ad 
ran divinam quibus est opus Samiis vasis utitur, Ne ipse Genius sub- 
ripiat. Proinde aliis ut credat, vide, ‘judge from that how far — to 
what extent — he will trust others;’ Trin. IV. ii. 68, the Sycophanta 

* Weise is quite mistaken when he explains ut here by “ postquam 
nacta es.” 

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having forgotten the name of Charmides, from whom he pretended 
to be the bearer of a letter, Charmides, who is playing with him, says 
ironically — C. Vide, homo, ut hominem noveris. S. Tamquam me, ‘ see 
you now then, my good fellow, how far — to what extent — you are 
acquainted with this person/ to which the Sycophanta replies, ‘ I 
know him as well as I know myself.’ 

This is probably the force of ut in Bac. II. ii. 30, Into ut eum, 
credit, miser a a mans desiderat : all the MSS. have eum, for which 
recent editors, following Acidalius, substitute earn, but if we punctuate 
as above the change is unnecessary. We have already quoted this 
line under imo, p. 199 sub fin. 

In Most. III. ii. 146 (144) ut is equivalent to quanto; T. Vl 
quicquid magis contemplor, tanto magis placet. 

4. Vt, ‘ how,’ in the siense 1 of what kind ’ (qua/is), as in the 

English phrase, ‘how is he as to temper?’ thus in Stich. I. ii. 55, 

where Antipho and Pinacium are discussing mulierum mores, the 

latter says — P. Scio ut oportet esse si sint ita ut ego aequom censeo. 

A. Volo scire ergo, ut aequom censes. P. Vt per urbem quom ambulent. 
Omnibus os opturent ne quis merito maledicat sibi, where the first and 
second ut are equivalent to quales ; so in Cure. I. i. 59, Imo ut illam 
censes i it is clear from the context that these words are equivalent 
to qualem illam censes esse; so Amph. Prol. 104, Nam ego vos novisse 
credo iam ut sit pater mens, Quant liber harum rerum multarum sic/, 
‘ I take it for granted that you know what kind of person my father 
is, how he conducts himself,’ &c. 

This force of ut may, not unfrequently, be represented by the 
English ‘ as :’ Amph. III. iii. 4, Atque ita servom par videtur frugi 
sese instituere, Proinde heri ut sint, ipse item sit, where Proinde ut, 
‘just as,’ is equivalent to quales ; so Capt. II. i. 32, Ero, ut me voles 
esse, ‘I shall be as you wish me to be/ i. e. ‘such as' tails qualem; 
and again, v. 39, Nunc ut le mihi volo esse, esse au/umo; True. II. vii. 
1 6, merelricem ego item esse reor mare ut est, ‘ such as is the sea/ 
talent quale. 

In Men. II. iii. 78, Mes Quid ergo ? Men. Opus est. Mes. Quid 
opus est ? Mes. Scio, ut nte dices. Mes. Tanto nequior es : the text 
is probably corrupt. 

5. Vt, ‘ how,’ has frequently an explanatory force in dependent 
clauses ; thus in English, ‘ I will tell you how it happened/ ‘ let us 
consult how we may best assist him,’ and the like. In all such cases 
ut, in Latin, must be followed by the subjunctive : Poen. I. i. 66, 
Abeamus intro ut Collubiscum vil/icum Hanc perdoceamus ut serai 

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fallaciam ; True. II. ii. 43, .S'. Scio ego plus quam me arbitrare scire. 
A . Quid id esi, opsecro, Quod scias ? S. Herilis nosier filius apud vos 
Slrabax Vi percat , ut cum inliciatis in malam fraudem; Epid. III. ii. 
41, Haec salt's iem ut fulura sin/, abeo; True. IV. iii. 50, Neque ut 
bine abeam, neque ut hunc adeam scio, limore lorpeo. 

6. Vt, ‘as,’ eo modo quo; so in English, ‘I tell you the story as 
I heard it,’ followed by the indicative: As. III. ii. 30, Num male 
re/a/a esl gratia ? ut con/egam conlaudavi? L. Vt meque teque maxume 
atque ingenio nostro decuit, where ut in the direct interrogation is 
equivalent to quoniodo, and ut in the correlative clause to eo modo quo; 
II. ii. 100, Nunc tu abi ad forum, ad herum , et narra haec ut nos acluri 
sumus, i. e. narra haec eo modo quo nos, &c. ; i 1 . 109, Le. Dico ut usus 
fieri. Lt. Dico, hercle, ego quoque ut faclurus sum, where in both 
clauses ut is equivalent to co modo quo. 

7. Vt, ‘ as,’ equivalent to ita ut, ‘ according to,’ ‘ according as,’ 
* just as :’ so in English, ‘ as I understand the matter,’ i. e. ‘ accord- 
ing to my understanding of the matter ;’ ‘ he will act as his inclination 
prompts him,’ i. e. * according as,’ * just as,’ &c. : Cist. I. i. 5, ut 
mens est animus, True. IV. iii. 1, ut animus metis est, ‘according to 
my view;’ Bac. II. ii. 40, ut rent hanc gna/am esse inteltego; True. V. 
70, ut rem gna/am video, ‘ according to my understanding of the 
matter;’ Most. III. ii. 47, ut voluimus viximus, ‘we have lived just 
as we wished, according to our wishes;’ Cist. IV. ii. 51, Hanc scire 
oportel, filia tua ubi sit, sigtta ut dicit, i. e. ‘ according to the tokens 
which she mentions,’ ‘judging from the tokens’ &c.; Trin. II. iv. 146, 
Sed isle est ager profecto, ut te audivi loqui, Malos in quem omnes publice 
mini dccet, i. e. ‘ according to what you say,’ ‘ judging from what you 
say ;’ Cas. II. viii. 56, Abi atque opsona, propera, sed lepide vo/o ; Mol- 
liculas escas, ut ipsa mollicula est, ‘ viands soft and tender, just as (in 
like manner as) she herself is soft and tender.’ 

8. Vt, ‘as,’ explanatory, equivalent to ‘inasmuch as:’ so in 
English, ‘ the inn was crowded, as a number of travellers had 
arrived,’ ‘ he was much looked up to, as holding a high office : ’ 
Men. Prol. 30, Morlales multi, ut ad ludos, convene rant : here ut is 
used to explain multi, ‘ a great crowd had assembled, inasmuch as 
they had flocked together to behold the games,’ ‘ there was a great 
crowd, as was to be expected, inasmuch as’ &c. ; True. II. vii. 22, 
A tat eccam, adest propinque, credo audisse haec me loqui ; Pallida est 
ut peperit pucrum ; here ut is used to explain the epithet pallida, ‘ she 
is pale, inasmuch as she has given birth to a boy.’ 

9. Vt, ‘ as,’ used with reference to time, and signifying 1 when :’ 

G g 

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so in English ‘as’ and ‘when’ are frequently convertible — we may 
say, ‘ he came as I was at dinner' or ‘ when I was at dinner,’ ‘ I saw 
him as I was sitting in a shop’ or ‘when I was sitting:’ so Merc. 
Prol. 99, Discubitum noctu ut imus, ecce ad me advent/, i. e. ‘as we 
were going to bed,’ or ‘when we’ &c.; As. II. ii. 76, Verum in 
lonstrina ut scdebam, me infil percon/arier, i. e. ‘as I was sitting,’ or 
‘when I was sitting.’ Vt semel signifies ‘as soon as:’ True. I. ii. 6, 
Vi semel adveniunt ad scoria congerrones. 

Vt with a perfect tense must often be rendered as if it were 
postquam, as in the following examples : Most. I. iii. 63, Eumdem 
animum oportet nunc mihi esse gratum ut impetravi, Atque olim, prius- 
quam, i. e. pos/quam impetravi ; Capt. III. i. 18, Nam ut dudum hinc 
abii, adeessi ad adulescentes in foro; Men. IV. ii. 71, Quin ut dudum 
divorti aps te, redeo nunc demum domum; Epid. IV. ii. 30, Quid ego ? 
qui illam ut primum vidi, numquam vidi postea; Most. I. iii. m, Vt 
speculum tenuisti , meluo ne oleant argentum manus. We may compare 
the well-known line in Virgil, Eel. VIII. 41, Vt vidi, ut perii, ut me 
ma/us abstulit error ! 

Vt followed by quemque signifies ‘ when ’ in the sense of ‘ as soon 
as:’ As. I. iii. 93, Supplicabo, exopsecrabo, ut quemque amicum videro; 
Men. III. ii. 56, Quid hoc negoti est i Satin ut quemque conspicor, Jta 
me ludificant ? 

II. Vt signifying ‘that.’ 

1 . Vt, ‘ that,’ is occasionally used in what we may term a 
rhetorical question, that is, a question not put for the sake of 
obtaining information, but as a mode of expressing the indignation, 
scorn, contempt, or ridicule entertained by the speaker for some 
statement or opinion expressed by another. In all such cases there 
is an aposiopcsis before ut, and the blank must be mentally sup- 
plied: thus True. II. iv. 87, Egorte illam ut non amem / t gone Uli ut 
non bene velim ! ‘ (is it possible) that I should not love her ? (is it 
possible to believe) that I should not wish her well?’ IV. ii. 28, 
I). Illine ut inimici mei Bona istic comedant ? Mortuom, hercle, me 
quam ut id patiar mavelim, ‘ (is it to be endured) that those my 
enemies should eat up in that house my good things?’ Trin. III. iii. 
21, Vt ego nunc adulescenti thesaurum indicem Indomito, plena amoris 
ac lasciviae ? Minume, minume hercle vero, ‘ (what I do you advise) 
that I should reveal the hoard,’ &c. ; Men. IV. iii, g, Mihi ut tu 
dederis ptillam ct spin/her ? Numquam factum reperies, ‘ (what, have 
you the assurance to assert) that you gave me a shawl and a 
buckle?’ Pers. I. iii. 51, T, Hie l> no neque te novil neque gnatam 

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tuam. S. Me ut quisquam noril nisi ille qui praebel cibum ? ‘ (it isn’t 
very likely, is it) that any one should be acquainted with me except’ 
&c. ; Most. IV. iii. 25 (iv. 25), 5 . Mecum ut HU gesserit, Dum tu hinc 
abes, negoti? quidnam ? aul quodie i ‘(it’s a very likely story) that he 
transacted business with me while you were away ! what was it ? 
when was it?’ Poen. I. ii. 103, Vt tu quidem huius oculos inlotis mani- 
bus trades aut t eras i ‘ (what ! do you dare) to handle or rub the 
eyes of this my love with unwashed hands ? ’ As. V. ii. 34, D. Egon 
ut non domo uxori meae Subripiam in deliciis pallam quant habet, alque 
ad te deferami ‘(do you think that I will hesitate) to filch from my 
wife,’ &c.; Cure. V. ii. 17, P. Virgo haec libera esi. T. Meane an- 
cil/a libera ut sit / quant ego numquam emisi manu, ‘ (do you mean to 
say) that my female slave is a free woman ? ’ 

We find the same construction in Cicero, in rhetorical passages : 
thus in Cat. I. 9, Quamquam quid loquar ? Te ut ulla res frangat? 
Tu ut umquam te corrigas ? Tu ut ullam fugam meditere f Tu ut 
ullum exsitium cogHes? 

2. Vt, ‘ that,’ is occasionally used clliptically in prayers and 
imprecations, the word precor, or quaero, or the like, being omitted : 
so in English we say, ‘ O that ruin may overtake him ! ’ i. e. ‘ O, I 
pray that’ &c. ; Pers. II. iv. 19, A. Quid hoc ? P. Quid est? S. Etiam , 
scelus, male loquere ? P. Tandem ut liceat, Quont servos sis, servom tibi 
male dicere / ‘O that at length I might be allowed!’ Cas. II. iii. 20, 
Teneor : cesso caput pallio detergere f uli te bonus Mercurius perdat , 
muropola, qui haec mihi dedisli l Adel. IV. vi. 1, De/essus sum ambu- 
lando : ut, Sure, te cum tua Monstratione magnus perdat Iupitcr ! Aul. 
IV. x. 55, Vt ilium Di inmortales omttes Deaeque, quantum est, perduint ! 
exactly parallel, Heaut. IV. vi. 7, Vt te quidem omnes Di Deaeque, 
quantum est. Sure, Cum tuo istoc invento cumqtte incepto perduint l and 
Eun. II. iii. 10, Vt ilium Di Deaeque senium perdant, qui me hodie 
remoratus est l 

All are familiar with utinam in this sense, and here also there is 
a similar ellipse. Sometimes the ellipse is supplied, as in Cas. II. vi. 
37, O. Taceo, Deos quaeso. C. Vt quidem tu hodie canem et furcam 
/eras / 0 . Mihi ut sortitio eveniat. C. Vt quidem, hercle, pedibus pen- 
deas. O. At tu ut oculos emungare ex capite per nasum tuos l 

3. Vt, ‘ that,’ is used elliptically in the sense of ‘ on condition of,’ 
‘ provided only that :’ thus Men. I. iii. 34, Neque hodie , ut te perdam, 
mcrcam Deorum divitias mihi, ‘ nor would I this day seek to earn the 
wealth of the Gods on the condition of losing sight of you;’ As. II. 
ii. 8, Aetatem velim service, Libanum ut conveniam modo, ‘ I would be 

c g 2 

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content to remain a slave for ever, provided only that I could meet 
with Libanus just now.’ 

4. Vt, ‘that,’ is used very ellipticallv in the following passage, 
where a threat is conveyed : Pers. V. ii. 9, Quern pol ego ut non in 
cruciatum atque in compedes cogam si vivam, ‘ nor shall anything pre- 
vent me from consigning this fellow to chains and torture,’ where ut 
non cogam is equivalent to nec possum prohiberi quin cogam. 

There is yet another elliptical use of ut, which may however be 
ranked under (2): Poen. IV. ii. 90, Valeas, beneque ut tibi sit , where 
we might supply precor, but the ellipse seems to be cur a, which 
appears in the next line, in the reply of Sincerastus, Vale , et haec cura 
clanculum ut sin! dicta; so again, Stich. I. ii. 48, Discipulus venio ad 
magislras : quibus matronas moribus, Quae oplumae sunt, esse oportet P 
sed utraque ut dicat mihi, where it is more natural to supply cura 
than precor , ‘ see that each of you two answer me.’ 

In a few cases it is open to us to translate ut either by ‘ how’ or 
by ‘ in order that thus Cist. I. i. 95, G. Mihi istum hominem vellem 
dari, Vt ego ilium vorsarcm ! which we may render, according to the 
punctuation we select, either ‘ in order that I might turn him over 
and over,’ or, putting a comma after dari and a note of admiration 
after vorsarem, ‘ how I would turn him over and over I’ the idea being 
perhaps taken from a cook grilling meat, or tossing an omelette in 
a frying pan. The English phrase of ‘ turning a person round one's 
finger’ implies the same amount of absolute control on one side, and 
helplessness on the other. 

In Epid. II. ii. 40 we may translate ut either by ‘ as ’ or ‘ how 
P. Quid erat induta? an regillam induculam, an mendiculam Implu- 
viatam ? ut is/ae faciunt vestimen/is nomina, where ut may be either 
* as they call their dresses,’ or, making it an exclamation, ‘ how they 
call,’ i. e. ‘what strange names, to be sure, they give their dresses 1’ 

In the following passages, which are all difficult, ut, if the true 
reading, must be equivalent to utul : Poen. IV. ii. 9, Quodvis genus 
ibi hominum videos, quasi Acherontcm veneris, Equitem, peditem, liber- 
tinum, furcm ac fugitivom velis , Verberatum, vine turn, addictum, qui 
habet quod del, ut homo est, i. e. ‘ he who has money to spend, whatever 
kind of man he is,’ where Bothe and others adopt utut, the conj. of 
Gulielm. ; Mere. Prol. 81, Arnetts, amansque, tit anintum obfirmo meum, 
Dico esse iturum me mercatum, si velit, where ut must signify ‘ as best 
I may,' or ‘ when I steel my resolution, I then say to my father,’ &c. : 
Pylades here reads utut, Ritschl conj. actutum; Phor. V. iv. 1, Laetus 
sum, ut tneae res sese halent, fralri optigisse quod volt : the best MSS. 

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here give ut, which the verse requires, and not utut of the Vulg. text: 
the meaning will be ‘ however (bad) the condition of my own affairs 
but Bentley renders it, ‘ I rejoice in so far as the condition of my 
own afTairs permits me to rejoice.’ The combination utut occurs 
several times in Plautus, where the reading is not doubtful, e. g. Most. 
III. i. 14, Vcrum utut rest sese habet, Pcrgam turbare porro : i/a haec 
res postulat. 


That frugi is frequently used as an indeclinable adjective by 
writers of all epochs is unquestionable, and it is equally certain that 
it is the dative case of frux, frugis. In Plautus it is frequently 
construed with sum, and may in that case be regarded as a real 
dative: As. II. iv. 91, quamquam ego sum sordidatus, Frugi tamen sum; 
Pers. IV. i. 5, Si malus aut nequam esl, male res vortunl quas agit; Sin 
autem frugi est, eveniunt frugaliter, and as if to mark the word more 
distinctly as a substantive the epithet bonae is often added ; Pseud. I. 
v. 53, Cupis me esse nequam, tamen ero frugi bonae; As. III. iii. 12, 
Numquam bonae frugi sient, dies noctesque potent, while the accusative 
frugem is occasionally found in the same sense; thus Trin. I. ii. 81, 
Quin ad frugem conrigis ? II. i. 34, Cerium est ad frugem adplicare 
animum; Poen. IV. ii. 70, Herus si tuus volet facere frugem; but in 
many instances it must be regarded as indeclinable, as may be 
observed in some of the examples given below. 

The true meaning of frugi is clearly indicated by the etymology — 
it is used to denote that a person is ‘profitable’ or ‘useful’ either 
to himself or to others. Thus it assumes many modifications of 
meaning. * 

1. When used with reference to one who is profitable to himself 
it may signify ‘economical’ or ‘thrifty,’ as in the following lines, 
where it is opposed to benignus : True. I. i. 13, Tentat benignusne an 
bonae frugi sies ; v. 20, si id quod oratur dedit, Atque est benignus po/ius 
quam frugi bonae ; or ‘ prudent,’ Capt. II. ii. 44, Philocrates hie fecit 
hominem frugi ut facere oporiuil : or ‘respectable,’ Cure. IV. ii. 16, 
Nec vobiscum quisquam in foro frugi consisterc audet; and so Aul. IV. 
ix. 6, Quid est? quid ridetis? navi omnes : scio fures esse hie complures 

* Cic. Tusc. III. 8, $ 17 has a disquisition on the meanings of frugatitas 
and frugi. Cf. IV. 16, $ j6 ; Pro Fonteio, XVII. § 39 (XIII. § 29); Pro 
Dciot. IX. § 16. 

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Qui vestitu el creta occul/anl sese atque sedcnt quasi sienl frugi ; and 
again, Cas. III. ii. 32, Trin. IV. iii. 1 1, and, generally, ‘of good moral 
character;’ thus As. V. ii. 7, Siccum, frugi, continentem, amanlem uxor is 
maxume ; and v. 1 1 , Ego quoqut hercle ilium anlehac hominem semper 
sum frugi ralus : also, however, ‘ discreet’ or ‘ worldly wise,’ without 
implying moral rectitude; Bac. IV. iv. 10, Nullus frugi esse potest 
homo nisi qui et bene et mate facer e tenet ; Improbis cum improbus sit, 
harpagel, furibus furetur qu <d queal : Versipellem frugi convenit esse 
hominem, pectus quoi sap it. Bonus sit bonis, malus sit mails : utcumque 
res sit, ita anirnum habeat ; and, still more strongly, Capt. II. ii. 19, 
where it must mean ‘ if he is worth anything,’ ‘ if he has his wits 
about him,’ while in As. I. iii. 23 it is applied to a lena who attends 
to her own interests. In Poen. V. ii. 3, si frugi esse vis, Eas libera/i 
iam adseres causa manu, we must translate, ‘ if you wish to do your 
duty,’ ‘ to do what is right and proper.’ 

2. Frugi may be used also with reference to one who is profitable 
to others, and hence it is the characteristic epithet for an honest, 
steady, thrifty, respectable slave, who studies his master's interest: 
Cas. II. iii. 50, Vl enim frugi servo detur polius quam servo inprobo. 
Compare I lor. S. II. vii. 2, Davus, amicum Mancipium domino, et 
frugi , quod sit satis. 

3. In writers of the decline frugi is applied to inanimate objects : 
thus Iuv. S. III. 167, frugi cenula; Mart. XIII. xxxi. 1, ientacula 
frugi ; Quintil. I. O. V. 10, § 27, Sicut vic/us luxuriosus, an frugi, an 
sordidus quaeritur; and in a letter from Cicero’s son, Epp. ad fam. 
XVI. 21, $ 4, to Tiro we find, Nam quid ego de Bruttio dicam . . .? 
cuius quum frugi severaque est vita, tunc eliam iucundissima convictio. 

The word directly opposed to frugi is nequatn, which signifies 
‘good-for-nothing.’ This contrast is expressed in the line quoted 
above from Pseud. I. v. 63, and in Cicero pro Fonteio, XVII. § 39. 

Horace frequently employs frugi, e. g. S. I. iii. 49, II. v. 77, 
A. P. 207. See also Terent. Heaut. III. iii. 19. 


Probus, when applied to persons, properly denotes moral goodness, 
absolute worth; as Trin. II. ii. 39, Is probus est, quern poenilet quam 
probus sit el frugi bonae; Qui ipsus sibi satis pdacet, ncc probus est nec 
frugi bonae ; and so in Most. IV. ii. 34 (iii. 1 1) pucrum probum is 
‘ a respectable slave.’ But occasionally the epithet probus signifies 

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that the person spoken of is merely ‘ good of his kind as Pocn. V. 
iii. 6, Praestigiator hie quidem Poenus probus est, ‘ this Carthaginian 
is a capital juggler;’ and Most. I. iii. 86, Oh probus homo sum, Quae 
pro me causam diceret patronum liberavi, ‘lama knowing fellow.’ 

Probus, when applied to inanimate objects, denotes that they are 
‘good of their kind :’ thus Most. III. ii. 41, Vinu et victu pisea/u probo 
electili ; and Rud. III. v. 19, D. I dum, Turbalio, curricula ad/er hue 
foras Duas c/avas. L. Claras ? D. Sed probas, ' but see that they 
are good (stout) ones.’ 

Probe, the adverb, is applied to any act or work performed in a 
satisfactory manner: Most. I. ii. 19 (18), Faclae (sc. aedes) probe, 
examussim, i. e. ‘ well -constructed ;’ so Men. III. ii. 1, Potin ut 
quiescas, si ego tibi hanc (sc. pal/am) hodie probe Lepideque cominna/am 
referam lemperi i again, As. IV. i. 10, scribas vide plane et probe, 
‘see that you write it distinctly and correctly;’ and Most. III. ii. 47, 
Nos profecto probe, ut vo/uimus, viximus, ‘ we have lived well,’ that is, 
* lived a pleasant life;’ and in the same play, I. iv. 29, Probe quin amabo 
accubas, Delphium mea, ‘ place yourself comfortably — at your ease.’ 

There is however a modification of the meaning of probe which 
deserves especial notice, since it occurs very frequently in the 
dramatists. It is employed to denote that an action has been or 
will be performed completely and in the best manner, while the action 
itself may or may not be praiseworthy, and in this sense the force 
of the word may frequently be correctly conveyed by the English 
‘thoroughly:’ thus Amph. III. iii. 20, Qui me Amphitruonem ren/ur 
esse, errant probe, ‘are thoroughly or completely mistaken;’ so Trin. 
III. iii. 88, Eumque hue ad adulcscentem medilalum probe Mittam, 
‘ thoroughly schooled ;’ again, Most. I. i. 4, Ego pol te ruri, si vivam, 
u/ciscar probe; and V. 1. 19 (ii. 4), Quoius ego hie ludificabo corium, si 
vivo, probe; and Bac. III. iii. 94, Adfalim est, Mmsiloche, cura et con- 
castiga hominem probe; and Cas. I. 36, I la te adgerunda curvom aqua 
faciam probe, Vt postilena possit ex te fieri, ‘ I will render you so 
thoroughly crooked that a saddle-tree (frame of a packsaddle) may 
be made out of you ;’ so Bac. IV. iv. 50, Emungam hominem probe 
hodie, ‘I will befool;’ Most. V. i. 59 (ii. 44), probe me emunxti ; 
Trin. IV. ii. 51, ludam hominem probe; Amph. III. iv. 14, 22, fiaxo 
probe iam hie deluddur; and in the passage referred to from Capt. 
II. ii. 19, usque admuli/abil probe. 

Plautus uses also the form adprobe in Trin. IV. ii. 115, Mihi con- 
crederet, nisi me ille et ego ilium nossem adprobe, but it seems to be an 
an. Ary, The word is mentioned by Aul. Gell. VII. 7. 

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These words convey the idea of ‘ excess.’ But it must be borne 
in mind that excess may be of two kinds. The word may denote 
that the object spoken of transcends the limits of what is right, 
proper, or convenient, in which case censure is conveyed, or it may 
denote that the object spoken of transcends the limits by which such 
an object is usually bounded, and in this case censure or praise, or 
neither, may be conveyed, according to circumstances. The former 
meaning is usually expressed in English by the word ‘ too,’ the latter 
by 1 excessively,’ ‘ most,’ ‘ very,’ and is equivalent to a superlative. 
Thus when we say that a person or thing is too long , or too short, 
too rich, or too poor, we wish to indicate that the proper limit, in 
each case, has been passed ; but when we say that a person or thing 
is excessively long, or excessively short, excessively rich, or excessively 
poor, we do not necessarily imply anything except that the usual or 
ordinary limit has been passed. In Latin, Nimis, Nimius, are used 
in both senses, and we must, in each case, be guided by the con- 
text in determining which of the two is applicable. The same takes 
place in our own language with ‘ too,’ but to a very small extent, in 
such colloquial phrases as that is too good, too delightful, too charming, 
too ridiculous, too absurd. The following examples will illustrate 
what we have said. 

i. Nimis. In such passages as the following, nimis must signify 
‘too much:’ Epid. III. iii. 23, Docte et sapienter didst non nimis 
potest Pudiciliam quisquam suae servare filiae, i. e. ‘ too closely,’ ‘ too 
carefully;’ and Andr. I. i. 34, id arbitror Adprime in vita esse utile ut 
ne quid nimis; cf. Hcaut. III. ii. 8, nihil nimis. 

On the other hand it has the force of Ryav, valde, ‘ excessively,’ in 
Most. I. iii. 109, Nimis relim lapidem qui ego illi speculo diminuam 
caput, i. e. ' very much should I like to have a stone,’ «fcc. ; so nimis 
velim in Aul. IV. vi. 4, Pseud. II. ii. 4, Rud. II. vi. 27; nimis vellem 
in As. III. ii. 43, Stich. II. i. 40, V. iv. 31 ; and nimis nolo, Bac. IV. 
x. 8, ‘ I am excessively unwilling;’ so again, Most. I. iii. 134, A 1 . Nam 
si pukra esl (sc. mulier) nimis ornata est. P. Nimis diu apstineo 
manum, where nimis ornata est means ‘ she is abundantly decorated,’ 
and nimis diu means ‘too long;’ Cas. III. i. 15, Quid me amare refer!, 
nisi sim doctus dicax nimis ; True. II. i. 36, Nimis pol morlalis lepidus, 
nimisque probus da/or. In Epid. II. ii. 25 Nimis factum bene! is an 
exclamation, ‘capital!’ ‘excellent!’ and in Merc. I. 15, where a slave 

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out of breath exclaims, Peril, animam nequto vortere, tiimis nihili 
tibicen siem; minis nihili means ‘utterly good-for-nothing;’ and so 
in Rud. IV. ii. 1 4, minis homo nihili. 

Before quitting minis we must remark that it is occasionally 
combined with quam : thus True. II. v. 15, Nimis quam paucae sun t 
defessae , male quae facere occeperunt. Nimis quam paucae efficiunt, 
si quid occeperint bene facere ; so Most. II. ii. 79 (78), Nimis quam 
formido ne manufesto hie me opprimal ; and V. ii. 21 (iii. 21), Hercle 
mihi tecum cavendum est, nimis quam es orator ca/us : the simple inter- 
pretation of this combination seems to be ‘ how very few,’ ‘ how very 
much I fear,’ ‘ how very crafty (shrewd) a pleader you are.’ * 

For other examples of minis followed by adjectives, adverbs, and 
verbs, we have nimis sanc/as, Adel. V. vii. 1 ; nimis doc/us, Epid. III. 
ii. 42; minis inepta, Rud. III. iii. 19; nimis longo, Trin. III. iii. 77; 
nimis truculcntus, True. II. ii. 10; nimis iracunda, Amph. III. ii. 22; 
nimis lenta , Men. I. i. 18; nimis tardus, Merc. III. iv. 10; nimis 
pu/cris, Amph. I. i. 63 ; nimis bella , As. III. iii. 84 ; vehemens nimis, 
Heaut. III. i. 31; nimis iracwtde, Bac. IV. ii. 12, Men. IV. iii. 22; 
nimis s/ulte, Men. I. i. 5, Merc. III. i. 3, Pers. I. i. 19; nimis lepide, 
Cas. IV. i. 15, Rud. II. iii. 30, Poen. III. iii. 53; nimis bene. Men. V. 
vii. 30, Stich. II. ii. 50; nimis nequiter. Men. V. v. 61 ; nimis facete, 
Pers. II. v. 22; nimis argute , Trin. IV. ii. 132; nimis ferociter, 
Amph. I. i. 58; nimis astute, Epid. II. ii. 96; nimis longum. III. ii. 
40, Pers. I. iii. 87 ; nimis diu, Epid. III. i. 2, Merc. I. 54, Pers. 

IV. iv. 105, V. ii. 41; nimis metuo el formido male, Pseud. IV. iii. 
3; nimis odi male, Rud. IV. ii. 14; nimis p/acent . .. dant, Poen. 

V. iv. 34 ; nimis sancte pius, Rud. IV. vii. 8 ; nimis paene inepta, 
v. 14; nimis paene mane, Pers. I. iii. 34; misere nimis cupio, Adel. 
IV. i. 6. 

2. Nimius : Poen. I. ii. 29, Modus, omnibus in rebus, soror, optu- 
mum est habitu : Nimia omnia nimium exhibenl negotium hominibus ex 
se, where nimia omnia must signify ‘ all things when carried to excess,’ 
and nimium negotium ‘excessive trouble;’ so Heaut. I. i. 57, Nulla 
adeo ex re istuc fit nisi ex nimio otio, i. e. ‘ too much leisure;' so III. 
i. 96 ,gaudio nimio; Adel. I. i. 38, vesli/u nimio. 

On the other hand, Poen. V. iv. 35, Nimiae volup/a/i est, quad in 
exit's nos/ris porlentum est, soror, Quodque haruspex de ambabus dixit, 
where nimiae voluptati must mean * it is a source of very great 

* We find nimium followed by quam in Bac. I. ii. 13 in the Vulgate 
text. But nimium is here a conjecture of Gruterus without any MS. 

H h 

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pleasure,’ &c. ; so nimia esl voluptas , Stich. IV. i. 18; nimio ptriculo 
is ‘very great danger,’ in Men. I. iii. 16. 

3. Nimium as an adverb: Bac. I. i. 40, P. A page a me, apage ! 

B. Ah ! nimium fcrus es. P. Alihi sum. B. Afa/acissandus es. 
Equidem tibi do hanc operam. P. Ah l nimium pretiosa es operand, 
* you are too savage,’ ‘ you are too costly a workwoman ; ’ and so 
Adel. II. i. 13, Accede illuc, Parmeno, Nimium is/oc abisti, hie propter 
hunc adsiste, ‘you have gone too far in that direction.’ On the 
other hand, Trin. IV. ii. 86, C. Quos locos adisti? S. Nimium miris 
modis mirabiles, i. e. ‘most wonderful places;’ and True. II. vi. 24, 
S. Sed peperitne, opsecro, Phronesium ? A. Peperit pucrum nimium 
lepidum, i. e. 1 a remarkably fine boy.’ 

For other examples of nimium see Cas. II. iii. 32, III. i. 8, IV. i. 
13; Cist. I. i. 20; I. i. 2, V. i. 24; Men. I. ii. 10; Merc. III. 

i. 28, IV. i. 20, ii. 4; Most. IV. ii. 32 (iii. 1 1) ; Pseud. III. ii. 99, IV. 
iii. 15; Rud. II. iv. 6; Stich. II. ii. 36, 55, V. v. 7 ; Trin. I. i. 6, IV. 

ii. 86, 91, iii. 53; True. IV. iii. 78, V. 4; Adel. I. i. 38, IV. v. 50, 
V. iii. 49, viii. 31 ; Andr. II. vi. 24 ; Heaut. IV. viii. 20; Hec. V. iv. 
13 ; Phor. V. ii. 2. 

■ The following passages from Terence may, at first sight, cause 
some embarrassment : Eun. V. vi. 1 6, P. Hem, quid dixti, pcssuma ? 
an men/i/a es i etiam rides ? Itane lepidum tibi visum est, see l us, nos 
inrider e ? Pv. Nimium. P. Siquidcm istuc inpune habueris. Pv. Ve- 
rum. P. Rcddam, hercle. Pv. Credo; here lepidum must be supplied 
after nimium, ‘just so, very amusing;’ and so in Heaut. IV. ii. 22, 
Nimium, inquam, where probe is to be repeated after nimium, ‘ capital, 
I say.’ In Phor. IV. iii. 38 the Vulgate text gives, G. A primo homo 
insanibat. C. Cedo, quid postulal ? G. Quid ? nimium quantum lubuit. 

C. Die, &c., which it is very hard to understand ; but if we punctuate, 
G. Quid ? Nimium. Quantum lubuit, the sense will be ‘ what did he 
demand? Too much. A fancy sum;’ and nimium occurs exactly in 
this sense a few lines farther on, v. 59, Nimium est, &c. This pas- 
sage, it must be observed, was a theme of controversy among the 
old grammarians (see Charis. p. 185, ed. Puts.), and modem editors 
have not been able to agree either as to the reading, the punctuation, 
or the distribution of the words among the speakers. 

Terence uses pernimium once, in Adel. III. iii. 38, D. Fratris me 
quidem Pudct pigctque. S. Nimium inter vos, Demea, ac Non quia ades 
praesens dico hoc, pernimium interest : indeed, the word is found in 
this passage only, and in the Digest. XL VIII. iii. 2, Sed haec inter- 
pretatio perdura et pernimium severa est in eo, See. 

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EXCVRSVS Xll.—N/M/S, KIM 1 VS, die. 


4. Nimio as an adverb. Nimio is used adverbially in clauses in 
which comparison is expressed or implied. 

(a) In the great majority of instances it is combined with the 
comparative degree of an adjective or adverb : thus Most. I. i. 69, 
nimio celerius, ' more quickly by far ii. 66 (60), nimio nequior, 
‘worse by far;’ II. ii. 12, nimio expectatior , ‘looked for with far 
greater pleasure;’ V. i. 54 (ii. 39), nimio p/us sapio, ‘I am wiser by 
a great deal;’ so nimio aequius, Merc. III. ii. 6; nimio citius, Trin. 
II. ii. 106; nimio doci/ior, Bac. I. ii. 56; nimio facilius, Pseud. I. 
iii. 47; nimio lubentius, Men. V. vi. 15; nimio melius , Pers. I. iii. 
31, True. II. v. 17; nimio minus, Rud. I. iii. 1, II. v. 3, True. II. 
v. 3; nimio ocius, Stich. V. v. 5; nimio plus, Bac. I. ii. 14; nimio 
pluris, Trin. I. i. 12; nimio rectius, Bac. II. iii. 80; nimio sa/ius, 
I. ii. 42, Trin. II. ii. 30. 

(b) Sometimes nimio is connected with a verb which implies 
comparison: thus Bac. III. ii. 12, Nimio praeslat inpendiosum te qtiam 
ingratum dicier; Poen. I. ii. 90, Bonam ego quam beahwi me esse nimio 
did mavolo. Into the following also the idea of comparison enters : 
True. IV. i. 6, Quom hoc iam votupe esl, turn hoc nimio magnae melliniae 
mihi; that is, ‘ while, on the one hand, this circumstance (viz. that my 
gifts have been graciously received by Phronesium) is a source of 
pleasure, on the other hand, this other circumstance (viz. that the 
gifts of my rival have been scorned) is more sweet by far :’ me/linia 
is an on-. X«y., and is generally understood to mean some sweet drink. 
In Men. V. ii. 69, V. Tu negas. Mu. Nego hercle vero. Mr. Nimio 
hate inpudenlcr negas : the meaning is clearly ‘ these denials are more 
shameless by far than your previous falsehoods.’ More difficult is the 
line at the commencement of the 6th Scene of the 4th Act of the 
Bacchides : Nicobulus enters saying, Nimio Mate res esl magnae 
dividiae mihi, Suplerfugesse sic mihi hodie Chrusa/um : but we may 
regard this as intended to be the continuation of a soliloquy com- 
menced by Nicobulus before he appeared on the stage, in which, 
after having mentioned some annoyance, he goes on, ‘ far more am 
I incensed by the circumstance that Chrysalus,’ &c. 

(c) Sometimes the emphasis is increased by the addition of multo : 
Bac. I. ii. 42, Video nimio iam multo plus quam volueram, Vixisse nimio 
sa/ius esl iam quam vivere ; and again in the same play, IV. iv. 20, 
M. Chrusate, occidi. C. Fortassis tu auri dempsisti pa rum. M. Qui, 
malum, parum ? imo vero nimio minus multo parum; while we find in 
Stich. II. ii. 15, Nimio inpertior multo tanto plus quam speras. In 
Most. III. iii. 2 (IV. ii. 2), Num nimio emptae tibi viden/ur ? (sc. antes), 

H h 2 

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nimio is not an adverb, but the ablative of ttimius with argenlo or 
some such word understood, ‘ the house does not appear to you to 
have been purchased at too long a price, does it?’ 

Nimio used as an adverb seems not to occur in Terence. 


These five words are employed by the dramatists in the sense of 

* pray,’ ‘ prithee,' ‘ if you please,’ ‘ I beg of you,’ ‘ I beseech you,’ 

* I implore you.’ We may make a few remarks upon each. 

I. Soda was regarded by the Romans themselves as a con- 
traction of si audes: thus Cic. Orat. XLV. § 154, Libenter etiam 
copulando verba iungebant, ut ‘ sodes’ pro ‘ si audes,’ ‘sis’ pro ' si vis;' 
and Festus, s. v. sultis, p. 343, ed. Mtill., “ Sul/is, si vol/is significat, 
composito vocabulo, ita ut alia sunt, sodes, si audes , sis, si vis,’ &c. 

The uncontracted form is found Trin. II. i. 17, Da mihi hoc, me l 
rneum, si me amas, si audes; and in Aul. II. i. 48, as the line is quoted 
by Priscian, p. 960, ed. Puts., Die mihi, si audes, quis ea est quam vis 
ducere uxorem i where however our MSS. of Plautus give quacso 
instead of si audes. 

Generally speaking, sodes is used without much emphasis : thus 
Bac. IV. vii. 39, C. Novis/ine hominem ? N. Novi. C. Die sodes 
mihi, Bel/an’ videtur specie muHer ? N. A dumdum, i. e. ‘pray, tell me,’ 
or ‘tell me, if you please;’ and so Men. III. iii. 21, Trin. II. iv. 161, 
Pers. II. v. 17. 

It is a formula of civility in Hec. V. i. 27, sed scin quid volo potius 
sodes facias i i. e. ‘if it so please you;’ and so Heaut. IV. iv. 16, 
Phor. V. vii. 28. 

There is considerable earnestness in Adel. IV. v. 9, die sodes, 
pater, ‘tell me, I entreat you;’ and in Hec. V. iv. 1, Vide, mi Par- 
metio, eliam sodes, i. e. * pray, be careful ;’ while there is something 
soothing or deprecatory in Phor. V. iii. 10, Parce sodes; and coaxing 
in Poen. III. v. 12, Mitte ad me sodes, ifcc., and in Trin. II. L 17. 
For other examples of sodes see Adel. IV. i. 1, Andr. I. i. 58, 
Heaut. III. i. 50, iii. 19, IV. iv. 16, v. 22, Hec. III. ii. 23, V. iv. 4, 
Phor. V. i. 14. See also Catull. CIII. 1, Cic. Epp. ad Att. VII. 3, 
Hor. S. I. ix. 41, Epp. I. i. 62, vii. 15, XVI. 31, Ad Pisones 438. 

It anil be observed from the above examples that sodes usually 
follows an imperative, but this is not the case invariably, as may be 

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EXCVRSVS Xlll.—SOD£S, SIS pi. SVLTIS, dec. 237 

seen by referring to Heaut. IV. iv. 16, Iiec. V. i. 27. In Horace, 
S. I. ix. 41, although the imperative is not expressed it is implied 
from the preceding clause. 

II. Sis and Sultis stand for si vis and si vul/is . see passages 
from Cicero and Festus quoted under Sodes. We find sis, although 
rarely, in the uncontracted form : thus Adel. II. i. 30, Si sa/is iam 
debacchatus es, leno, audi, si vis, nunc iam, See. 

Sis is generally subjoined to an imperative, and is frequently 
connected with it so closely that the two words were, probably, in 
the more familiar combinations, pronounced as one, and are so 
printed: thus we find videsis, ceiresis, apagesis, abisis, and the like. 
Sis however is occasionally separated from its imperative by a word : 
thus, Cas. II. vi. 27, Accipe hanc sis ; and sometimes placed before 
the imperative, as Pers. IV. iv. 104, Ne, sis, plora, and V. ii. 15, Ne 
sis me uno digi/o atligeris. 

According to the circumstances under which it is employed, and 
to the tone of voice in which it is uttered, sis may express feelings of 
a varied description, just as the words * if you please,’ ‘ I'll thank you,’ 
* I’ll trouble you,’ in English, may express a civil request, a peremp- 
tory command, anger, scorn, contempt, and many other emotions. 

Thus it denotes ordinary conventional civility in Cas. III. vi. 20, 
II. vi. 27, Epid. III. iv. 39, Merc. III. i. 45, Pers. II. v. 20, IV. iv. 
58, Pseud. III. ii. 50, Rud. II. vii. 18 : advice, warning, reproof, 
Pseud. I. i. 46, vide sis quam tu ran geras, ‘ you had better take care 
what you are about Cure. IV. ii. 33, fac sis bonae frugi sies, ‘ see 
now that you behave like a good girl;’ Cas. II. ii. 31, lace sis, ‘hold 
your tongue, will you;’ so Epid. V. ii. 3, Pers. II. v. 15, III. i. 61, 
V. ii. 54, Poen. III. v. 16: threat, Pers. V. ii. 13, Ne sis me uno digi/o 
atligeris, ne le ad /errant, scelus, adfligam, ‘you'd better not lay a 
single finger upon me;’ Trin. IV. i. 19, Afxtge me sis, ‘keep clear of 
me, if you please ;’ and so Cure. V. iii. 9 : angry command to a slave, 
Cas. IV. ii. 14: anger, impatience, Poen. I. ii, 162, Stich. I. i. 36: 
a sneer, True. IV. iii. 35, Vide sis /acinus muliebre, ‘ there’s a woman’s 
trick for you!' and so Adel. V. i. 4 : contempt, scorn, Merc. I. 57, 
Pseud. III. ii. 102: insolent tone, Pers. III. iii. 8, 9, 17, 32, Accipe 
sis argentum, Tcne sis argentum, Cedo sis mihi argentum, Cape hoc sis, 
‘take the money, confound you!’ so Merc. IV. iv. 37: deprecatory 
tone, Merc. II. ii. 49, Pseud. I. iii. 10: wonder, Pers. IV. iv. 45: 
coaxing tone, Pers. V. i. 12, True. II. vi. 44: triumph, Epid. III. ii. 
9 : eagerness, Poen. III. iv. 3 : bitterness, Bac. I. ii. 29 : demand, 
Poen. V. ii. 124. 

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The student may classify for himself the following examples : 
Merc. II. ii. 52, Pers. IV. iv. 104, Poen. I. ii. 79, 102, III. ii. 1, 
Rud. IV. ii. 29, 44, Trin. II. i. 31, iv. 112, 154, Eun. II. iii. 19, IV. 
vi. 18, vii. 29, Heaut. I. ii. 38, II. iii. 128, 133, Phor. I. ii. 9. 

Sultis occurs less frequently. In Poen. III. vi. 19 it means ‘if 
you like,’ without any emphasis; in Stich. I. iii. 67, ‘pray,’ simple 
invitation; in Pers. V. ii. 52, agile, sultis, hunc ludificcmus , there is 
some eagerness; in Men. II. ii. 75 it is employed in addressing 
slaves; in Stich. I. ii. 8, Rud. III. v. 40, it is addressed to slaves in 
an accent of stem command. 

Sis is found, although rarely, in the sense of si vis, ‘ if you wish,’ 
as in As. III. iii. 93, Quaeso herds, Liharu, sis herum tuis /dc/is sospi- 
tari, Da mihi islas vigitt/i minas ; and in the same play, II. ii. 43, Sis 
amanti subvenire familiari filio ; but in the latter passage the punc- 
tuation and the arrangement of the speakers in the dialogue are 

III. Amabo, it is evident, strictly means ‘(if you will do what I 
ask) I shall love you (in return),’ and this is fully expressed in Poen. 
I. ii. 40, Ad. Soror, pares amabo : sat est istue alios dieere nobis. Ns 
nosmet nostra etiam vitia loquamur. A .v. Quieseo. Ad. Ergo amo is : 
compare with this Men. II. iii. 7 1 , Sed scin quid ts amabo ut facias ? 
and True. IV. iv. 26, Multum amabo te ob istam rem, mseastor. Hence 
in Phor. I. ii. 4 Amo ts may be rendered ‘ many thanks ;’ and so in 
Heaut. IV. vi. 21, Deamo te; and in Phor. III. i. 14, Omnes vos amo. 
Cf. Eun. I. ii. 106, III. ii. 3. 

Amabo occurs very often in Plautus, and is sometimes followed by 
an accusative, but is generally without a case. It passes through 
the same modifications of meaning as sis. It is frequently a mere 
expression of ordinary civility or simple inquiry, ‘ pray, if you please,’ 
‘ have the goodness,’ although a certain degree of earnestness may 
be implied: thus Most. I. iii. 10, Conlemp/a, amabo, mea Scapha, satin 
haec me vestis deceat ? and in v. 140, Cedo, amabo, decern ; and II. i. 38, 
Idee, amabo, ' I beg and pray;’ see also I. iv. 29 (30), II. ii. 36, Bac. 

I. i. 19, 28, 67, Cas. II. ii. 6, vi. 34, 41, Cist. I. i. 19, Cure. I. ii. 18, 
Merc. III. i. 5, Pers. II. ii. 63, III. i. 8, Qui, amabo, ‘ how so, pray?’ 
V. ii. 68, Poen. I. ii. 31, 189, Eun. I. ii. 50, III. iii. 28, 31, IV. iv. 7: 
it implies argumentative inquiry, Bac. V. ii. 76 : anxious inquiry, Cist. 

II. iii. 22 : inquiry and surprise (real or pretended), Bac. V. ii. 3, 30, 
Cist. I. i. 18 : eager exclamation, wonder, Rud. I. iv. 33, Heaut. II. iv. 
24, Merc. III. i. 41: anxiety and alarm, Cist. III. 12, amabo, aecurrite, 
Ne ss interimat, ‘ in the name of heaven, haste, lest he kill himself ;’ 

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EXCVRSVS XU 1 .—S 0 DES, S/S pi. SVLT/S, die. 239 

earnest request, ‘I beseech you,’ ‘I implore you,’ Bac. I. i. 10, Cas. 

11. ii. 38, III. v. 13, 14, 16, IV. iv. 11, Cist. I. i. 106, 112, 115, III. 

12, IV. ii. 42, Men. IV. iii. 4, Poen. I. ii. 123, 137, True. IV. iv. 19, 
20, V. 66, 74, F.un. I. ii. 70, IV. iii. 21 : earnest adjuration, Poen. V. 
iv. 87, 95: curiosity, Cist. IV. ii. 62 : coaxing, Bac. V. ii. 80, Cas. I. 
49, Cure. I. ii. 47, Men. II. iii. 31, III. iii. 17, Pers. III. i. 8, V. i. 13, 
True. III. i. 19, ii. 19, 28: reproach, Cist. I. i. 21, True. II. iv. 1 : 
indignation, contempt, Cas. II. iii. 19, Men. II. iii. 54, Poen. I. ii. 187, 
True. V. 49, Hec. I. i. 13: expostulation and entreaty, As. III. iii. 117, 
Cure. I. iii. 41, Poen. I. ii. 51 : despair, Rud. 1 . iv. 29. 

IV. Quaeso is an old form of Quaero, and was identical with it in 
signification: thus Festus, s. v., p. 258, ed. Mull., "Quaeso ut signi- 
ficat idem quocj rogo, ita quaesere ponitur ab antiquis pro quaerere, ut 
est apud Ennium 1 . II. Ostia mum'/a est; idem loca navibus pulcn's 
mundo (leg. munda ) facit , nautisque atari quaeseniibus vitam et in 
Chresponte (leg. Cresphonte) ducit me uxorem liberorum sibi quaesen- 
dttai gratia , et in Andromeda liberum quaesendum causa familiae 
matrem tuae." 

In dialogue quaeso signifies ‘ I beg,’ ‘ I request,’ * I beseech,’ and 
in the majority of cases conveys the idea of considerable earnestness 
on the part of the speaker : thus Capt. V. iv. 28, Compedibus, quaeso, 
ut tibi sit levior fitius ; sometimes accompanied by tenderness, Amph. 

I. iii. 2, Atque imperce, quaeso, ‘ take care of yourself, I beseech you.’ 
It is frequently rendered more emphatic by the addition of edepol or 
herclt, ‘ I implore you,’ as in Most. II. i. 29, Quaeso edepol exsurge, 
piiter adt<enit ; and As. III. iii. 93, Quaeso, hercle, Libane, sis herum 
tuis factis sospitari. It implies a solemn entreaty in Capt. II. iii. 72, 
Sed le quaeso, cogitato hinc mea fide aiitti doaium Te aes/iaia/um, et 
aieam esse vitam hie pro te posi/am pignori. 

It sometimes assumes the form of an actual prayer to heaven : 
Cas. II. vi. 37, Taceo : Deos quaeso; Adel. II. iv. 11, Decs quaeso ut 
istaee prohibeant ; Amph. II. ii. 88, Equidem sana sum et Deos quaeso 
ut salva pariam filium ; Aul. II. viii. 24, Apollo, quaeso, subveni mihi 
atque adiuva ; Poen. IV. iv. 15, Iupiter da diem huac sospilem quaeso; 
and accompanies an imprecation in Rud. II. vi. 15. It indicates 
impatience in Most. I. i. 34: indignation in Cure. III. 22: it is 
deprecatory or soothing in Most. V. ii. 47, 50: supplicatory in Mil. 

II. vi. 16, 85, Pseud. V. ii. 23, Rud. II. vi. 26, III. v. 34: it implies 
remonstrance, True. II. i. 27, Andr. I. ii. 33, Bona verba quaeso: sur- 
prise, Pseud. I. i. 20, Trin. IV. ii. 144, Phor. V. vii. 42 : surprise and 
remonstrance, Hec. IV. ii. 12. It asks for an explanation, Mil. IV. 

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vii. 23 : and conveys a civil request, Rud. IV. iv. 9 : it is quite devoid 
of emphasis in Pers. IV. vi. 6, Poen. V. ii. 80 : sometimes it is little 
more than an exclamation, as in Mil. II. iv. 46, At, Sceledre, quatso , 
Vt ad id txemplum somnium quam simile samniavil ! ( = ‘I say!’) and 
IV. vi. 38, Vi, quaeso, amore perdita est haec misera ! see also Mil. IV. 

viii. 1, True. II. viii. 5. 

Generally it is used absolutely, but we have Capt. II. ii. 90, Te 
quaeso; Trin. I. ii. 152, Te quaeso ut; Cas. II. vi. 37, Deos quaeso; 
Adel. II. iv. 11, Deos quaeso ut ; Cure. III. 62, Tecum oro et quaeso . . . 
ut ; V. ii. 30, Quaeso ut mihi dicas ; Rud. III. ii. 15, Teque oro et 
quaeso , . . ut; Aul. IV. ii. 4, Verum id te quaeso ut prohibessis , Tides. 

V. Obsecro, looking to the etymology, ought to be much more 
forcible than any of the preceding words, since it must signify, pro- 
perly, ‘ I adjure you by things holy,’ * in the name of Heaven.’ 
Sometimes it is a direct prayer addressed to a deity, as Adel. III. iv. 
41, Juno Lucina, fer opem, serva me, opsecro : sometimes it conveys 
an earnest appeal to the person or persons addressed, as II. i. 1, 
Opsecro, popu/ares,/erte misero alque innocent! auxi/ium; Poen. I. iii. 8, 
JVunc opsecro te, MUphio, hanc per dexteram, Perque banc sororem 
laevam , perque oculos tuos, Perque meos amores, &c. ; Cure. II. iii. 28, 
ubi sunt spes meae ? Eloquere, opsecro, hercle. C. Eloquere, te opsecro, 
ubi sunt meae? and so vv. 31, 34, 35, V. iii. 18, 19. Sometimes it 
is an exclamation of horror, Eun. IV. iii. 22, Perii, opsecro, /am 
infandum /acinus, mea tu, ne audivi quidem : or of alarm, Andr. IV. 
iv. 46, C. Audivi, inquam, a principio. D. Audistine opsecro! or of 
wonder and agitation, Rud. I. iv. 13, Num Ampelisca, opsecro, est? ‘in 
the name of heaven, surely that is not Ampelisca, is it?’ and so 
Andr. IV. v. 5, Opsecro, quern video ? or of great astonishment, Eun. 
IV. iii. 14, Au, opsecro, mea Pythias, quid istuc nam mons/ri fuit ? 
or of joy and excitement, Heaut. IV. iii. 6, O mi Sure, audistine, 
opsecro ? or it may indicate that the feelings of the speaker have been 
offended or shocked, Hec. IV. i. 12, P. Peperit filia? hem l t aces ? 
ex quo? M. Istuc patrem rogare est aequom? Perii! ex quo censes, 
nisi ex illo, cui data est nuptum, opsecro ? 

But although, in the above and many other passages, it denotes 
emotions of the strongest kind, it is in many cases identical with 
amabo : thus in Cas. II. iii. 16 we find, C. Opsecro, sanun es ? and 
in True. II. iv. 13, Amabo, sattun es ? and it passes through the same 
varieties of meaning : simple inquiry, civil request, more or less 
earnest, Bac. I. i. 68, Cas. II. ii. 18, Cure. I. ii. 25, Hec. III. i. 38: 
very earnest request or inquiry (I beseech, I implore), Cas. II. ii. 24, 

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Adel. IV. ii. 11, v. 63, Andr. IV. iii. 6, V. iv. 52, Eun. IV. iv. 18, 
Heaut. II. iii. 26, 98, Phor. II. ii. 5, III. iii. 20: coaxing, True. V. 
57, Eun. I. ii. 15 : wonder, impatience, contempt, Adel. IV. v. 21, 27, 
Andr. IV. iii. 10, iv. 8, Eun. IV. iv. 12, Hec. IV. i. 41, Phor. I. iv. 19, 
Poen. I. ii. 122, V. iv. 22. It will be seen from the above examples 
that obsecro, like amabo, is not unfrequently followed by the accu- 
sative of the person appealed to, but more frequently does not take 
a case, and is in many instances a mere exclamation. In Heaut. 
IV. i. 31 it is construed with a double accusative, Mi Chremc, peccavi, 
fateor , vincor, nunc hoc te opsccro; and in Pers. I. i. 49 the entreaty is 
strengthened by the addition of resecro — Opsccro te, rcsecro, operant da 
hanc mihi fidclem. 

Perhaps it is scarcely worth remarking that while amabo recurs 
again and again in Plautus, obsecro is found in comparatively few 
passages, while Terence evinces a decided preference for obsecro over 
amabo; quaeso is more common, in proportion, in Plautus than in 
Terence; sodes is used upwards of a dozen times in the six plays of 
Terence, and not more than five or six times in the twenty plays 
of Plautus. Sultis does not occur in Terence; it is quoted by Festus 
(pp. 301, 343, ed. Milll.) from Plautus, Cato, and Ennius. 



I. Talenlum, Alina, Drachma, Obolus. As might be expected, 
considering the source from which the works of Plautus and Terence 
are derived, the sums of money mentioned in their plays are, for 
the most part, calculated according to the Greek system of Talents, 
Minae, and Drachmae. 

We may remind the young scholar that these terms all denoted 
certain weights, and that although the absolute value of each differed 
in different states, their mutual relation was invariable. Mina may 
be represented in all cases by the English word Pound, but as the 
Avoirdupois Pound differs from the Troyes Pound, and both from 
the Italian Pound, so the Mina of Athens was different in absolute 
weight from the Mina of -Egina, and both differed from the Mina 

1 i 

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of Alexandria. But in these and in all other places where the same 
denominations were employed, 

1 Talent = 60 Minae. 

1 Mina = too Drachmae. 

1 Drachma = 6 Obols. 

Moreover, throughout Greece and her colonies in Asia and Africa, 
when money was concerned, a Talent denoted sixty pounds’ weight 
of silver,* a Mina one pound weight of silver, and a Drachma 
T j^jth of a pound weight of silver ; but since the absolute weight of 
the Mina varied in different districts, the actual money value of a 
Talent, a Mina, and a Drachma varied in like proportion. Of these 
three denominations the Drachma alone was a coin ; no piece of the 
weight of a Talent or even of a Mina was ever minted for circulation. 
The heaviest Greek coin known is a Decadrachm, the most common 
are Tetradrachms and Didrachms, + and the Athenians coined silver 
pieces as low as a quarter-obol, or T l r th of a Drachma. 

In the works of the Latin dramatists all computations in Greek 
money must be referred to the Attic standard, and wherever mode- 
rate sums are named we shall not commit any grave error if we 
consider the value of the 

Attic Drachma = 9 d. sterling. 

— Mina = .£3 15 o „ 

— Talent = .£225 o o „ 

and the — Obolus = ij „ 

Since the Athenians employed silver as the standard of their 
currency, wherever we find the words Talentum or Mina in Plautus 
or Terence they uniformly denote respectively a sum of 6000 and 
and 100 Drachmae, the word argenti being sometimes added and 
sometimes omitted. Thus when we read in Merc. IV. iii. 4, Hem 
quoi decern talenta dotis detuli ; and in Heaut. V. i. 67, Duo talenta 
pro re nostra ego esse decrevi satis, the same Talent is indicated as 
when it is said, Phor. V. iii. 6, ex his praediis talenta argenti bina 
Slalim capiebat ; and in Merc. Prol. 88, Talentum argenti ipsus sua 
adnumerat manu : in the latter passage it is clearly implied that the 
value of a Talent was counted out in silver coin ; and so As. I. iii. 41, 
Si mihi dantur duo talenta argenti numerata in manum. 

But the expression Talentum magnum, which occurs frequently in 

* If this does not hold good universally, the exceptions are not such 
as require to he noticed here. 

+ This is to he understood of the Greek coinage in general — the Di- 
drachms of Athens are extremely rare. 

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the Latin dramatists,* * * § and also Talenlum magnum argenli, \ proved for 
a considerable period a source of embarrassment to scholars until 
Gronovius (De pecun. vet.) demonstrated that these terras, like the 
simple Talenlum or Talenlum argenli, denoted the ordinary Attic 
Talent, J and that the epithet magnum was occasionally employed by 
the Roman writers, for by them only is it used, because they first 
became acquainted with the word Talenlum in their intercourse 
with the Greeks of Sicily and of some cities of Magna Graecia, 
who, like the old Italians, had adopted copper as the standard of 
their currency, and whose money Talent was therefore a Talent 
of copper, and equivalent to a very' small sum. Hence when the 
Romans, at a subsequent period, first became acquainted with the 
Attic Talent, they would naturally seek to distinguish it from the 
small Sicilian talent by attaching to it the epithet magnum. § 

In like manner as Talenlum and Talenlum argenli are used indif- 
ferently, so are Minae || and Argenli minae, and likewise Drachmae 
and Drachmae argenli s. argenleae.** When in one passage, True. 
V. 8, we read, Ego, mea voluplas, si quid peccavi prius, Subplicium ad 
te hanc minam fero auri, we must understand minam auri to signify 
not ‘ a pound of gold ’ but ‘ the value of a Mina, or pound of silver, 
in gold.’ 

We have said that wherever mention is made of Greek money in 
the Latin dramatists we must refer it to the Attic standard. To this 
there is one exception, where however the distinction is carefully 
marked, Trim II. iv. 23, Trapezitae mil/e drachumarum Olumpicum, 
Quas de ratione dehibuisti, reddilae. What these Olympic Drachmas 
may have been we cannot tell, for, as. far as I am aware, they are 
not named in any other passage in the Classics. 

* E. g. Aul. IV. ii. 30, Cist. II. iii. 19, Cure. I. i. 64, Rud. III. iv. 73, 
V. ii. 43, Phor. IV. iii. 39. 

t Most. III. iii. 10 (IV. ii. io), Rud. V. ii. 57. iii. 19, 24. 

J It will be seen, by referring to Rud. V. ii. 43, 45, 57, V. iii. 19, 24, 
that Talentum, Talenlum magnum, 'Talent um argenli magnum, designate the 
same sum. 

§ I am aware that this explanation of the meaning of ’Talentum magnum 
has been controverted, but I believe that it is generally accepted by the 
l>est scholars and numismatologists. The subject has been discussed by 
Bentley, with his usual acuteness, in the chapter on Sicilian Money in his 
Dissertation on the Epistles of Phalaris. 

|| E.g. Cure. I. i. 63, Most. I. iii. 142, III. ii. 138 (136), iii. 16 (IV. ii. 
16), IV. ii. 58 (iii. 35), Pseud. IV. vii. 130, Rud. Prol. 45, True. II. iv. 90. 

If As. II. ii. 97, Epid. I. i. 52, Pers. IV. iv. 113, IV. vi. i, Poen. II. 21, 
Pseud. I. i. 1 15. 

** Pseud. I. i. 98, Heaut. III. iii. 40. 

t i 1 

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One or two phrases connected with money and money payments 
require some explanation. 

(a) Commodus denotes that a sum mentioned is ‘of full weight;’ 
Rud. V. ii. 31, Talentum argenti commodum magnum inerat in crumena; 
and As. III. iii. 135, Quid ego a/iitd exoptem amp/ius, nisi illud quoius 
inopia est, Viginti argenti commodas minas huius quas dem matri ? and 
Merc. II. iii. 101, where the father and son are bidding in opposition, 
each pretending to be the agent of a friend, D. Etiam nunc adnutat: 
addam sex minas. C. Sep/em mihi ( Numquam edepol me vincet hodie) 
commodis pose it , pater. 

Modicus seems to be employed in the same sense, Pseud. IV. vii, 
130, B. Perdidit me. S. At me viginti modicis mulctavit minis. 

(b) Probatus again indicates that the purity of the metal in the 
coin or bullion had been tested ; thus Pers. IV. vi. 1 , Probati hie 
argenti sunt sexaginla minae, with which compare III. iii. 33. 

(c) When Labrax says, Rud. III. iv. 21, Tu, senex, si istas amas, 
hue arido argento esi opus, the phrase is probably equivalent to ‘ hard 
cash the explanations given by the older commentators are fanciful, 
not to say ridiculous. 

(d) Among the smaller denominations the Triobolum is frequently 
mentioned, generally indefinitely for a very small sum, as in Rud. V. 
ii. 43, when Gripus is asked how much he demands for giving the 
information sought, he replies, Talentum magnum, non potest triobolum 
hinc abesse, ‘ a talent, not a farthing less and lower down, v. 67, 
Non i/li ego hodie debeo triobolum , ‘ I don’t owe him a farthing see 
also Bac. II. iii. 26, Poen. IV. ii. 46, Rud. IV. iii. 100, V. iii. 11 : in 
like manner Poen. I. ii. 168, Non ego homo triobo/i sum, nisi ego i/li 
mastigiae Exturbo octdos atque dentes, ' I am a man not worth a 
farthing if’ &c. ; and the same expression recurs, II. 17. 

(e) Diobolaris, an adjective, is found in Poen. I. ii. 58, and Frag. 
Cistell. ap. Varr. L. L. VIII. 64, ed. Mtill. See also Paul. Diac. 
s. v., p. 74, ed. Mtill. 

II. Philippus s. Numus Philippeus. The coinage of Athens and of 
the rest of Greece may be said to have consisted of silver and copper 
exclusively up to 350 B.C., for although gold was occasionally minted 
before that period, it was issued in very small quantities, and the 
circulation was necessarily extremely limited. About the time however 
indicated above, Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the 
Great, obtained such large supplies of gold from the mines of Thrace 
that during the remainder of his life he struck enormous numbers of 
gold coins, which were speedily dispersed all over the world. These 

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were known as Gold Philips, they were up to a recent period to be 
found in circulation on the eastern borders of Europe, they are still 
frequently discovered in large hoards, and numerous specimens are 
to be seen in all collections of ancient Greek medals.* They are 
mentioned frequently in Plautus, + and must have been a common 
medium when the authors of the New Comedy flourished. 

We may enumerate the different names by which they are designated. 

In the Poenulus we find three hundred spoken of as, I. i. 37, aurci 
trccenti nurni Philippei ; III. iv. 3, aurei trecenli numi qui vocantur 
Philippei ; iii. 57, trecentos numos PhiUppos; I. iii. 6, trecentos Phi- 
lippos. In the Bacchides we find two hundred spoken of, IV. viii. 
41, ducentos numos aureos PhiUppos probos; ii. 7, ducentos PhiUppos 
aurtos ; cf. ix. 45, 87, 103, ducentos numos PhiUppos; viii. 27, ducenti 
Philippi ; cf. v. 38, ix. 127, and simply 7’. 10, duccnti numi ; cf. IV. 
iv. 55, 58, viii. 32. In the Trinumus, a thousand, V. ii. 34, mille 
auri Philippum; v. 15, mille numum aureum; cf. IV. ii. 112, where 
the reading is doubtful; see also As. I. iii. 1, Trin. I. ii. 115. 

When Agorastocles says, Poen. I. ii. 132, Sunt mihi in/us nescio 
quot numi aurei lumphatici, he means ‘ gold Philips struggling to make 
their escape,’ as if they were madmen under restraint. 

There is a puzzling passage in Rud. V. ii. 26: Labrax is describing 
the contents of the Vidulus; we read in the Vulgate Text, Numi 
oclingenti aurei in rnarsupio infuerunt , Praetcrea centum denaria Phi- 
lippca in pasceolo scorsus, but the word denaria is altogether destitute 
of support from any good MS. The Vetus Codex of Camerarius 
gives, Preterea centum mna philippia, which may mean ‘ a hundred 
Minae in Philips,’ if we suppose that there was a familiar idiom by 
which the singular could be substituted for the plural, as when we 
talk of ‘ a hundred pound.' 

It would appear that Philips, in consequence of the ease with 
which they could be procured, and the purity of the metal, were 
commonly employed as bullion by artificers who executed works in 
gold; hence the allusion in Cure. 111 . 70, ibi nunc statuam volt dare 
auream Solidam faciundam ex auro Philippeo. 

* They passed into Gaul and from thence to Britain, and the whole of 
the early gold coinage of these countries “ may be said to consist of imi- 
tations more or less rude and degenerate of the Macedonian Philippus.’’ 
See the admirable work of Mr. John Evans on the Coins of the Ancient 
Britons. Lond. 1864, p. 24. 

t Never in Terence, who adhered more closely than Plautus to his 
Greek originals. The name of Philip may not have been agreeable to an 
Athenian audience. 

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III. Numus s. N utnus argenti. It will be seen from the examples 
quoted above that the word Numus is occasionally used with re- 
ference to the Philippus, but in this case the adjective aureus (or 
Philippeus ) is usually combined with it, and where these are omitted, 
as in Bac. IV. iv. 55, 58, viii. 27, 32, ix. no, Poen. III. ii. 17, Trin. 

IV. ii. 128, 161, the context is such as to leave no doubt that the 
Philippus is meant. 

But there are several passages in Plautus in which ttumus cannot 
mean the numus aureus or Philippus, indeed the designation numus 
argenti is by no means uncommon, e. g. As. II. iv. 80, argenti numum; 
Aul. I. ii. 30, argenti numos : cf. v. 34 ; Pseud. I. i. 95, numus argenti; 
iii. 65, numum argenti. 

In such cases it is difficult to discover what sum is indicated. 
Moreover doubts have arisen whether the same sum or coin is 
uniformly indicated by Numus, and also whether the word is em- 
ployed with reference to Greek or to Roman currency. 

1. It is used for money in general, or pieces of money, without 
special reference to any particular sum or coin: thus Bac. IV. iv. 17, 
Num qui numi cxcidcrunt, here, tibi, quod sic ter ram Optuere i ' you 
have not dropped some pieces of money, master, have you?’ and so 
As. II. iv. 34, adducit (sc. trapezifam) domum etiam ullro, et scribit 
numos, * draws a bill upon him.’ 

2. Numus or Numus argenti is used to denote a trifling sum : 
thus Capt. II. ii. 82, Eum si reddis mihi, praeterea unum numum ne 
duis, ‘ if you restore to me my son, do not give me a single shilling 
in addition (for your ransom). In Pers. IV. iv. in numus abesse hinc 
non potest means, ‘ I won’t take a shilling less ;’ just as we had above 
quoted from Rud. V. ii. 43, non potest triobolum hinc abesse; so also 
in Most. I. ii. 34 (31), si quid numo sarciri potest, ‘if any defect can 
be repaired for a trifle;’ cf. Pseud. I. i. 79, iii. 122, v. 91, II. ii. 49, 

V. ii. 24 ; in lipid. V. ii. 35, where the slave offers to take heavy 
odds, he says, ni ergo matris filia est, In meum numum, in tuum 
lalenlum, pignus da, ‘ I bet you a numus to a talent;’ and so III. i. 9. 

3. But there can be no doubt that Numus is frequently used to 
indicate a piece of money of definite value : thus in Epid. I. i. 52 
Stralippocles is represented as having borrowed a sum of money 
at Thebes from an usurer, for which he was to pay at the rate of 
a numus per day for each mina; in Men. II. ii. 16, 37, a numus is 
named as the price of a young pig fit for sacrifice (porci sacres 
sinceri) ; in Epid. III. ii. 36 Epidicus proposes to hire the services 
of a fidicina for a numus; in Pers. IV. vi. 2, when a sum of sixty 

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minae are paid over, two numi are deducted as the value of the bag 
(crumena); in Men. I. iv. 1 F.rotium gives Cylindrus three numi to 
purchase viands for a prandium; in Trin. IV. ii. 1 the Sycophanta 
says, Iluic ego diet nomen trinumo faciam , nam ego operam meam Tribus 
numis hodie locavi ad artes nugalorias, with which compare w. 6, 153. 
The passage in Most. II. i. 10 will be examined below. 

There is nothing in any of the above examples from which we 
could with certainty infer the precise value of the Numus. Some 
light however is thrown upon the inquiry by the speech of the cook, 
in Pseud. III. ii. 20, who complains that when people went to the 
market to hire a cook, they looked out not for the best artiste but 
for the cheapest : hence, he exclaims, Hoc ego fui hodie solus opsessor 
fori, Itli drachmis * issent miseri, me nemo potest Minoris quisquam 
numof ut surgam subigere; cf. Aul. III. ii. 34, Pseud. III. ii. 58, 87. 
This proves conclusively that the Xumus was more in value than the 
Drachma. But we can go farther; in True. II. iv. 91 Dinarchus 
declares that he will expend a Mina on viands for Phronesium, 
Practcrea opsonari dumtaxat ad minam. and in vii. 11, Geta, who 
had been employed to lay out the money, gives, in a soliloquy, an 
account of his stewardship, rejoicing that he had not failed to take 
good care of himself, Nam iam de hoc opsonio de mna una deminui 
Modo quinque numos, mihi detraxi partem Herculaneam. But the 
Pars Herculanea (see note on Most. IV. iii. 45) was a tithe, there- 
fore five numi were one tenth of a Mina, and since a Mina=ioo 
Drachmae, five numi must have been equal to 10 Drachmae , and 
hence a Numus was equal to two Drachmae or a Didrachm. 

This value of the Numus will suit perfectly the passages quoted 
above, and those also in which considerable sums are mentioned. 
In Rud. V. iii. 50 Labrax says that he paid a thousand Numi ( mille 
numos denumeravi) for Ampelisca, but according to the above com- 
putation 1000 Numi would be 20 Minae , which was an ordinary 
price for a female slave (see note on Most. I. iii. 142), and so 600 
Numi, or 12 Minae, is the price of a female slave of an inferior 
description in Pers. I. i. 37, iii. 37, III. iii. 32, V. ii. 70. Mille 
numos is found in Rud. V. ii. 40, where the context proves that the 
sum was considerably less than a talent ; and mille numum occurs in 
Merc. II. iv. 23, but here the context does not enable us to fix even 
an approximate value for the amount indicated. 

* In Merc. IV. iv. 37 a cook demands a drachma as his hire for a day. 

+ It is almost unnecessary to observe that the explanation given by some 
of the older commentators “ numo aurco Romano ” is altogether absurd. 

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g 4 8 pi.avti mostf.llaria. 

Although Xumus must mean a Didrachm in the passage quoted 
above from the Truculentus, there are two others in which com- 
mentators have believed that it clearly denotes a different sum, and 
these we must examine. 

In Heaut. III. iii. 38 Syrus fabricates a story to the following 
effect: that an old woman of Corinth had borrowed 1000 drachmae 
( drachumarum argenti milk) from Bacchis, and, having died without 
paying her debt, that her young daughter Antiphila had been left as 
security in the hands of Bacchis, Ea relicta huic arrahoni pro illo 
argenlo. Everything is distinct up to v. 43, but unfortunately the 
text of the two lines which follow (44, 45), as they appear in the 
older editions, is admitted by all to be corrupt, and has been variously 
emended by different editors. In these lines the words millc numum 
are found, and the sense is taken to be that Bacchis now wishes 
Clinias to pay her 1000 numi, in consideration of which she will give 
up Antiphila. It is taken for granted that the milk numum are 
identical with the drachumarum argenti milk previously mentioned, 
and hence it is inferred that numus is here used as equivalent to 
drachma. Now although it might be fairly urged that a passage in 
which the text is avowedly corrupt and the meaning uncertain cannot 
be received in evidence at all, yet, even admitting the interpretation 
to be generally correct, it by no means follows that the conclusion 
is inevitable. Syrus, to answer his own ends, had just characterised 
Bacchis as a pcssuma meretrix, and what is more likely than that he 
should represent such a person as not satisfied with having the mere 
principal of die sum which she had lent repaid, but as seeking a large 
addition for interest, and as taking advantage of the passion of Clinias 
to demand double the original loan, that is, according to the view 
given above, 1000 Numi or 2000 Drachmae. Terence uses numus 
in one other passage only, Phor. I. i. 3, 4, where the phrase intro- 
duced, pauxilu/um numcrum, decides nothing. 

The second passage is in Most. II. i. 10, Vtl isti qui \hastis\ trium 
numorum causa subeunl sub /alas, where Lipsius and others interpret 
ires numi to mean ires asses, and to refer to the daily pay of a Roman 
soldier. It is urged that this explanation is corroborated by the 
well-known passage in Polybius (VI. 37), where he informs us that 
the Roman legionary received two obols a day, which, if we adopt the 
common practice of the Greek and Roman writers, and reckon the 
drachma and the denarius as equivalent, would amount to 3 J asses. But 
there are various considerations which render this opinion untenable. 

1. The word Numus, when employed by Roman writers definitely 

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with reference to their own currency, signifies *ar l£<‘xv v > the Numus 
Sestertius. But the daily pay of the Roman soldier was certainly 
not three Sestertii at this period. 

2. Plautus, Pseud. I. i. 95, makes Calidorus say, Quid ego ni fleam 
Quoi nee paratus numus argenti siet, Neque cui libeltae spes sit usquam 
gentium; from which we naturally infer that the numus argenti is 
something different from the libel/a. But the Libella , according to 
Varro (L. L. V. § 174, ed. Mllll.), was a small silver coin equal in 
value to the copper As. Hence we may translate, ‘ I, who have not 
got a shilling in my pocket, and have no hope of procuring a penny 
anywhere.' It is quite true that libella is employed elsewhere (as it 
is indeed here) by Plautus in the same sense as triobolum and numus, 
to denote indefinitely a trifling sum, as in Cas. II. v. 8, Quod si tu 
nolis, filiusque etiam luus, Vobis invitis atque amborum ingratiis Vna 
libella liber possum fieri ;* and that when Hegio says, Capt. V. i. 27, 
At ob earn rem mihi libellam pro eo argenti ne duis, the meaning is 
precisely the same as when he says, II. ii. 81, Eum si reddis mihi, 
praeterca unum numum ne duis; but our object at present is to ascer- 
tain whether the value of the numus, when used by Plautus to denote 
a specific sum or coin, is constant or variable. 

3. Lastly, as to the passage Most. II. i. 10. When Lipsius and 
others assert that the words trium numcrum causa refer to the daily 
pay of the Roman soldier, even if we were to admit that the words 
really allude to the pay of the Roman soldier, it is a pure assumption 
to take it for granted that his daily pay is meant. Supposing the Ires 
numi equivalent to six drachmae or six denarii (for, as we remarked 
above, the Roman writers are wont to regard the drachma and the 
denarius as equivalent), the Ires numi would be equal to 60 asses, or two 
asses per day for a month. That this may have actually been the pay 
of the Roman soldier when Plautus, wrote is by no means improbable, 
since it was only two obols or 3 J asses per day in the time of Polybius, 
although the wealth of Rome and the importance of her armies had 
increased enormously during the interval. This is a mere conjecture, 
and may be taken for what it is worth, but we must bear in mind 
that we have no proof whatsoever that the words of Tranio refer to 
the pay of a Roman soldier. That three numi were occasionally given 

* So again, Pseud. II. ii. 34, Tibi libellam argenti numquam credam. No 
specimen of the Libella having ever been found, some numismatologists 
have most unreasonably maintained that there never was such a coin ; but 
the words of Varro (l.c.) are perfectly distinct — “ Numi denarii decuma 
libella, quod libram pondo aeris valcbat, et erat ex argento parva.” 

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in Greece for a day's work appears from Trin. IV. ii. i, quoted 
above, p. 247. 

There is another passage in Plautus which may throw some light 
upon the subject ; in Men. III. iii. 1 7 Erotium’s maid says to 
Menaechmus, Amabo, mi Menaechme, inaureis da mihi Faciundas 
pondo duum numum, slalagmia, ‘please, Menaechmus dear, give the 
jeweller (gold) to the weight of two numi to. make for me a pair of 
drop-earrings.’ If we suppose tjiat a numus weighed two drachmae, 

i. e. about 132 or 133 Troy grains, the quantity here asked for would 
be appropriate, but the weight of a libella in silver, say six Troy grains, 
would be greatly too small, and the weight of a libella in copper 
absurdly large. 

It will be observed also that the gold Philippus weighed two Attic 
Drachms, and hence the term numus denoting Didraehm was natu- 
rally applied to each, the epithet aureus being employed to distinguish 
the golden Didrachm from the silver Didrachm. 

There is still another consideration which, although hypothetical, 
may possibly bear upon this question. No attempt to coin silver 
was made at Rome until 269 B.C. When we consider the stormy 
and critical character of her history for nearly a century after that 
date, it is not probable that the mint would be very active until the 
spoils of Macedonia and Asia were poured into the Treasury. Hence 
during the life of Plautus the silver currency must have consisted 
chiefly of foreign coins, those in circulation among the Greeks of 
Magna Graecia and Sicily. But, judging from the medals which 
have come down to modem times, the Didrachm was more common 
than any other piece in these regions, and vast numbers have been 
preserved belonging to Tarentum, Velia, and Syracuse. These do 
not, in most cases, exactly correspond to the weight of the Attic 
Didrachm, but Plautus might give the name of numus or numus ar- 
genti to the pieces with which he was most familiar. 

We may now briefly recapitulate the different propositions which 
we have endeavoured to prove. 

1. The Numus of Plautus, when the word is used to designate 
a particular coin or specific sum, refers to the Greek monetary 
system exclusively. 

2. When the epithet aureus is added, or distinctly implied, it 
denotes the Philippus. 

3. When the epithet aureus is not expressed, and not evidently 
implied, then the simple numus, sometimes termed numus argenli, 
invariably represents a Greek Didrachm of silver. 

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Before quitting this subject we may advert to the circumstance 
that a great deal of bad money was in circulation, and hence, when 
a sum was paid, not only was it customary to assure the receiver 
that the coin was good, but it was submitted to some skilled person 
in order that it might be scrutinized and tested; thus Pers. III. iii. 32, 
Numi sex cent i hie erunt Probi numcrati , fac sit mulier libera, Alquc 
hue conlinuo adduce. D. Iam faxo hie erit, Non, hercle, cui nunc hoc 
dem speciandum, scio; and again, IV. vi. 1, Probati hie argenti sunt 
sexaginta minae. 

That forgeries were common we might infer from the number of 
counterfeits, many of them executed with great ingenuity, which are 
preserved in the cabinets of collectors. There are the numi plumbei 
of Plautus; thus Cas. II. iii. 40, Cui homini hodie peculi numus non 
est plumbeus, ‘a fellow whose savings do not amount to a bad 
shilling so also Most. IV. ii. 1 2 (i. 33), Pace sis, faber, qui cudere 
soles plumbcos Numos ; and Trin. IV. ii. 120, fine aurum crederem, Cui, 
si capilis res siet, numum numquam credam plumbeum ? ‘ is it likely that 
I would trust that fellow with gold, whom, were his all at stake, I 
would never trust with a bad shilling?’ 


Since the tricks and deceptions which so often form the staple 
of the New Comedy are for the most part contrived and executed 
by cunning slaves, and since their own masters are not seldom 
represented as the victims of these frauds, it is not surprising that 
the works of the dramatists should abound in words and phrases 
applied as taunts to those who had paid the penalty of previous 
offences. The expressions employed are curiously varied, by Plautus 
especially, and a multitude of terms seem to have been coined for 
the purpose. 

The common punishment for an ordinary offence was the scourge 
( ftagrum ) applied to the naked back ( dorsus s. dorsum — lergus s. ter- 
gum) and shoulders (scapulae), often with such severity as to produce 
livid marks, scars, and wheals (cicatrices — offerrumentae), and even to 
flay off the skin. The instrument employed was a cat made of 
ropes (resles), or strips of ox-hide (terginum — lord), or bundles of 
rods (virgae) in which elm twigs (virgac ulmcae) generally took the 
place of our own national birch. 

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The following examples will be rendered intelligible by what has 
been said: Most. IV. i. 12 (10), Vi adhuc fuit, mihi corium esse oportet 
Sincerum, alque ut votem verberari ; cf. I. i. 36, IV. i. 27 (24), V. L 
19 (ii. 4), Pers. III. i. 33, Her us si mina/us est malum servo suo, 
Tamenetsi id futurum non est, ubi captum est flagrum, Dum tunicas 
ponit, quanta adficitur mistrial Capt. III. iv. 117, Vae Hit's virgis 
miseris quae hodie in /ergo morientur meo ! As. III. ii. 28, Vbi saepe 
ad languorem tua duritia dederis octo Va/idos lictores ulmeis ad/cctos 
lends virgis; Pseud. I. ii. 20, Hue adhibete aures, quae ego loquar, 
plagigera genera hominum, Numquam edepol rostrum durius ter gum 
erit, quam terginum hoc meum; Epid. I. i. 84, corium perdidi : nam 
ubi senex senseril Sibi data esse verba, virgis dorsum despoliel meum; 
v. 25, T. At uttum a praetura tua, Epidice, abest. E. Quidnam ? 
T. Sacs : Lictores duo, duo viminei fasces virgarum; Most. IV. ii. 26 
(23), Mane castigabit eos bubulis exuviis; Poen. I. i. to, Nunc mihi 
blandidicus es, heri in /ergo meo Tris facile corios contrivisti bubulos ; 
and hence Aul. IV. i. 15, censio bubula; Trin. IV 7 . iii. 4, bubu/i cuttabi; 
Pers. II. iv. 11, Caedere hodie tu res/ibus; Phor. I. ii. 26, Sent f delis 
dum sum, scapulas perdidi; and so Trin. IV. iii. 2, ne me/us exoriatur 
scapulis; Poen. I. i. 25, meat isluc scapulae sentiunt ; Pers. I. i. 32, 
Vah ! iam scapulae pruriunt, quia te istaec audivi loqui, with which 
compare Mil. II. iv. 44, Timeo quid rerum gesserim, i/a dorsus to/us 
prurit; Pers. IV. viii. 1, Transcidi lor is omnes, adveniens, domi ; and 
so Adel. II. i. 28, usque ad necem obperiere loris; True. IV. iii. 19, 
Iam livorem lute scapulis istoc concinnas tuis ; Pseud. I. ii. 12, Ita ego 
rostra laltra loris faciam ut valide varia sient; Rud. IV. iii. 60, Tu 
hercle opinor in vidulum te piscem convortes, nisi caves, Fiet tibi puniceum 
corium, pos/ea atrum denuo; As. III. ii. 7, Qui saepe ante in nostras 
scapulas cicatrices indiderunt ; Rud. III. iv. 48, Con/ende ergo uter sit 
/ergo verier. Ni obferrumentas habebis plurcs in t ergo tuo Quam ulla 
navis longa clavos, turn ego ero mcndacissumus ; Postea adspicito meum, 
quando ego tuum inspec/avero : Nisi erit tarn sincerum ut quivis dicat 
ampullarius, Oplumum esse opere faciundo corium, el sincerissumum ; 
Quid causae est quin virgis te usque ad saluritatem sauciemi 

The general idea of flogging is made to assume a number of 
whimsical forms. 

Sometimes the scourgers are represented as painters who execute 
a drawing with elm-tree pigments on the hide: Epid. V. i. 19, Ex 
tuis verbis meum futurum corium pu/crum praedicas : Quern Apelles 
atque Zeuxis duo pingent pigmentis ulmeis. 

Sometimes the rods are parasites who shave close the person to 

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whom they attach themselves : Epid. II. iii. 6, Quod pol ego me/uo, si 
settex resciverit, Ne ulmos parasites faciat quae usque adtoudeant. 

Sometimes they are pens, the back of the culprit being the 
copy-book : Pseud. I. v. 1 3 1 , Quasi in libro quom scribuntur calamo 
li/erae, Stu/is me totum usque u/meis conscribito. 

Sometimes they are catapults hurling darts and death : Pers. I. i. 
28, Vide modo uimeae catapultae tuum ne Iratisfigant latus. 

Sometimes the victim is a bottomless abyss of rods : Amph. IV. 
ii. 9, Verbero, etiam quis ego sim me rogilas f ulmorum Aeheruns, Quern 
pol ego hodie ob istaec dicta faciam ferventem fiagris. 

Sometimes he will absorb so many elm rods that he will be 
changed into their substance : As. II. ii. 96, Mi hi tibique interminatus 
esl nos futures u/meos. 

Sometimes he is an anvil: Amph. I. i. 7, Quasi incudem me miserum 
homines octo validi caedunt : i/a Peregre adveniens hospitio pub/ici/us 

Sometimes he is a solid melted by the fervent heat engendered 
by the rods : Cas. II. vi. 48, Tu ul liquescas, ipse actutum virgis 

Sometimes he is a garden well watered bv blows: Epid. I. ii. 18, 
Quem quidern ego hominem inrigatum p/agis pistori dabo. 

Sometimes he is a farmer who may look for an abundant vintage, 
not of grapes but of rods — a rich harvest of misfortune : Rud. III. ii. 
21, At ego te per crura et talos tergumque optestor tuum , Si libi u/tneam 
uberem esse speras virgi demiam, Et tibi eventurum hoc anno uberem 
messem tnali, Vt . . . mihi dicas . . . &c. 

Sometimes he is a debtor who defers the day of payment by 
contracting fresh loans, with the certainty of having a heavier account 
to settle eventually: Phor. V. ii. 15, Quid fiet ? in eodem lulo haesitas : 
vorsura soh'es *, Gela, praesens quod fucrat malum in diem abiit, 
plagae crescunl. 

* Salmasius and Gronovius proved long ago that the mercantile term 
versura denoted the expedient of paying off a debt by contracting a fresh 
loan, the creditor being thus changed. But whenever a plan of this kind 
is resorted to, the new loan must be equal to the sum originally borrowed, 
together with the interest due upon it, so that, on each repetition of the 
process, an addition is made to the debt, just as at the present day, when 
a bill of exchange is renewed instead of being paid, the new bill must 
always be for a larger sum than that for which it is substituted. Gcta 
having committed an offence which exposed him to punishment, staves off 
the evil hour by a fresh piece of knavery, but by so doing the number of 
stripes due by him is increased (plagae crescunt). 

The technical phrase for renewing a loan in this manner is Versuram 
facere, and hence Versura solvere means ‘ to pay off an old loan by a new 

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Sometimes he is to be tied round with rods, as a nosegay of 
myrtles is bound with rushes : Rud. III. iv. 26, Vos adeo, ubi ego 
innutro vobis, si ne ei caput cxoculassitis Quasi murteta iuncis, item 
ego vos virgis circumvineiam. 

Sometimes he is to be required to quaff a draught expressed from 
the fructus futlonius, i. c. the staves with which cloth-scourers beat 
and thumped the woollen garments consigned to them: Pseud. III. 

i. 15, Nunc nisi lenoni munus hodic misero, Cras mihi potandus fructus 
esl futlonius. 

Sometimes an entertainment is provided, scot-free, for his shoul- 
ders : Epid. I. ii. 22, Sine meo sumptu paralae iam sunt seapu/is 

Sometimes a well-flayed back is compared to a richly-embroidered 
carpet: Pseud. I. ii. 12, Ita ego vostra latent ton's faciam ut valide 
••aria sint, Vt ne pcris/romala quidem aeque picta sint Campanica. Neque 
Alexandrina belluata conchuliata iapetia. 

We talk in familiar English of 1 giving a fellow a good dressing 
exactly the same idea is expressed in Hcaut. V. i. 77, C. Sed Surum — 
M. Quid turn? C. Egone ? si vivo, adeo exornatum dabo , Adeo de- 
pexum, ut dum viva/, mcminerit semper met. 

When it was wished to make the punishment more severe, the 
culprit was manacled and drawn up to a beam, from which he was 
suspended by the wrists while a heavy weight was attached to his 
feet. In this, way he was rendered incapable of wincing or strug- 
gling:* Phor. I. iv. 43, Ego pketar pendens nisi quid me fefellcrit; 
Eun. V. vi. 20, Tu iam pendebis qui s tultum adulescentulum nobi/ilas 
E/agt/iis ; Poen. I. i. 18, Suspende, vinci, verbera, auctor sum , sino; 
Most. V. ii. 45 (iii. 45), Verberibus, lu/um, caedere pendens; As. III. 

ii. 18, Vbi saepe causam dixeris pendens advnrsus octo Aslutos, audaees 
viros, rafen/cs virgatores; see also True. IV. iii. 3. 

We find occasionally the expression pendere per pedes, which. 

loan.’ The MSS. of Terence vary between veriuram and versura: which- 
ever we adopt the general meaning will be the same. Cf. Cic. ad Att. 
V. 15, V. 2i, Pro Fonteio I., Tacit. Ann. VI. 16, Paul. Diac. s.v. Ver- 
suram, p. 379, ed. Mull., Donat, ad Tcrent. Phor. V. ii. 15. 

It would appear that l r ersuram facere is occasionally employed to signify 
* to borrow money ’ without direct reference to the discharge of a previous 
obligation, but the existence of such an obligation is generally implied 
when a man resorts to borrowing. 

* Hence the proverbial phrase pendentem ferire, which means to strike 
a person who is incapable of making any resistance. This is used in 
Trin. II. i. 19 of a lady who has completely enthralled her lover, and 
makes all manner of demands on him, Ibi ilia pendentem ferit. 

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according to the natural force of the words, would lead us to infer 
that the slaves were sometimes hung up by the feet, head downwards. 
But it seems doubtful whether this is really the meaning of the 
phrase : thus As. II. ii. 33, Le. Quo/ pondo led esse censes nudum ? 
Li. Eon edepol scio. Le. Scibam ego te nescire; at pol ego, qui led 
expend i, scio : Nudus vinctus centum pondo es, quando pendes per pedes. 
Li. Quo argumenlo is toe ? Le. Ego dicam quo argumento et quo modo. 
Ad pedes quando adligatus es, acquom centupondium, Vbi menus manicae 
c ample xae sunt atque adductae ad trabem, Nec dependis, nec propendis, 
quin malus nequamqut sis.* Although the interpretation of some 
portions of the above lines is by no means certain, it is quite evident 
that when Leonidas says pendes per pedes he means ‘ suspended by 
the hands with the feet hanging down weighted,’ and hence when we 
find in Cas. II. vi. 38, O. Mihi ut sortitio eveniat. C. Vt quidem 
hercle pedibus pendeas, the signification is probably the same. 

Sometimes goads (stimuli), that is, long poles with sharp iron 
spikes, used for driving cattle, were employed to prick the flesh, 
under the pretext that the skin of habitual malefactors had become 
so indurated as to be insensible to the lash : Pseud. I. ii. 4, Neque ego 
homines magis asinos umquam vidi, ita plagis costae callcnt, Quos dum 
ferias, tibi plus noceas, eo enim ingenio hi sunt flagritribae ; As. II. iv. 
12, L. Vtiruim nunc stimulus in manu mihi sit. M. Quiesce, quae so. 
L. Qui latera conteram tua quae obcalluere plagis; Cas. II. viii. 10, At 
candida/us cedi t hie masligia, Stimu/orum loculi, ‘ whose body is a 
sheath for goads.’ 

The goad might be applied to one hanging up : Men. V. v. 48, At 
ego te pendenlem fodiam stimulis trigin/a dies ; or to one bearing about 
the /urea or pa/ibu/um (see below) ; Most. I. i. 52, O carnuficium 
cribrum, quod credo fore, Ita te forabunt patibulatum per vias Stimulis, 
si hue reveniat \quam primum ] senex. 

In the lines last quoted reference is made to a form of torture to 
which we find numerous allusions. A heavy log of wood was em- 
ployed, forked at the extremity (/urea), or with a cross piece like 
a gibbet ( patibulum ) ; the hands of the slave were attached to the 
limbs of the log, which he dragged about, and was flogged or goaded 
as he staggered painfully under the load : Pers. V. ii. 7 2, T. Satis 
sumpsimus supplici iam. D. Fateor, manus vobis do. T. Et post dabis 
Sub furcis; Men. V. v. 40, Et ob earn rent in carcerem ted esse com- 
paclum scio, Et posiquam es emissus, caesum virgis sub /urea scio; 

* Adligatus es, dependis, propendis are the readings of the best MSS., 
which have been corrected plausibly adligatum est, dependcs, propendes. 

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Cas. II. viii. 2, Sine mode rus venial, ego remittam ad le virum Cum 
furca in urbem, Tamquam carbonarium, i. e. ‘ as black with blows 
as if he were a charcoal burner;’* vi. 37, 0 . Taceo, Deos quaeso. 
C. Vl quidtm tu hodie canem f et furcam /eras. O. Mihi ut sorlitio 
eveniat. C. Vt quidem herc/e pedibus pendeas. 

A thief was sometimes branded with the three letters FVR, and 
hence was called in derision lilera/us or trium literarum homo : Cas. 
II. vi. 48, C. Tu ut liquescas, ipse actutum virgis calefadabere. S. Hoc 
age sis, Olumpio. O. Si hie literatus me sinat; Aul. II. iv. 46, Tun' 
trium literarum homo Me vituperas ? fur, etiam fur trifurcifer. + 

When a slave belonging to the Familia Vrbana had committed 
some unpardonable offence, or was found to be of habits incorrigibly 
bad, he was transferred to the Familia Rustica, and was sent to the 
country, where he was hardly used, frequently worked in chains, and 
was employed in the most severe and distasteful labour. The sort 
of toil most frequently referred to is working in the mills where the 
corn was husked and ground (pis tritium — mo/a), and this task was 
probably generally assigned to refractor)’ town slaves because no 
more skill was necessary than is required in turning a modern 
tread-mill or prison-crank: Most I. i. 18, Augebis ruri numerum, 
genus ferratile; Andr. I. ii. 28, Verberibus caesum le, Dave, in pistrinum 
dedam usque ad neccm Fa lege atque online ut, si te inde exemerim, ego 
pro te mo/am; Phor. II. i. 18, Herns si redierit, Molendum usque in 
pistrino, vapulandum, habendae compedes, Opus ruri faciundum; see 
also Andr. I. iii 9, III. iv. 21, Heaut. III. ii. 19, Bac. IV. vi. 11, 
Most. I. i. 15; Pseud. I. v. 84, P. Pistrinum in mundo § scibam, si 

* It is not impossible that there may be a double meaning here, and 
that charcoal burners may have carried their burdens on a frame similar 
to what F rench porters call a fourdxtte. 

t Canem seems to be the reading of the MSS., and if it is correct the 
meaning must be left to conjecture. Mcursius would substitute Camum 
(the Greek a muzzle or twitch for a horse), which is supposed to 

mean a ‘ collar ’ or ‘ chain ’ in a passage quoted from Accius by Nonius, 

р. 200. 

J Stigmatias is used to denote a branded slave in Cic. de Off. II. 7, § 25, 
0 miterum, qui fdeliorcm et barbarum et stigmatiam putaret quam coniugem ! 
a passage quoted by Nonius (41). Stigmojus is found in Petronius Arbiter, 

с. 109, and in Plin. Epp. I. v. quoted from M. Regulus. 

§ The expression in mundo occurs elsewhere in Plautus, Cas. III. iii. 3, 
Stultitia magna ejt, mea quidem sententia, Hominem amatorem ullum ad forum 
procedere In eum diem, quoi quod amet in mundo siet ; Epid. V. i. 12, 5 . Habe 
bonum omnium. E. Quippe ego quoi liber tas in mundo lita est ; Pers. I. i. 46, 
T. Quae si vi (sc. argentum), nuiquam repperi. S. Quaeram equidem si quit 
credat. T. Ncmpe habe 0 in mundo. It is explained by Paul. Diac. p. 109, 
cd. Miill., "In mundo dicebant antiqui, quum aliquid in promptu esse 

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id faxem, mihi. S. Non a me sctbas pistrinum in mundo tibi, Quom 
ea muss Ha bus ? 

We have an elaborate exposition in As. I. i. 16, L. Num me illuc 

ducis ubi lapis lapidem terit ? Vbi flent nequam 

homines qui polenta m pransitant. A pud fustitudinas 

ferricrepinas insulas, Vbi vivos homines mortui incursant boves. 
D. Modo pol percepi, Libane, quid isluc sit loci, Vbi fit polenta, te 
fortassc dicer e ; and a complicated jest on the same subject in Pers. 
I. i. 2i, where a slave is excusing himself for not having - visited 
his friend, A. Negotium edepol. T. Ferreum fortasse. S. Plusculum 
annum Fui prae/erratus apud molas, tribunus vapularis. T. Ve/us 
iam istaec militia est tua : S. ‘ I was occupied by business, I assure 
you.’ T. 1 Something connected with the iron trade perhaps ? ’ 
S. ‘ For somewhat more than a year I was in the midst of iron at 
the mills, a captain in the beating (hammering) department.’ 

In Pseud. IV. vi. 38 the convict is spoken of as one who enrols 
himself as a settler in a ‘mill-colony - ;’ Bene hercle factum : quid ego 
cesso Pseudolum Facer e ut det nomen ad molarum coloniam i 

Other kinds of severe coarse labour, such as hewing wood and 
drawing water, were exacted ; Poen. V. iii. 33, quos ego iam detrudam 
ad molas , Inde porro ad puteum atque ad robustum codiccm, on which 
Pseud. I. ii. 24 may serve as a commentary. 

In Cas. I. i. 32 we find a sort of catalogue of the hardships 
inflicted on a refractory slave, at the Villa. Labour in stone quarries 
(lautumiae) was especially dreaded ; Poen. IV. ii. 5, Ita me Di ament / 
vel in lautumiis, vel in pistrino mavelim Agere aetatem, praepeditus 
later a forti f err 0 mea; but it is in the Captivi that the horrors of 
this punishment are chiefly dilated on, e. g. III. v. 63, ducite Vbi 
ponderosas, crassas capiat compedes, Inde ibis porro in latomias lapidarias. 
Ibi quom alii octonos lapides effoderinl, Nisi cotidianus sesquiopus con- 

feceris, Sexcenloplago nomen indelur tibi. 

v. 71, Nam noctu nervo vinctus cuslodibilur, Interdius sub terra lapides 
eximet. Diu ego hunc cruciabo, non uno apsolvam die. A. Certumne 
est tibi isluc ? H. Nom moriri certiust. Abducite is turn actutum ad 
Hippolytum fabrum : Iubete huic crassas compedes impingier. Inde 
extra portam ad meum libertum Corda/um, In lapicidinas facite deductus 
siet, Atque hunc ita me vel/e, dicite, curarier, Ne qui deterius huic sit, 
quam quoi pessume est ; V. iv. 1, Vidi ego multa saepe picla, quae 

volebant intelligi;” and by Charis. p. 180. ed. Puts., “In mundo pro 
palam et in expedito ac cito," who quotes the above passage from the 
Pscudolus, and also Caecilius and Ennius. 

L 1 

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2f t 8 


Acherunti fierent, Cruciamenta : verum enimvero nulla adatqut est Ache- 

runs, Atque ubi ego fui in lapicidinis 

v. 7, Itidcm haec mihi advenienti upufta,* qui me dcledet, data est. 

It must not be supposed that these various forms of torture were 
by any means confined to male slaves, for women also seem to have 
been treated by brutal masters with the same merciless severity. 
This will appear from the terms in which Callicles addresses his 
ancillae in True. IV. iii. i seqq., and the cruelty of Roman ladies 
to their attendants has been forcibly depicted by Juvenal in his sixth 
Satire. There is a curious passage in T erence, Adel. V. iii. 60, where 
Demea declares that he will carry off to the country the beautiful 
Psaltria, who had fascinated his son, and compel her to perform the 
labours of a rustic drudge : M. Modo facito ut illam serves. D. Ego 
istuc videro : Atque illi favillae plena, fumi, ac poll inis, Coquendo sit 
faxo et molendo : praeter haec Meridie ipso faciam ut stipulam conligat : 
Tam excoctam reddam atque atram quam carbo est ; cf. Merc. II. iii. 78. 

Although tortured in a vast “variety of ways, slaves were rarely put 
to death by their masters, because such vengeance would have 
entailed the loss of valuable property. Crucifixion however is fre- 
quently spoken of, and is used as a threat, or a taunt, or a jest : 
Most. V. ii. 12 (iii. 1 2), Non cnim ibis : ego ferare faxo, ut meruisti, 
in crucem ; Andr. III. v. 15, P. An non dixi hoc esse futurum ? 
D. Dixti. P. Quid meritus f D. Crucem ; Mil. II. iv. 1 9, Noli 
minitari : scio crucem fuluram mihi sepulcrum, Jbi met maiores sunt 
si/i: paler, avos, proavos, abavos, Non possunt mihi minaciis tuis hice 
oculi fodiri. 

In Mil. II. iv. 6 there is an allusion to the practice of making 
the criminal carry the cross or gibbet to which he was to be nailed 
through the streets to the spot outside the walls where the execution 
took place : Credo ego istoc exemp/o tibi esse eundum actutum extra 
portam, \ Dispcssis manibus patibulum quom habebis ; on which a frag- 
ment from the lost play of the Carbonaria + serves as a commentary, 
Patibulum ferat per urbem deinde adfigat(ur) cruci. 

* We talk of a crerw (bar), the Romans called it an onol. The joke in 
delectet refers to the practice of boys keeping sparrows, owls, and other 
birds as pets. 

t We arc told that this gate was called the Porta Metia on the authority 
of Cas. 1 1 . vi. 1 : Cl. Face, Cbaline, me cert tore m , quid meus *vir me •velit . 
Cff. Illc c depot videre ardentem te extra portam Metiam ; and Pseud. I. iii. 97, 
lam bic era : Derum extra portam Metiam currendum est prius ; but in both 
passages the word Metiam is totally destitute of MS. authority. 

J Nonius s. v. Patibulum , p. 221. 

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The nailing of the feet and hands is alluded to in Most. II. i. 1 2 : 
Ego dabo ei talentum primus qui in crucem excucurrerit, Sid ta lege, u! 
adftgantur bis ptdes, bis brachia; and perhaps the breaking of the 
legs in Poen. IV. ii. 64, where Sinceratus says, Si herus mtus mid 
esse locuium quoiquam mortali sciat, Coniinuo is me ex Sincera.'o rruri- 
fragium fecerit. See other allusions to crucifixion in Aul. I. i. 20, 
Mill. II. ii. 28, iii. 29, Most. III. ii. 56, Pers. II. iv. 24, Rud. IV. iv. 
26, Stich. IV. ii. 45. 

In the great majority of instances, however, in which the word 
Crux is introduced by the dramatists, it means either, 

1. ‘Pain,’ ‘evil,’ ‘mischief,’ ‘anxiety,’ ‘torment’ in general: Aul. 

III. v. 48, Aut a/iqua mala crux semper es't quae aliquid petal, ‘some 
torment or other is always pestering one for something;’ and so 

IV. iv. 4 ; Bac. IV. ii. 2, Quae le mala crux agital? ‘ what phrenzy 
(fury) is exciting you?’ and Cas. II. vi. 64, mala crux ea est quidem, 
‘ that is indeed torture.' In Phor. III. iii. 1 1, Ni etiam nunc me huius 
causa quaerere in malo iubeas crucem, signifies ‘ unless you wish me, 
who am involved in a scrape, to seek in it a worse one — to jump 
from the frying pan into the fire.’ In Eun. II. iii. 91 we have the 
plural crucibus in the same sense. 

2. ‘An imprecation:’ / in crucem, I in malam crucem, ‘go to the 
mischief,’ ‘ go to the deuce.’ Of this we shall speak more fully 
hereafter. The curse is not always confined to persons: Capt. III. 
■i. 9, I licet parasitical arti maxumam in malam crucem / ‘thrice ac- 
cursed be the trade of the parasite 1’ The phrase ire in malam crucem 
is found where there is no imprecation, in the sense of ‘ to go to the 
mischief,' * to go to destruction,’ ‘ to come to a bad end :’ Pseud. I. 
iii. 101, In malam crucem islic ibit Iupitcr lenonius ; and so Rud. I. ii. 
87, and Trin. II. iv. 197. So with abstrabere, Men. Prol. 66, Rapidus 
(sc. fluvius) raplori pueri subduxit pedes, Aps/raxitque hominem in 
maxumam malam crucem; and fugere, Poen. III. v. 44, Sed quid ego 
dubito fugere hinc in malam crucem ? 

Carnufex is the general term for one employed to administer 
punishment : Bac. IV. iv. 36, Istoc dido dedisti hodie in cruciatum 
Chrusalum : Nam ubi me adspiciet, ad carnuficem rapid coniinuo senex ; 
As. II. ii. 43, Omnes de nobis carnuficum concelebrabuntur dies; Poen. 
I. ii. 156, Nisi ego ilium iubco quadrigis cursint ad carnuficem rapi ; 

V. v. 23, lam hercle ego ilium excruciandum Mum carnufici dabo; so 
Rud. II. ii. 16, III. iv. 73, vi. 19. Other words are used humourously 
in the same sense as virgatores , As. III. ii. 19; c/avator, Rud. III. v. 
25 ; but each of these occurs once only. 

L 1 2 

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26 o 


The occupation itself was called Carnuficina, Cist. II. i. i ; and 
those who practised it were said carnuficinam factrt , Capt. I. ii. 29, 
equivalent to which is faccre quaestum carcerarium, v. 26. The 
employment was by no means honourable nor popular, and hence 
no term of vituperation is more common than carnufex. 

The word Lorarii is found in the Dramatis Personae and stage 
directions of some plays, but does not occur in the text of any 
classical author. Aulus Gellius (N. A. X. 3) tells us that, after the 
departure of Hannibal from Italy, the Romans refused to acknow- 
ledge the Bruttii as socii, or to enrol them as soldiers, but employed 
them to discharge servile duties for provincial governors — “ Itaque 
hi sequebantur magistratus, tamquam in scenicis fabulis qui dice- 
bantur lorarii , et quos erant iussi vinciebant et verberabant.” 

Sometimes fantastic terms are used: thus True. IV. iii. 8, Nisi si 
ad tintinnaculos vos vottis educi viros, where the tintinnaculi viri are 
the doggers who make the scourge sing or whistle about the ears of 
the sufferers : in like manner Pseud. I. iii. 98, Lanios inde arcessam 
duos cum tin/innabulis. Eadem duo greges virgarum inde ulmearum ad- 
egero ; with which compare Rud. III. v. 25, D. Ehem ! optume edepol, 
tecum clavator advent'/. L. Illud quidem edepol tinnimentum est auribus ; 
while in Pers. II. iii. 12 we have another expression for the sound 
of thejash upon the flesh, Diu quod bene erit die uno apsolvam, tax tax 
ter go meo erit. 

We may conclude by quoting some lines from As. III. ii. 1, which 
give a sort of summary of the tortures inflicted upon slaves ; Perfidiae 
laudes gratiasque habemus merilo magnas, Quom nos/ris sucophantiis, 
dvlis, astutiisque, Scapularum confidentia, virtute u/morum freti , Qui 
advorsum s/imutos, laminas, crucesque, compedesque Nervos, catenas, 
carceres, numellas, pedicas, boias, Indoc/oresque acerrimos, gnarosqut 
nostri tergi, Qui saepe ante in nostras scapulas cicatrices indiderunt ; 
and with these we may compare Men. V. vi. 8, Recordetur id, qui 
nihiti sunt, quid iis preti Detur ab suis her is, ignavis, inprobis Viris : 
verbera, compedes, molae, magna Lassitudo, fames, frigus durum, Haec 
pretia sunt ignaviae. A few of the words given above may require 
explanation, in addition to what has been said already. 

Laminae were thin plates of metal raised to a red heat and applied 
to the flesh : they are spoken of by Lucretius, III. 1029, Verbera, car- 
nufices, robur, pix, lamina, taedae ; by Cicero, In Verr. Act. II. v. 63, 
Quid quum ignes ardentesque laminae ceterique cruciatus admovebantur ? 
and by Horace, Epp. I. xv. 36, Scilicet ut ventres lamna candcnte ne- 
potum Dicerel urendos corrector Bestius. 

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Numella 1. Numellus seems to signify a combination of a collar 
for the neck with stocks for the feet. Similar contrivances were 
employed for confining cattle and dogs. See Nonius (144), “ Nu- 
mellae machinae genus ligneum ad discruciandos noxios paratum, 
quo et collum et pedes inmittunt. Plautus Aulularia, nenos, catenas, 
carcertm, numetlas, pedicas, iotas," where “ Aulularia ” is a mistake 
for “Asinaria." Paul. Diac. p. 172, ed. Mull., “ Numella genus 
vinculi quo quadrupedes deliganlur." See also Colum. R. R. VI. 
19, VII. 8. 

Boia. That this was a collar would be proved by a passage in 
Prudent. Psychom. Praef. 33, attrita boiis cotta, if we could depend 
upon the text, but the reading is very doubtful. Plautus has a pun- 
ning joke upon the word in Capt. IV. ii. 108, and it will be observed 
that in the passage which we are discussing numetlas, pedicas, iotas 
are placed together. 

Nervus s. Nervum is explained by Festus, p. 165, ed. MOIL: 
“A r crvum appellamus etiam ferreum vinculum quo pedes inpedi- 
untur: quamquam Plautus eo etiam cervices vinciri ait perfidiose 
captus eo epol nervo cervices proiat." The word occurs again in Aul. 
IV. x. 13, Capt. III. v. 71, Cure. V. iiL 12, 40, 45, Poen. V. iv. 99, 
Rud. III. vi. 34, 38, 51. In the last there seems to be a direct 
reference to the neck : Credo atium in aliam beluam hominem vortier, columbum, credo, leno vortitur, Nam in cotumbari collum baud 
multo post erit,.In nervom i/te hodie nidamenta congerct ; where co/um- 
bare must mean a collar, and is introduced in connection with 
cotumbus in consequence of its resemblance to columbarium. In 
many passages nervus is equivalent to a chain, hence may signify 
a prison, and this may be the meaning in the line just quoted. Cf. 
Cure. V. iii. 40. In Phor. II. ii. 10 the expression O vir fortis atquc 
amicus ! verum hoc saepe, Phormio, Vereor, ne istaec fortitude in nervom 
erumpat denique, seems to be equivalent to our * should come to 
grief.’ In the same play, IV. iv. 15, In nervom potius Hit probably 
means ‘ he will go to gaol first.’ It would appear that the original 
meaning of nervus or nervum , which is probably identical with the 
Greek »«0po», was not, as lexicographers insist, ‘ a muscle ’ or ‘ sinew’ 
or ‘ tendon,’ but ‘ a thong or strap made of hide,’ and hence * a 
cord ’ or ‘ string,’ the anatomical application being figurative and 
secondary. In all the oldest Latin writers it is generally equivalent 
to vincula, either in the sense of a collar, or of bonds, or of a place 
of confinement. In the Laws of the XII. Tables, as quoted by 
Aul. Gell. XX. 1, with regard to insolvent debtors, the creditor is 

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empowered — secvm dvcito vincito avt servo avt compediuvs 


in a speech of the elder Cato, quoted also by Aul. Gell. XI. 18, 
Furts privatorum furtorum in nervo atque in compedibus aetatem aguni : 
fures publici in auro atqut in purpura. In one passage of Plautus 
it may signify ‘a strap’ or ‘cord:’ Cure. V. iii. 12, Atque i/a te nervo 
torquebo itidem u/i catapul/ae solent ; and here there is probably a pun. 
Freund is certainly mistaken when he quotes, as an example of 
nervus in the sense of a ‘ sinew ’ or ‘ muscle,’ the line from the 
Poenulus V. iv. 99, where Hanno says to his newly -discovered 
daughter, Condamus alter alterum ergo in nervom brachialem : he means, 
‘ let us shut up each other in the prison of our arms,’ or, if we choose 
to take nervus to mean ‘ a collar,’ it will be, ‘ let us encircle each 
other’s necks in the collar of our arms.’ We find it in the metapho- 
rical sense of ‘ mental strength,’ ‘ power,’ ‘ energy,’ for the first time 
in Eun. II. iii. 21, Sive adeo digna res est ubi lu nervos in/endas tuos ; 
but it may be fairly doubted whether there is here any figurative 
allusion to an anatomical term. 

When a slave had been detected in any serious offence, he was 
usually seized upon the spot, and bound hand and foot to prevent 
him from running off, * or from taking refuge in some sanctuary, + 
and was frequently kept in prison until his fate was decided. Hand- 
cuffs were called manicae or copulas : thus Most. V. i. 1 7 (ii. 2), 
Continuo ex siliatis : manicas celeriter conectite ; Capt. III. v. 1, Inicite 
huic manicas mas/igiae; f Epid. V. i. 1 1, Quaeri/anl me, in manibus 
gestant copulas sesuncias. Fetters for the feet were compcdes or pedicae, 
and were riveted on : Aul. IV. L 1 5, Qui ea curabit apslinebit censione 
bubula, Nec sua opera rediget umquam in splendorem compcdes ; Capt. 

III. iv. 1 18, Ii. Verba mihi data esse video. T. Quid cessa/is, com- 
pcdes, Currere ad me, meaque ampin li crura, ul vos custodiam? Pers. 

IV. iv. 24, Ferreas lute Ubi inpingi§ iubeas crassas compcdes; Poen. 
III. i. 10, Nam isle quidem gradus subcrctus est cribro pollinario, Nisi 

* Seeledrus in Mil. II. vi. 99, Nam iam aliquo aufugiam, et me occu/tabo 
aliquot dies, Dum bae consilescunt turbae atque irae leniunt. 

t So Tranio, Most. V. i. 45 (ii. 30), seats himself upon an altar. 

I We have manicae again in As. II. ii. 38. Manictda in Plautus signifies 
‘a little hand:' Rud. IV. iv. 125, Pseud. V. i. 16. By Varro L. L. V. 31, 
§ 1 35, it is explained to mean the cross-bar passing through the stiva of a 
plough, which was grasped by the ploughman, ‘ the handle of the plough.’ 

§ Gf. Men. I. i. 9, Turn compediti anum lima perterunt, Ant tapide excutiunt 
cla-vom, where anum, if this reading is correct, must be equivalent to 
anulum, and ctavom must be the riveting-bolt. 

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cum pedicis * condidicislis sic hoc grassari gradu. There seems to be 
a distinction drawn, in Men. I. i. 3, between ca/cnae and compcdei, 
the former being a more general term : Homines captivos qui catcnis 
vinciunt, Et qui fugitiris servis indunl compcdes ; cf. W. 8, 9, 10. 

Catellus is also used by Plautus as a diminutive of catena, as well 
as a diminutive of catulus : Cure. V. iii. 1 3, where Phaedromus is 
addressing the leno Cappadox, Delicatum te hodie faciam cum calello 
ut accubes, Fcrreo ego dico. Catellus in the sense of ‘ a puppy,’ Stich. 
IV. ii. 40; and catcllum. As. III. iii. 103. 

The works of Plautus and Terence, of the former especially, are 
full of words and phrases applied as taunts to those who had under- 
gone the punishments above described ; some of these recur per- 
petually, others seem to have been coined on the spot as it were, 
and are air. Ary. Such are Verbcro, Mastigia, Flagilriba, Plagipatida, 
Bucaeda, Restio, Crux, Sexcentoplagus, Furcfer, Trifurci/er, Verberca 
Statua, Stimulorum Tritor, Carnuficium cribrum, Genus ferratile, 
Ferritribaccs viri, Plagigera genera hominum, Vlmorum Acheruns. 

Whole lines are found composed of such titles, as in Trin. IV. 
iii. 14, Oculicrepidae, cruricrepidae, ferriteri, mastigiae ; and some- 
times two wranglers reciprocate a series of such compliments : As. II. 
ii. 31, Lb. Gumnasium ftagri salveto. Li. Quid agis, cus/os careerist 
Lb. O catenarum colonel Li. 0 virgarum lascivia l 

A large collection of such terms of abuse will be found in Pseud. 
I. ii. i seqq. and in Pers. III. iii. 13 seqq. 


Since the plot in most of the specimens of the New Comedy, 
which have been transmitted to us through the medium of the Latin 
dramatists, turns upon some trick or mystification, played off gene- 
rally by a crafty slave, we might anticipate that the vocabulary of 
Plautus and Terence would be well stored with words and expres- 
sions denoting roguery. 

Accordingly, we shall find the idea of deception presented to us 
under a great variety of different forms, many of them highly 
ingenious, lively and amusing. 

Several of the words which convey the simple notion of craft or 

* Pedicas again in As. III. ii. 5. 

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falsehood require no illustration. Such are As/u/ia, Dolus, Fallacia , 
Fraus, Technae, Tricae (see note on Most. III. i. 45 (41)), CaUiditates 
(Heaut. V. i. 14); others however may demand some explanation. 

1. Fabrica. Since any roguish device requires art, contrivance, 
and skill, the verbs Fabricari, ‘ to construct or manufacture);’ Fingere, 

‘ to mould Consuere, ‘ to sew together Conglutinare , ‘ to cement 
Machinari, ‘to apply mechanical power;’ and such like, together 
with the substantives connected with them, are frequently employed : 
thus Cas. V. i. 6, nec fallaciam Astutiorem ul/us feci t potta. Clique VI 
haec est fabre facta a nobis ; Heaut. III. ii. 34, Nonne ad senem aliquant 
fabricam fingit? Epid. V. ii. 25, Tragulam in te inicere adornat, nescio 
quam fabricam facit ; Mil. II. i. 69, Ei nos facetis fabricis et doctis 
dolis Ghucomam ab oculos obiciemus; Pers. V. ii. 4, I/a me Toxilus 
perfabricavit, itaque meam rem divexavit, where perfabricare seems to 
be an Sm. A*y. ; Bac. IV. iv. 43, Compara,fabricare, finge quod lube/, 
conglutina, Vt senem hodie doctum doc/e fallas, aurumque auferas ; 
Capt. Prol. 47, Ita compararun! et confinxerunt datum; Cas. I. 7, 
Sequi deer e turn est: dehinc conicito ceterum, Possisne necne, clam me, 
sulelis tuis, Praeripere Casinam uxorem, proinde ut pos/ulas, i. e. 1 by 
falsehoods tacked together and patched up;’ so Capt. III. v. 34, 
Atque ob sutelas tuas te morti miser 0; Amph. I. i. 210, Nae tu is tic 
hodie, malo tuo, compos i/is mendaciis Advenis/i, audaciae columen, con- 
sult dolis. S. I mo equidem tunicis consul is hue advenio, non dolis ; 
Bac. II. ii. 54, Inde ego hodie a/iquam machinabor machinam, Vnde 
aurum efficiam amanti -her Hi filio, ‘ I will construct some engine 
by means of which’ &c. 

2. Fucus. Since paint conceals the real appearance of objects, 
fuci and obfucia denote ‘ tricks and deceit,’ and facere fucum alicui 
is ‘ to deceive a person :’ thus Capt. III. iii. 5, Nec mendaciis subdolis 
mihi usquam mantellum est meis : Nec sucophan/iis nec fucis ul/um man- 
tellum obviam est; Eun. III. v. 41, animus gaudebat mihi Deum sese 
in homincm convortisse, atque in alienas tegulas Venisse clanculum per 
inp/uvium, fucum factum mu/ieri. 

3. Sycophanta, from which we have the substantive Sycophantia, 
the verb Sycophan/or, and the adverb Sycophantiose, is taken directly 
from the Greek ervro^xwnjr, a word of doubtful etymology, which, in 
Aristophanes, is employed to denote those pests of Athenian life, the 
public informers. The transition from this to the more general 
meaning of ‘ liar,’ ‘ rogue,' ‘ scoundrel,’ is simple and easy. In this 
latter sense alone is it found in the Roman writers, while, curiously 
enough, in modern English it is restricted to that species of lying 

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which consists in flattery: thus in Pseud. IV. vii. 103, Purus putus 
hie sucophartla est , ‘ this fellow is an unalloyed, unmitigated swindler 
(scoundrel),’ to which Harpax, who is the person addressed, replies, 
v. 113, Ego nec sucophantiosi quicquam ago nec malefice; II. iii. 5, Nam 
hate a'd/ata cornucopia est , ubi inest quidquid voto, Hie do/i, hie fallaeiae 
omnes sunt, hie sunt sucophantiae : As. III. ii. 1, Perfidiae laudes 
gratiasque habemus merito magnas, Quom nostris sucophantiis, do/is, 
astutiisque, See. See too Aul. IV. iv. 22, Bac. IV. vii. 7 , Poen. I. iii. 16, 

III. iii. 41, Pseud. I. v. 70, 113. We find the combinations, Sueo- 
phantias struere. As. I. i. 56 ; inslruere et comparare, Pers. II. v. 24 ; 
componere, Bac. IV. iv. 88 ; concenluriare. Pseud. I. v. 159; sistere, 
Trin. IV. ii. 25. 

As an example of the verb we have Trin. III. iii. 57, hoe me aetatis 
sucophantari pudel, ‘ I am ashamed, at my time of life, to play the 

For examples of Sycophanta, see Amph. I. iii. 8, scitus sucophanta ; 
Pseud. IV. vii. 107, sucophanta ncquam; Trin. III. iii. 86, sucophantam 
iam condueo de foro; IV. ii. 18, plane sucophantam ; v. 47, hie homo 
solide sucophanta est; see also Pseud. IV. vii. too, Poen. I. ii. 162. 

4. Nugari, with the substantive nugator and the combination artes 
nugatoriae, in the writings of Cicero and those who followed him, 
convey the idea of 1 to trifle,’ ‘ a trifler,’ * a simpleton,’ &c., but in 
Plautus are frequently synonymous with sycophantor, sycophanta, syco- 
phantiae, as will appear evident from the following quotations : Cure. 

IV. i. 1 , Edepol nugatorem lepidum lepide hunc nactus est Phaedromus, 
Holopkanlam an sucophantam hunc magis esse dicam nescio; in Trin. 
IV. ii. 1 1 6 Charmides says, Enimvero ego nunc sucophantae huic suco- 
phantari volo, ‘ I should like to beguile this rascal,’ but on making 
the attempt the Sycophanta retorts, v. 130, Abi sis, nugator, nugari 
nugatori postulas, ‘ Be off with you, you rascal, you’ve met your 
match;' again, v. 55, Mihi quoque edepol, quom hie nugatur, contra 
nugari lubet, i. e. ‘plays the deceiver;’ and in the same play, V. ii. 
14, Modo mihi advenienti nugator quidam accessil obviam, Nimis per- 
graphicus sucophanta; and again in the same play, IV. ii. 1, the 
Sycophanta, who had been hired to personate a false character, says, 
Huic ego diei nomen Trinumo faciam, nam ego operam meam Tribus 
numis hodie locavi at l artes nugatorias, ‘ to carry out schemes of 
roguery.’ The same personage ( v . 94), when asked his name, replies 
that his every-day name was Pax, on which Charmides rejoins, 
Edepol nomen nuga/orium, ‘by Pollux, a rascal’s name.' In Mil. IV. 
ii. 86, Vae libi, nugator, ‘go along with you, you impostor;' Most. 

M m 

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III. i. 57 (53), Quid hie nugamini? ‘ why are you trying to play off 
your tricks?’ and again V. i. 56 (ii. 41); Epid. III. iv. 42, non mihi 
nugari poles , ‘ you cannot deceive me.’ 

We may remark that although Plautus occasionally uses the simple 
word ttugae in the sense of ‘ tricks,' yet in the great majority of in- 
stances, and these are very numerous, he employs it to mean ‘ trifles,’ 

‘ nonsense,’ and not unfrequently as an exclamation of impatience. 

Nugae must signify ‘tricks’ or ‘roguish devices’ in Trin. IV. ii. 

1 4 ; the Sycophanta speaks, llle qui me conduxit, ubi conduxit, abduxil 
domum; Quae voluit, mihi dixit: docuit , el praemonstrarit prius, Quo- 
modo quidque agerem : nunc adeo, si quid addidcro amplius, Eo conductor 
melius de me nugas conciliaverit ; and again, in Pseud. IV. vii. 107, 
Non confidit : sucophanta hie nequam est : nugis meditatur male ; in 
True. IV. iv. 8 also, P. Quid agilur, voluptas me a ? D. Non voluplas : 
aufer nugas : nihil ego nunc de is/ac re ago, where, although we may 
translate aufer nugas ‘ none of your tricks and cajoleries,’ we may 
with equal propriety render the words by ‘ come, none of that non- 
sense.’ It would be difficult to find many examples of nugae in 
Plautus in the sense of ‘ tricks,’ but it is very common with the force 
of ‘trifles,’ ‘nonsense,’ and the like: thus Merc. II. iv. 1, Penthcum 
diripuisse aiunt Bacchas , nugas maxumas Fuisse credo, praeut quo pacto 
ego divorsus distrahor, ‘ I believe that what befell him was an absolute 
trifle in comparison with’ &c. ; Trin. II. iv. 40, Hie pos/ulel frugi esse 
— nugas postulct / ‘let him desire to become respectable — desire 
nonsense I’ Most. V. i. 38 (ii. 24), Ttt. Serves pollicitus est dare Suos 
mihi omnes quaestioni. Tr. Nugas l numquam edepol dabit, ‘ stuff and 
nonsense! he will never give them, be sure of that.’ In Capt. III. 
iv. 80 nugas ludificabitur may mean ‘ he will give utterance to the 
most ridiculous ravings.’ In Pseud. IV. vi. 19 we have, S. Quid ait? 
quid narrat, quaeso ? quid dicit tibi? B. Nugas thealri, verba quae in 
comoediis Solent tenoni did, quae pueri sciunt : Malum el scelestum ct 
periurum aibal esse me, ‘ trash such as you hear upon the stage ;’ so 
Amph. II. i. 57, Quas, malum, nugas, ‘ what nonsense arc you talking, 
confound you?’ v. 79, nugas b/atis; Cure. V. ii. 6, nugas garris, and 
so Aul. V. 21 ; Bac. III. vi. 40, loqueris nunc nugas scirns; Aul. IV. 
iv. 24, nugas agis, and so Men. IV. ii. 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, Aul. IV. iv. 
11, As. I. i. 78, Cist. II. iii. 39, Pocn. III. v. 31, Men. Prol. 54, 55, 
Poen. Prol. 81, Merc. I. 11, Rud. IV. iv. 107; Aul. V. 19, non potes 
probasse nugas; Capt. III. iii. 17, nugas ineptiasque incipisso; Cure. 
V. iii. 1, nugas praedicant ; other examples in As. IV. i. 63, Capt. V. 
ii. 16, Pseud. I. iii. 9, Bac. IV. iii, 25, Pers. IV. vii. 8, Cure. I. iii. 36, 

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43, Poen I. ii. 135, Cas. II. v. 23, V. iii. 15, Men. I. i. 10, Merc. V. 
ii. 101, Stich. II. i. 22, True. II. L 21, IV. ii. 55. 

Although, on the other hand, nugari generally signifies ‘ to 
deceive,’ it must mean ‘to jest’ or ‘to trifle’ in Merc. I. 72, C. Qui 
potuit I'idtre? A. Oculis. C. Quo pactof A. Hiantibus. C. I bine 
dierec/us : nugart in re capilali men. A. Qui, malum, ego nugor, si 
tibi quod me rogas, respondeo ? 

Nugigerulis is found, in Aul. III. v. 51, in the sense of ‘ venders 
of women’s trumpery,’ but in this passage Nonius reads Nugivendis, 
which is found in some MSS. Kugipoluloquides, ‘babbler of trash,’ 
is found in Pers. IV. vi. 21, among a bunch of fictitious names. 
Although nugae and its derivatives occur so frequently in Plautus, 
there is but one example in Terence, Heaut. IV. i. 8, Nat isla hercle 
magno iam conalu magnas nugas dixeril, i. e. ‘a pack of nonsense.’ 

5. Tangcre. Some common words seem to have been employed, 
in what may be termed slang language, to express deceit or cheating. 
Among these we may place the verb tangere : thus Pseud. 1 . i. 118, 
Si nemintm ahum potero, tuum tangam palrem; Pers. IV. iv. 82, Tactus 
est leno qui rogarat, ubi nata esse/, dicerel; Epid. V. ii. 40, is Us adeo 
le tetigi /riginta minis, ‘I did you out of those thirty minae;’ so 
Pseud. V. ii. 13, ut probe tac/us Ba/lio est; Poen. V. v. 7, acre militari 
tetigero lenunculum. Nonius (p. 408) gives this as one of the mean- 
ings of tangere : “ Tangere etiam circumvenire. Turpilius Demetrio : at 
ctiam ineplus metis mihi est iratus paler, Quia se talento argenti tetigi 
and Cicero (De Orat. II. LXIV. 257) quotes, apparently from 
Caecilius Statius, Sen/in’ senem esse tactum triginta minis P How 
tangere came to bear this force it is not so easy to determine ; from 
Bac. V. ii. 39, Tactus sum vehemenier visco: cor stimu/o foditur, we 
might suppose that the idea was taken from a bird entrapped by 
bird-lime;* while from Poen. Prol. 101 we might conclude that the 
notion of ‘ catching fish by casting a net ’ was involved : Quia amare 
cernit, tangere hominem volt bolo;\ with which compare True. I. i. 10, 

* Cf. Petron. Arb. c. 109, Ecce etiam per antennam pelagiae consederant 
volucres, quas